Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Labor Relations Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 32

Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

When Does Employee Turnover Matter? Dynamic Member Configurations, Productive Capacity, And Collective Performance, John Hausknecht, Jacob A. Holwerda Jan 2013

When Does Employee Turnover Matter? Dynamic Member Configurations, Productive Capacity, And Collective Performance, John Hausknecht, Jacob A. Holwerda

Articles and Chapters

In theory, employee turnover has important consequences for groups, work units, and organizations. However, past research has not revealed consistent empirical support for a relationship between aggregate levels of turnover and performance outcomes. In this paper, we present a novel conceptualization of turnover to explain when, why, and how it affects important outcomes. We suggest that greater attention to five characteristics—leaver proficiencies, time dispersion, positional distribution, remaining member proficiencies, and newcomer proficiencies—will reveal dynamic member configurations that predictably influence productive capacity and collective performance. We describe and illustrate the five properties, explain how particular member configurations exacerbate or ...


Team Learning: A Theoretical Integration And Review, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Sabrina Blawath Jan 2012

Team Learning: A Theoretical Integration And Review, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Sabrina Blawath

Articles and Chapters

With the increasing emphasis on work teams as the primary architecture of organizational structure, scholars have begun to focus attention on team learning, the processes that support it, and the important outcomes that depend on it. Although the literature addressing learning in teams is broad, it is also messy and fraught with conceptual confusion. This chapter presents a theoretical integration and review. The goal is to organize theory and research on team learning, identify actionable frameworks and findings, and emphasize promising targets for future research. We emphasize three theoretical foci in our examination of team learning, treating it as multilevel ...


Remote Work: Examining Current Trends And Organizational Practices, Bradford S. Bell Jan 2012

Remote Work: Examining Current Trends And Organizational Practices, Bradford S. Bell

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Although remote work offers a number of potential benefits, it is not without risks and challenges. Companies can find it difficult to build a culture that is accepting and supportive of remote work. It can also be difficult to track exactly who is working remotely, particularly when remote work is adopted more informally, and to measure the business impact of these initiatives. Remote workers can face a number of personal and professional challenges. For instance, they may struggle for exposure and access to professional opportunities and there is the risk that those working outside the office can become socially ...


An Employment Systems Approach To Turnover: Hr Practices, Quits, Dismissals, And Performance, Rosemary Batt, Alexander Colvin May 2011

An Employment Systems Approach To Turnover: Hr Practices, Quits, Dismissals, And Performance, Rosemary Batt, Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

This study examines the relationship between alternative approaches to employment systems and quits, dismissals and customer service, based on cross-sectional and longitudinal data from nationally representative surveys of call center establishments. Contrary to prior literature, the antecedents and consequences of quits and dismissals are quite similar. Comparing three dimensions of employment systems, we find that high involvement work organization and long-term investments and inducements are associated with significantly lower quit and dismissal rates, while short term performance-enhancing expectations are related to significantly higher quit and dismissal rates. Establishments with higher quit and dismissal rates have significantly lower customer service, as ...


Collective Failure: The Emergence, Consequences, And Management Of Errors In Teams, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski Jan 2011

Collective Failure: The Emergence, Consequences, And Management Of Errors In Teams, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

Articles and Chapters

The goal of the current chapter is to examine the emergence, consequences, and management of errors in teams. We begin by discussing the origin and emergence of errors in teams. We argue that errors in teams can originate at both the individual and collective level and suggest this distinction is important because it has implications for how errors propagate within a team. We then consider the paradoxical effects of errors on team performance and team learning. This discussion highlights the importance of error management in teams so that errors can prompt learning while at the same time mitigating their negative ...


Work Teams, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski Jan 2010

Work Teams, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Teams serve as the basic building blocks of modern organizations and represent a critical means by which work is accomplished in today's world. Therefore, significant research during the past few decades has been focused on understanding work team effectiveness. This entry looks at the history of this research and what it says about team types, team composition, team development, team processes, and team effectiveness.


