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2005

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Articles 1 - 30 of 74

Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Workplace Flexibility 2010: Facts On Short Term Time Off, Jean Flatley Mcguire, Kaitlyn Kenney Dec 2005

Workplace Flexibility 2010: Facts On Short Term Time Off, Jean Flatley Mcguire, Kaitlyn Kenney

Memos and Fact Sheets

Short Term Time Off (STO) refers to job-protected time away from the workplace (generally 5 days or less) to address anticipated or unexpected issues of limited duration. STO may be scheduled or unscheduled, depending on the underlying need. STO enables workers to address the routine and emergency situations that occur in everybody’s lives.

The need for STO may arise, for example, because a worker or worker’s child is sick or has a routine doctor’s appointment, because a worker has to wait for the plumber or apply for benefits or go to court, or because a worker needs ...


Development Of Free Economic Zones And Labor Standards: A Case Study Of Free Economic Zones In Korea, Changwon Lee Dec 2005

Development Of Free Economic Zones And Labor Standards: A Case Study Of Free Economic Zones In Korea, Changwon Lee

Visiting Fellow Working Papers

No abstract provided.


Local Nodes In Global Networks: The Geography Of Knowledge Flows In Biotechnology Innovation, Meric S. Gertler, Yael M. Levitte Dec 2005

Local Nodes In Global Networks: The Geography Of Knowledge Flows In Biotechnology Innovation, Meric S. Gertler, Yael M. Levitte

Articles and Chapters

The literature on innovation and interactive learning has tended to emphasize the importance of local networks, inter-firm collaboration and knowledge flows as the principal source of technological dynamism. More recently, however, this view has come to be challenged by other perspectives that argue for the importance of non-local knowledge flows. According to this alternative approach, truly dynamic economic regions are characterized both by dense local social interaction and knowledge circulation, as well as strong inter-regional and international connections to outside knowledge sources and partners. This paper offers an empirical examination of these issues by examining the geography of knowledge flows ...


Massachusetts Marine Trades Workforce Assessment 2005, Dan Hellin Nov 2005

Massachusetts Marine Trades Workforce Assessment 2005, Dan Hellin

Urban Harbors Institute Publications

In 2005, a partnership between the South Coastal Workforce Investment Board, the Massachusetts Marine Trades Association, Massasoit Community College and the Urban Harbors Institute (UHI) of the University of Massachusetts Boston, developed and distributed a survey focused on the status, needs and future challenges faced by marine businesses in the South Coastal region of Massachusetts. The Urban Harbors Institute analyzed the responses and prepared this report to present the results.

The overall aims of the 2005 Marine Trades Workforce Assessment Survey were: to determine the extent of the marine industry’s labor needs in the South Coastal region of Massachusetts ...


Adjusting Imperfect Data: Overview And Case Studies, Lars Vilhuber Oct 2005

Adjusting Imperfect Data: Overview And Case Studies, Lars Vilhuber

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this chapter, instead of using the similarity in the cleaned datasets to investigate economic fundamentals, we focus on the differences in the underlying ‘dirty’ data. We describe two data elements that remain fundamentally different across countries, and the extent to which they differ. We then proceed to document some of the problems that affect longitudinally linked administrative data in general, and we describe some of the solutions analysts and statistical agencies have implemented, and some that they did not implement. In each case, we explain the reasons for and against implementing a particular adjustment, and explore, through a ...


Organizing Women: The Nature And Process Of Union Organizing Efforts Among U.S. Women Workers Since The Mid-1990s, Kate Bronfenbrenner Oct 2005

Organizing Women: The Nature And Process Of Union Organizing Efforts Among U.S. Women Workers Since The Mid-1990s, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

The relationship between American working women and the U.S. labor movement can neither be easily described nor categorized. In part, this is because women’s participation and experience in the labor movement differ so greatly across industry, region, union, occupation, and ethnic background. But mostly, it is a consequence of the inevitable contradictions that arise when the proportion of women in the labor movement continues to grow at an escalating pace, whereas for most unions and labor federations, the proportion of women in top leadership and staff positions has increased incrementally at best, even in unions where women predominate.


Short Term Time Off Options For Federal Employees, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Oct 2005

Short Term Time Off Options For Federal Employees, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


Short Term Time Off Options For Federal Employees, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center Oct 2005

Short Term Time Off Options For Federal Employees, Workplace Flexibility 2010, Georgetown University Law Center

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


Changing Administrative Practices In American Unions: A Research Note, Paul F. Clark, Lois Spier Gray Oct 2005

Changing Administrative Practices In American Unions: A Research Note, Paul F. Clark, Lois Spier Gray

Articles and Chapters

This note presents findings from the first longitudinal study of the administrative practices of American unions. Our surveys, conducted in 1990 and 2000, gathered information on the hiring, human resource, and financial/strategic planning practices of U.S.-based national and international unions. The results indicate that American unions are changing their criteria for hiring staff and moving toward more formal human resource policies and systematic financial and strategic planning practices.


