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2004

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Articles 1 - 30 of 68

Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Building And Construction Trades Unions: Are They Built To Win?, Jeff Grabelsky Dec 2004

Building And Construction Trades Unions: Are They Built To Win?, Jeff Grabelsky

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The evidence of labor's declining power in the economic and political arenas is increasingly clear. Despite the tenacious efforts of talented leaders over the past ten years, the labor movement has still failed to turn the proverbial cornet. Some labor leaders now believe that a dramatic change in strategic direction may be necessary to revitalize labor's fortunes. The emerging debate about labor's future touches every sector of the movement. The building and construction trades are no exception.


Biography And Social History: An Intimate Relationship, Nick Salvatore Nov 2004

Biography And Social History: An Intimate Relationship, Nick Salvatore

Articles and Chapters

Biography has been considered as outside the discipline of history by many historians. Since the chronological framework of the study is pre-deter-mined, given the subject's life, it has been argued, it does not meet the fundamental historical test of analyzing historical change across time. Others, particularly literary critics, have suggested that the biographical emphasis on the personal is itself, at root, invalid. This comment instead suggests that the recent turn to biography in labor and social history is most welcome, for it creates the possibility of a broader understanding of the interplay between an individual and social forces beyond ...


Unemployment Rates In The European Union And Selected Member Countries Cvilian Labor Force Basis (1), Seasonally Adjusted, 1990-2004, Bureau Of Labor Statistics Oct 2004

Unemployment Rates In The European Union And Selected Member Countries Cvilian Labor Force Basis (1), Seasonally Adjusted, 1990-2004, Bureau Of Labor Statistics

Federal Publications

No abstract provided.


Economic Engagement: An Avenue To Employment For Individuals With Disabilities, William Kiernan, John Halliday, Heike Boeltzig Oct 2004

Economic Engagement: An Avenue To Employment For Individuals With Disabilities, William Kiernan, John Halliday, Heike Boeltzig

All Institute for Community Inclusion Publications

The role that employment has played for persons with disabilities over the past several decades has moved from one of no engagement in the workforce to a realization that persons with disabilities can work and are interested in working. The shrinking workforce has increased employers' interest in looking at the full range of potential workers, including those previously considered unemployable. The growing economy—coupled with the declining birth rate, the increase in technology and supports for a diverse workforce, and the increasing expectation that all persons should be provided with the opportunity to work—has led to a new view ...


The Failure Of Organizing, The New Unity Partnership And The Future Of The Labor Movement, Richard W. Hurd Oct 2004

The Failure Of Organizing, The New Unity Partnership And The Future Of The Labor Movement, Richard W. Hurd

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The New Unity Partnership (NUP) has stirred up a firestorm of controversy in union circles. Its inception can be traced to the July 4th holiday in 2003 when five national union presidents gathered for a candid private discussion about the future of the labor movement. The motivation for the summit was concern about the collective inability of unions to reverse their fading fortunes. At this and subsequent meetings the unions considered structural and strategic options to promote union growth, ultimately committing to a form of mutual aid pact to pool resources for coordinated organizing initiatives and to support each ...


Job Loss: Causes, Consequences, And Policy Responses, Kristin F. Butcher, Kevin F. Hallock Oct 2004

Job Loss: Causes, Consequences, And Policy Responses, Kristin F. Butcher, Kevin F. Hallock

Articles and Chapters

From 2001 to 2003, 5.3 million workers were displaced. Beyond quantifying the numbers of jobs lost lie important questions about gains and losses from these changes and what policies may affect them. These questions will be addressed at an upcoming Chicago Fed conference.


Revisiting The Meaning Of Leadership, Joel M. Podolny, Rakesh Khurana, Marya Besharov Oct 2004

Revisiting The Meaning Of Leadership, Joel M. Podolny, Rakesh Khurana, Marya Besharov

Articles and Chapters

During the past fifty years, organizational scholarship on leadership has shifted from a focus on the significance of leadership for meaning-making to the significance of leadership for economic performance. This shift has been problematic for two reasons. First, it has given rise to numerous conceptual difficulties that now plague the study of leadership. Second, there is now comparatively little attention to the question of how individuals find meaning in the economic sphere even though this question should arguably be one of the most important questions for organizational scholarship. This chapter discusses several reasons for the shift, arguing that one of ...


Making Your Goals Clear, Ken Margolies Sep 2004

Making Your Goals Clear, Ken Margolies

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Lack of definition can make people confused, agitated and sometimes even hostile. These disastrous consequences are avoidable. Here are some examples that show how lack of definition can get in a steward's way — and what can be done about it.