Recruitment And Selection, Christopher J. Collins, Rebecca R. Kehoe Jan 2009

Recruitment And Selection, Christopher J. Collins, Rebecca R. Kehoe

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this chapter, we look to address the second issue by developing a theoretical model of the link between different staffing systems and firm-level performance. We first look to existing theory on organizational design and structure to better understand the role of recruitment and selection. Specifically, we argue that organizations are structured into unique subunits of employees based on the equivocality of available information in their jobs and the resulting need for organizational rationality or openness. Drawing on existing empirical work on strategic human resource management, we argue that unique systems of recruitment and selection practices are necessary to ...


Slippage In The System: The Effects Of Errors In Transactive Memory Behavior On Team Performance, Matthew J. Pearsall, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Bradford S. Bell Aug 2008

Slippage In The System: The Effects Of Errors In Transactive Memory Behavior On Team Performance, Matthew J. Pearsall, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Bradford S. Bell

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Although researchers have consistently shown that the implicit coordination provided by transactive memory positively affects team performance, the benefits of transactive memory systems depend heavily on team members’ ability to accurately identify the expertise of their teammates and communicate expertise-specific information with one another. This introduces the opportunity for errors to enter the system, as the expertise of individual team members may be misunderstood or misrepresented, leading to the reliance on information from the wrong source or the loss of information through incorrect assignment. As Hollingshead notes, “information may be transferred or explicitly delegated to the ‘wrong’ individual in ...


Organizational Performance In Services, Rosemary Batt, Virginia Doellgast Jan 2007

Organizational Performance In Services, Rosemary Batt, Virginia Doellgast

Articles and Chapters

The question of performance in service activities and occupations is important for several reasons. First, over two-thirds of employment in advanced economies is in service activities. Second, productivity growth in services is historically low, lagging far behind manufacturing, and as a result, wages in production-level service jobs remain low. In addition, labor costs in service activities are often over 50% of total costs, whereas in manufacturing they have fallen to less than 25% of costs. This raises the question of whether management practices that have improved performance in manufacturing, such as investment in the skills and training of the workforce ...


Internal Promotion Competitions In Firms, Jed Devaro Sep 2006

Internal Promotion Competitions In Firms, Jed Devaro

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Using a sample of skilled workers from a cross section of establishments in four metropolitan areas of the United States, I present evidence suggesting that promotions are determined by relative worker performance. I then estimate a structural model of promotion tournaments (treating as endogenous promotions, worker performance, and the wage spread from promotion) that simultaneously accounts for worker and firm behavior and how the interaction of these behaviors gives rise to promotions. The results are consistent with the predictions of tournament theory that employers set wage spreads to induce optimal performance levels, and that workers are motivated by larger ...


[Review Of The Book The Mismanagement Of Talent: Employability And Jobs In The Knowledge Economy], Bradford S. Bell Jul 2006

[Review Of The Book The Mismanagement Of Talent: Employability And Jobs In The Knowledge Economy], Bradford S. Bell

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In The Mismanagement of Talent, Brown and Hesketh argue that rooted within the dominant discourse of the "war for talent" are several core assumptions that have shaped our perspective on employability in the KBE. The most central of these is that there is a limited pool of talent capable of rising to senior managerial positions, which creates fierce competition to recruit the best and brightest. The perception of talent as a limited commodity is seen as driving organizations to diversify their talent pools and adopt more rigorous recruitment and selection tools in an effort to get the right people ...


Teams, Autonomy, And The Financial Performance Of Firms, Jed Devaro Apr 2006

Teams, Autonomy, And The Financial Performance Of Firms, Jed Devaro

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] I estimate a structural model of teams, autonomy, and financial performance, using a cross section of British establishments. My findings suggest that team production improves financial performance for the typical establishment but that autonomous teams do no better than closely supervised or non-autonomous teams. I find that unobserved factors increasing the propensity to adopt teams are positively correlated with unobserved determinants of financial performance, and that unobserved factors increasing the propensity to grant teams autonomy are negatively correlated with unobserved determinants of financial performance when teams are adopted.