Method Or Madness? Inside The U.S. News & World Report College Rankings, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Oct 2005

Method Or Madness? Inside The U.S. News & World Report College Rankings, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The rankings exacerbate, but are not the major cause of the increased competition in American higher education that has taken place over the last few decades. The real shame is that this competition has institutions focusing on improving the selectivity of their entering first-year classes. Institutions appear to be increasingly valued for the test scores of the students they attract, not for their value added to their students and to society.


Communicating Across Cultures, Ken Margolies Sep 2005

Communicating Across Cultures, Ken Margolies

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Communication is the key to so many things a steward does, and good communication skills are something experienced stewards develop. But even experienced stewards have special challenges when the communication is between people of different cultures.


Wal-Mart Imports From China, Exports Ohio Jobs, Afl-Cio Wal-Mart Campaign Sep 2005

Wal-Mart Imports From China, Exports Ohio Jobs, Afl-Cio Wal-Mart Campaign

Labor Unions

[Excerpt] This report tells the stories of four Ohio companies that sell to Wal-Mart. The loss of jobs at the Huffy Corp., Rubbermaid, Mr. Coffee and Thomson factories in Ohio demonstrates how Wal-Mart pressures suppliers to send Ohio jobs overseas. These jobs exported by Wal-Mart suppliers represent just a handful of the hundreds of thousands of good jobs Ohio has lost in the new Wal-Mart economy. Other such Wal-Mart suppliers as Hasbro, Ohio Art, Texas Instruments Inc., Hoover, World Kitchen Inc. and Philips also have closed plants in Ohio.


An Evaluation Of Generic Teamwork Skills Training With Action Teams: Effects On Cognitive And Skill-Based Outcomes, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Bradford S. Bell, Robert E. Ployhart, John R. Hollenbeck, Daniel R. Ilgen Sep 2005

An Evaluation Of Generic Teamwork Skills Training With Action Teams: Effects On Cognitive And Skill-Based Outcomes, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Bradford S. Bell, Robert E. Ployhart, John R. Hollenbeck, Daniel R. Ilgen

Articles and Chapters

This study evaluated the utility of generic teamwork skills training for enhancing the effectiveness of action teams. Results from 65 four-person action teams working on an interdependent command and control simulator revealed that generic teamwork skills training had a significant and positive impact on both cognitive and skill-based outcomes. Trained team members evidenced higher levels of declarative knowledge regarding teamwork competencies and demonstrated greater proficiency in the areas of planning and task coordination, collaborative problem solving, and communication. Furthermore, results indicated that cognitive and skill based outcomes were interrelated. Team members' declarative knowledge regarding teamwork competencies positively affected planning and ...


Standing At A Crossroads: The Building Trades In The Twenty-First Century, Mark Erlich, Jeffrey Grabelsky Sep 2005

Standing At A Crossroads: The Building Trades In The Twenty-First Century, Mark Erlich, Jeffrey Grabelsky

Articles and Chapters

American building trades unions have historically played a critical and stabilizing role in the nation’s construction industry, establishing uniform standards and leveling the competitive playing field. Union members have enjoyed better than average wages and benefits, excellent training opportunities, and decent jobsite conditions. But in the last thirty years the industry has undergone a dramatic transformation. This article describes the decline in union density, the drop in construction wages, the growth of anti-union forces, the changes in labor force demographics, the shift toward construction management, and the emergence of an underground economy. It also analyzes how building trades unions ...


A Descriptive Analysis Of Layoffs In Large U.S. Firms Using Archival Data Over Three Decades And Interviews With Senior Managers, Kevin F. Hallock Aug 2005

A Descriptive Analysis Of Layoffs In Large U.S. Firms Using Archival Data Over Three Decades And Interviews With Senior Managers, Kevin F. Hallock

Articles and Chapters

This paper uses data on over 4,600 layoff announcements in the U.S., covering each firm that ever existed in the Fortune 500 between 1970 and 2000, along with 40 interviews of senior managers in 2001 and 2002 to describe layoffs in large U.S. firms over this period. In order to motivate further work in the area, I investigate six main issues related to layoffs: timing of layoffs, reasons for layoffs, the actual execution of layoffs, international workers, labor unions, and the types of workers by occupation and compensation categories. The paper draws on literature from many fields ...