Acquiring And Applying Knowledge In Transnational Teams: The Roles Of Cosmopolitans And Locals, Martine R. Haas Mar 2006

Acquiring And Applying Knowledge In Transnational Teams: The Roles Of Cosmopolitans And Locals, Martine R. Haas

Articles and Chapters

"This paper examines the roles of cosmopolitans and locals in transnational teams that work on knowledge-intensive projects. I propose that cosmopolitan and local team members can help their teams to acquire and apply knowledge more effectively, by bringing both internal and external knowledge to their teams and enabling them to more successfully transform this knowledge into improved project performance. Findings from a study of 96 project teams at an international development agency reveal that the roles of cosmopolitans and locals were complex and sometimes valuable, but cosmopolitans offered greater benefits than locals and too many of each could hurt. Implications ...


What Types Of Organizations Benefit From Team Production, And How Do They Benefit?, Jed Devaro, Fidan Ana Kurtulus Jan 2006

What Types Of Organizations Benefit From Team Production, And How Do They Benefit?, Jed Devaro, Fidan Ana Kurtulus

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Using data from a large cross section of British establishments, we ask how different firm characteristics are associated with the predicted benefits to organizational performance from using team production. To compute the predicted benefits from using team production, we estimate structural models for financial performance, labor productivity, and product quality, treating the firm’s choices of whether or not to use teams and whether or not to grant teams autonomy as endogenous. One of the main results is that many firm characteristics are associated with larger predicted benefits from teams to labor productivity and product quality but smaller predicted ...


Entrepreneurial Human Resource Strategy, Christopher J. Collins, Matthew Allen, Scott Snell Jan 2005

Entrepreneurial Human Resource Strategy, Christopher J. Collins, Matthew Allen, Scott Snell

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Entrepreneurship is the process by which "opportunities to create future goods and services are discovered, evaluated, and exploited" (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000: 218). In other words, it is the process by which organizations and individuals convert new knowledge into new opportunities in the form of new products and services. Strategic human resource management (SHRM) has been defined as the system of organizational practices and policies used to manage employees in a manner that leads to higher organizational performance (Wright and McMahan, 1992). Further, one perspective suggests that sets of HR practices do not themselves create competitive advantage; instead, they ...


The Relationship Of Achievement Motivation To Entrepreneurial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis, Christopher J. Collins, Paul J. Hanges, Edwin A. Locke Jan 2004

The Relationship Of Achievement Motivation To Entrepreneurial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis, Christopher J. Collins, Paul J. Hanges, Edwin A. Locke

Articles and Chapters

Entrepreneurship is a major factor in the national economy; thus, it is important to understand the motivational characteristics spurring people to become entrepreneurs and why some are more successful than others. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship between achievement motivation and variables associated with entrepreneurial behavior. We found that achievement motivation was significantly correlated with both choice of an entrepreneurial career and entrepreneurial performance. Further, we found that both projective and self-report measures of achievement motivation were valid. Finally, known group studies yielded a higher validity coefficient than did individual difference studies.


Cosmopolitans And Locals: Status Rivalries, Deference, And Knowledge In International Teams, Martine R. Haas Sep 2003

Cosmopolitans And Locals: Status Rivalries, Deference, And Knowledge In International Teams, Martine R. Haas

Articles and Chapters

Drawing on sociological role theory, this chapter introduces and explains the distinction between cosmopolitan and local role orientations as status categories in international teams. Qualitative data from a multi-method field study conducted at a leading international development agency illustrate that the high status of cosmopolitans and locals in this setting was based on expectations that these team members would enable their teams to more effectively interpret knowledge obtained from outside sources. The possible dynamics of status rivalry and deference in teams with cosmopolitan and local membership are explored, and their implications for team performance are addressed. Status in groups thus ...


Who Benefits From Teams? Comparing Workers, Supervisors, And Managers, Rosemary Batt Jun 2003

Who Benefits From Teams? Comparing Workers, Supervisors, And Managers, Rosemary Batt

Articles and Chapters

This paper offers a political explanation for the diffusion and sustainability of team-based work systems by examining the differential outcomes of team structures for 1200 workers, supervisors, and middle managers in a large unionized telecommunications company. Regression analyses show that participation in self-managed teams is associated with significantly higher levels of perceived discretion, employment security, and satisfaction for workers and the opposite for supervisors. Middle managers who initiate team innovations report higher employment security, but otherwise are not significantly different from their counterparts who are not involved in innovations. By contrast, there are no significant outcomes for employees associated with ...


The Viability Of Alternative Call Center Production Models, Rosemary Batt, Lisa Moynihan Apr 2002

The Viability Of Alternative Call Center Production Models, Rosemary Batt, Lisa Moynihan

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The central question of this paper is whether a mass customization strategy coupled with high involvement work practices is an economically viable model for service and sales call centers. If so, under what conditions and why? To answer these questions, in the next section, we describe alternative models of call center management. In section III, we present a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between management practices, workers reactions to those practices, and performance outcomes. We then review empirical evidence on these relationships, focusing primarily on studies of call centers or related service workplaces. In section IV, we draw ...


Performance And Growth In Entrepreneurial Firms: Revisiting The Union-Performance Relationship, Rosemary Batt, Theresa M. Welbourne Jan 2002

Performance And Growth In Entrepreneurial Firms: Revisiting The Union-Performance Relationship, Rosemary Batt, Theresa M. Welbourne

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] A substantial body of research has examined the relationship between unions and firm performance. It generally has found a positive relationship between unions and productivity and a negative relationship between unions and financial performance (Freeman & Medoff, 1984; Addison & Hirsch, 1989; Belman, 1992; Freeman, 1992). The exit/voice model is most commonly used to explain this paradox (Freeman & Medoff, 1984). Freeman and Medoff argued that the “monopoly power” of unions leads to high union wages and restrictive work rules, both of which raise the costs of production and lower profit margins. The presence of unions, however, also lowers production costs by reducing turnover (exit ...


Stw In The 1990s: School–Employer Partnerships And Student Outcomes, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla Sep 2001

Stw In The 1990s: School–Employer Partnerships And Student Outcomes, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Before the school-to-work (STW) movement began improving communication between schools and employers in the past decade, high-school achievement counted little in hiring decisions, because recent graduates could not signal skills and discipline to employers. Most requests for high school transcripts went unanswered, and employers hired workers with demonstrated job skills, freezing most graduates out of the primary labor market. Relegated to the secondary, unskilled market, graduates with strong basic skills saw a long delay before good job performance improved their income. Consequently, high-school students saw little relation between studying and labor-market rewards. Since they observed recent graduates with good ...


La Educación Secundaria En Los Estados Unidos. ¿Qué Pueden Aprender Otros De Nuestros Errores?, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop Jan 2001

La Educación Secundaria En Los Estados Unidos. ¿Qué Pueden Aprender Otros De Nuestros Errores?, John H. Bishop, Ferran Mane, Michael Bishop

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] El ritmo de los estudiantes estadounidenses para adquirir nuevas habilidades se desacelera durante la educación secundaria.


Strategic Segmentation In Frontline Services: Matching Customers, Employees, And Human Resource Systems, Rosemary Batt Oct 1999

Strategic Segmentation In Frontline Services: Matching Customers, Employees, And Human Resource Systems, Rosemary Batt

Articles and Chapters

This paper examines variation in the use of high involvement work practices in service and sales operations. I argue that the relationship between the customer and frontline service provider is a central feature that distinguishes production-level service activities from manufacturing. In particular, through strategic segmentation, firms are able to segment customers by their demand characteristics and to match the complexity and potential revenue stream of the customer to the skills of employees and the human resource system that shapes the customer-employee interface. Unlike manufacturing, where high involvement systems have emerged in a wide variety of product markets, therefore, service organizations ...


Do Teachers’ Race, Gender, And Ethnicity Matter? Evidence From The National Education Longitudinal Study Of 1988, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel D. Goldhaber, Dominic J. Brewer Apr 1995

Do Teachers’ Race, Gender, And Ethnicity Matter? Evidence From The National Education Longitudinal Study Of 1988, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel D. Goldhaber, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), the authors find that the match between teachers' race, gender, and ethnicity and those of their students had little association with how much the students learned, but in several instances it seems to have been a significant determinant of teachers' subjective evaluations of their students. For example, test scores of white female students in mathematics and science did not increase more rapidly when the teacher was a white woman than when the teacher was a white man, but white female teachers evaluated their white female students more highly than ...