What An Aging Workforce Can Teach Us About Workplace Flexibility: Labor Force Participation Rates Of Men Age 55 And Over, By Age Group, Annual Averages, 1963–2003, Robert Hutchens Phd Jul 2005

What An Aging Workforce Can Teach Us About Workplace Flexibility: Labor Force Participation Rates Of Men Age 55 And Over, By Age Group, Annual Averages, 1963–2003, Robert Hutchens Phd

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


What An Aging Workforce Can Teach Us About Workplace Flexibility: Labor Force Participation Rates Of Women Age 55 And Over, By Age Group, Annual Averages, 1963–2003, Robert Hutchens Phd Jul 2005

What An Aging Workforce Can Teach Us About Workplace Flexibility: Labor Force Participation Rates Of Women Age 55 And Over, By Age Group, Annual Averages, 1963–2003, Robert Hutchens Phd

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


What An Aging Workforce Can Teach Us About Workplace Flexibility: Population Pyramids For The United States, Robert Hutchens Phd Jul 2005

What An Aging Workforce Can Teach Us About Workplace Flexibility: Population Pyramids For The United States, Robert Hutchens Phd

Charts and Summaries of State, U.S., and Foreign Laws and Regulations

No abstract provided.


[Review Of The Book Personnel Economics], Gary S. Fields Jul 2005

[Review Of The Book Personnel Economics], Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] What is personnel economics? Despite its name (non-economists may be put off by the use of the word “personnel,” which was left behind by what is now called human resource management about a quarter century ago), personnel economics deals with issues of fundamental importance in the workplace. As the editors explain in the introduction, “The literature is distinguished from other parts of labour economics primarily by its focus on problems that are central to business.” Thus, personnel economics is economics, it is that part of economics that deals with workplace issues, and it is firmly grounded in labor economics ...


What Is Labor’S True Purpose? The Implications Of Seiu’S Unite To Win Proposals For Organizing, Kate Bronfenbrenner Jul 2005

What Is Labor’S True Purpose? The Implications Of Seiu’S Unite To Win Proposals For Organizing, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] That labor is in a crisis cannot be questioned. While there may be some labor leaders who are content to keep ministering to an ever less powerful, shrinking base, there were few in the room that day that would disagree with the words expressed by SEIU International Executive Vice President Gerry Hudson on the opening panel, that the U.S. "labor movement is becoming dangerously close to being too small to matter."

For the first time in decades, both organizing activity and union membership numbers have dropped precipitously. Where in past years unions had to organize 500,000 new ...


Mass Layoffs And Ceo Turnover, Sherrilyn M. Billger, Kevin F. Hallock Jul 2005

Mass Layoffs And Ceo Turnover, Sherrilyn M. Billger, Kevin F. Hallock

Articles and Chapters

We investigate the relationship between layoff announcements and CEO turnover over a 31-year period. We find that layoffs significantly increase CEO turnover in the following year, and, in some time periods, CEO changes are strongly positively associated with layoff announcements two years earlier. We proceed to show how this relationship has changed over time, and offer several possible explanations. Finally, we find strong evidence that layoffs that are associated with negative stock price reactions are much more likely to lead to CEO turnover than those associated with positive stock price reactions, especially in the earlier years in our sample.


Howard Gospel And Andrew Pendleton, Corporate Governance And Labour Management: An International Comparison, Charles B. Shrader Jul 2005

Howard Gospel And Andrew Pendleton, Corporate Governance And Labour Management: An International Comparison, Charles B. Shrader

Management Publications

Gospel and Pendleton have written a broad descriptive view of governance and labour management. Indeed, their book provides the reader with an examination of a multitude of governance issues and practices in a variety of national settings. The book emphasizes comparison, both between market and stakeholder views of the firm and among national governance systems. Resulting from a series of academic seminars, the authors present a set of case studies dealing with governance practices in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, France, Spain, Italy, and Japan. The book is written from the market/country level of analysis and describes ...


[Review Of The Book Growing Public: Social Spending And Economic Growth Since The Eighteenth Century], George R. Boyer Jul 2005

[Review Of The Book Growing Public: Social Spending And Economic Growth Since The Eighteenth Century], George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Lindert’s discussion of the costs and benefits of the welfare state is only one part, albeit the most eye-catching part, of this wide-ranging work in comparative economic history. Volume 1, written for non-specialists, presents “The Story”; it is tailor-made for upper-level undergraduate courses in economic and social history, public policy, and welfare economics. Volume 2 presents “Further Evidence,” including the regression results that underlie the findings presented in the first volume, and eighty pages of appendices. Graduate students and scholars studying the welfare state will want to read this volume in conjunction with Volume 1. For those who ...