Swedish Wage-Earner Funds: An Experiment In Economic Democracy, Jonas Pontusson, Sarosh Kuruvilla Jul 1992

Swedish Wage-Earner Funds: An Experiment In Economic Democracy, Jonas Pontusson, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Articles and Chapters

This article analyzes the performance of the "wage-earner funds" established in Sweden in 1983 - collective share-holding funds financed by special payroll and profits taxes. The authors' analysis indicates that although the wage-earner funds generally met the financial objectives set by the 1983 legislation, their significance in promoting "wage solidarity" (wage determination based on the work performed rather than on firm or industry profitability) and in providing workers with substantial influence over corporate decisions was limited by the size of their stockholdings and the seven-year (1984-90) restriction on the inflow of revenues into the funds. The authors conclude that the funds ...


Do Tournaments Have Incentive Effects?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Michael L. Bognanno Dec 1990

Do Tournaments Have Incentive Effects?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Michael L. Bognanno

Articles and Chapters

Much attention has been devoted to studying models of tournaments or situations in which an individual's payment depends only on his or her output or rank relative to that of other competitors. Academic interest derives from the fact that under certain sets of assumptions, tournaments have desirable normative properties because of the incentive structures they provide. Our paper uses nonexperimental data to test whether tournaments actually elicit effort responses. We focus on professional golf tournaments because information on the incentive structure (prize distribution) and measures of individual output (players' scores) are both available. We find strong support for the ...


The Incentive Effects Of Tournaments Revisited: Evidence From The European Pga Tour, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Michael L. Bognanno Feb 1990

The Incentive Effects Of Tournaments Revisited: Evidence From The European Pga Tour, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Michael L. Bognanno

Articles and Chapters

This analysis of data from the 1987 European Men's Professional Golf Association (PGA) Tour strongly supports the hypothesis that the level and structure of prizes in PGA tournaments influence players' performance. Specifically, players' performance appears to vary positively with both the total money prizes awarded in a tournament and the marginal return to effort in the final round of play (a value that varies among players largely depending on how the prize money is allocated among finishers of different ranks). The authors suggest that these results, together with the similar results of their earlier study of the 1984 U ...


Are School Superintendents Rewarded For “Performance”?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Richard P. Chaykowski, Randy Ann Ehrenberg Jan 1988

Are School Superintendents Rewarded For “Performance”?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Richard P. Chaykowski, Randy Ann Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This chapter presents analyses of the compensation and mobility of school superintendents in New York State during the 1978-79 to 1982-83 period. The focus is on school superintendents because they are the chief operating officers of school districts, their salaries are determined through individual "negotiations" with school boards, and their salary data were made available to us. In contrast, school principals' salary data were not available to us. Especially in large districts, principals tend to be members of a union and their salary increases negotiated collectively, which limits the likelihood of observing individual principals' salaries being related to measures ...


Merit Pay For School Superintendents?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Richard P. Chaykowski, Randy A. Ehrenberg Jun 1986

Merit Pay For School Superintendents?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Richard P. Chaykowski, Randy A. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

Given the important role that school district administrators play in the educational process, one might expect their 'performance" to be of fundamental importance in determining both how much students learn and the cost of public education to taxpayers. Yet, while public debate has considered the issue of merit pay plans for teachers, virtually no attention has been directed to the methods by which school administrators are compensated.

This paper provides evidence on whether school superintendents are explicitly or implicitly rewarded for their "performance" by higher compensation and/or greater opportunities for mobility. We analyze panel data from over 700 school ...


A Study Of Regulatory Intervention In Labor-Management Relations: School Desegregation In Los Angeles, Dade County, And Boston, Harry C. Katz Dec 1983

A Study Of Regulatory Intervention In Labor-Management Relations: School Desegregation In Los Angeles, Dade County, And Boston, Harry C. Katz

Articles and Chapters

"This article analyzes the interaction between public school desegregation and labor relations in Los Angeles, Dade County, and Boston. First enumerating the ways in which desegregation led to specific changes in either personnel policies or collective bargaining agreements in the three school systems, then providing an evaluation of the performance of the court’s regulatory intervention within labor management relations in the three school systems. After comparing regulatory performance, the factors that influence the observed variations in performance are assessed. A distinction is found between those causal factors that are ‘environmental’ and those that are under the direct control of ...