Theories Of The Employment Relationship: Choosing Between Norms And Contracts, Michael L. Wachter Jun 2005

Theories Of The Employment Relationship: Choosing Between Norms And Contracts, Michael L. Wachter

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this paper, I analyze three types of labor market relationships that are prevalent in the economy - the external labor market that exists outside of firms, and the union and nonunion employment relationships that exist inside firms. The parties' relationships in each of these markets are markedly different from one another with respect to their use of contracts versus norms, their enforcement mechanisms, and their reliance on external competitive market pressures. Why do these very distinct forms exist? This paper provides an answer to this question. To be successful, each of the structures has to resolve problems of match-specific assets ...


Why Do Field Differentials In Average Faculty Salaries Vary Across Universities?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Marquise Mcgraw, Jesenka Mrdjenovic Jun 2005

Why Do Field Differentials In Average Faculty Salaries Vary Across Universities?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Marquise Mcgraw, Jesenka Mrdjenovic

Working Papers

Average faculty salaries at American colleges and universities differ widely across fields at American colleges and universities and the magnitudes of these field differences in salaries have been growing over time. What is less well known, however, is that at any point in time there are wide differences in the magnitudes of field differences in faculty salaries across academic institutions. Our paper uses institutional level data by field on average faculty salaries, which we were granted access to by the universities that participate in a national data exchange, to analyze why these differences across institutions exist. Our main finding is ...


[Review Of The Book Workplace Justice Without Unions], Alexander Colvin Jun 2005

[Review Of The Book Workplace Justice Without Unions], Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This book examines one of the most important issues in contemporary industrial relations in the United States, the provision of workplace justice to the vast majority of American workers who lack union representation. In contrast to nearly all other countries, employment in the United States is governed by the default rule of employment-at-will under which workers can be fired without notice for any reason, good or bad. Exceptions to this rule are limited to specific contractual or statutory protections in areas such as discrimination and the shrinking segment of the American workforce represented by unions. The situation for the ...


Risky Business? Entrepreneurship In The New Independent-Power Sector, Wesley D. Sine, Heather A. Haveman, Pamela S. Tolbert Jun 2005

Risky Business? Entrepreneurship In The New Independent-Power Sector, Wesley D. Sine, Heather A. Haveman, Pamela S. Tolbert

Articles and Chapters

Building on sociological research on institutions and organizations and psychological research on risk and decision making, we propose that the development of institutions that reduce the risks of entering new sectors has a stronger effect on the founding rates of firms using novel technologies than on firms using established technologies. In an analysis of the independent-power sector of the electricity industry from 1980 to 1992, we found that the development of regulative and cognitive institutions legitimated the entire sector and provided incentives for all sector entrants; thus, foundings of all kinds of firms multiplied rapidly but had a stronger impact ...


Inopportunity Of Gender: The G.I. Bill And The Higher Education Of The American Female, 1939-1954, Matthew P. Nagowski May 2005

Inopportunity Of Gender: The G.I. Bill And The Higher Education Of The American Female, 1939-1954, Matthew P. Nagowski

Student Works

While the 1944 Serviceman’s Readjustment Act, commonly known as the G.I. Bill, has been instilled within the collective consciousness of the United States as one of the most overwhelmingly positive pieces of legislation in the nation’s history, there has been little empirical inquiry into the effect that it had on the non-veteran female. Both Marcus (2003) and Bound and Turner (2001) find that of the World War II veterans that obtained a higher education on the G.I. Bill, fully 20 percent of them, or 400,000, would not have attended college had it not been for ...


Involving Undergraduates In Research To Encourage Them To Undertake Ph.D. Study In Economics, Ronald G. Ehrenberg May 2005

Involving Undergraduates In Research To Encourage Them To Undertake Ph.D. Study In Economics, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Recent evidence suggests that the growing use of part-time and full-time non-tenure-track faculty nationwide adversely influences American college students’ graduation rates (Ehrenberg and Liang Zhang, 2005). I have become concerned that the increased usage of non-tenure track faculty members also likely adversely influences the propensity of undergraduate students to go on for Ph.D.s in economics for two reasons.

First, many students enter college with the expressed intent of becoming doctors or lawyers, getting an MBA, or going on for advanced degrees in the sciences or humanities. However, with the exception perhaps of the small number of high-school ...


[Review Of The Book From Consent To Coercion: The Assault On Trade Union Freedoms], Lance A. Compa Apr 2005

[Review Of The Book From Consent To Coercion: The Assault On Trade Union Freedoms], Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Even in disagreement with some of its policy prescriptions, I find From Consent to Coercion a strong, meticulously documented, powerfully argued, thought-provoking work that serious scholars and practitioners of trade unionism and labour law should read and engage. We Americans can still look at Canadian labour law and practice as a model compared with our own, but thanks to Panitch and Swartz's work we can see it with eyes open, not eyes wide