Designing A Pre-Apprenticeship Model For Women Entering And Succeeding In The Construction Trades, Susan Moir Scd, Elizabeth Skidmore Sep 2004

Designing A Pre-Apprenticeship Model For Women Entering And Succeeding In The Construction Trades, Susan Moir Scd, Elizabeth Skidmore

Labor Studies Faculty Publication Series

It has been over a quarter century since the Carter administration set a goal of increasing the number of women working in the construction industry to 6.9% of the workforce. It is often overlooked that the stated intent of this policy initiative was for women to make up 25% of construction workers by the year 2000 (Eisenberg, 1999). While some isolated projects have met or exceeded the 6.9% target, the number of women working in the construction trades nationally increased in the first few years after 1979, but leveled off at under 3% in the early 1980’s ...


Exploring Applicant Pool Quantity And Quality: The Effects Of Early Recruitment Practice Strategies, Corporate Advertising, And Firm Reputation, Christopher J. Collins, Jian Han Sep 2004

Exploring Applicant Pool Quantity And Quality: The Effects Of Early Recruitment Practice Strategies, Corporate Advertising, And Firm Reputation, Christopher J. Collins, Jian Han

Articles and Chapters

Drawing on marketing and recruitment theory, we examined relationships between early recruitment practices, organizational factors, and organization-level recruitment outcomes, predicting that low-involvement recruitment practices, high-involvement recruitment practices, corporate advertising, and firm reputation would positively affect the quantity and quality of organizations’ applicant pools. We also predicted that corporate advertising and firm reputation would moderate the effects of the two recruitment strategies. Data for 99 organizations collected from multiple sources provided some evidence that early recruitment practices, corporate advertising, and firm reputation each had direct effects on applicant pool quantity and quality. More importantly, we found that low-involvement recruitment practices were ...


Review Of The Book Building Movement Bridges: The Coalition Of Labor Union Women, Sally Alvarez Jul 2004

Review Of The Book Building Movement Bridges: The Coalition Of Labor Union Women, Sally Alvarez

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] When de Tocqueville made that famous remark, he could not have foreseen the role this “mother of all forms of knowledge” would play in the twentieth century. America cannot be understood without understanding her social movements. Silke Roth’s new book, Building Movement Bridges: The Coalition of Labor Union Women, focuses on an association described as a bridge between two of America’s most important social movements: labor and the women’s movement.


From Supreme Court To Shopfloor: Mandatory Arbitration And The Reconfiguration Of Workplace Dispute Resolution, Alexander Colvin Jul 2004

From Supreme Court To Shopfloor: Mandatory Arbitration And The Reconfiguration Of Workplace Dispute Resolution, Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In a series of court battles during the 1990s, employers successfully defended the use of mandatory employment arbitration against challenges that the procedures inherently undermined the statutory rights of employees. Efforts to introduce legislation in Congress aimed at reversing the Gilmer decision were unsuccessful. In 2001, the Supreme Court reaffirmed its acceptance of mandatory arbitration to resolve employment disputes in Circuit City Stores, Inc. v. Adams. However, some courts have been willing to strike down arbitration procedures that contain particularly egregious violations of due process. For example, courts have refused to enforce arbitration agreements that restrict employee damage awards ...


More Thoughts On The Worker-Student Alliance: A Response To Steve Early, Lance A. Compa Jul 2004

More Thoughts On The Worker-Student Alliance: A Response To Steve Early, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] My comments here reflect ten degrees of difference. While I mostly agree with him, I think Early takes a valid critique a step too far with jibes about red carpet treatment, Mormon missionaries, the best and the brightest, mobile organizers, self- sacrificing souls, and the like, suggesting that any reliance on graduates is a mistake, and only indigenous staffers should build the labor movement. His only exception, it appears, is for graduates going into workplaces where Teamsters for a Democratic Union (TDU)–style dissident groups take on their national union leadership, replicating the “colonizing” of the late 1960s worker-student ...


Immigration: A Rogue Labor Market Policy, Vernon M. Briggs Jul 2004

Immigration: A Rogue Labor Market Policy, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] As the 21st Century begins, the United States is in the throes of the largest and most prolonged period of mass immigration in its history. In 2003, the foreign-born population totaled 33.5 million people (11.8 percent of the population). Moreover, the Census Bureau projects that two thirds of the nation's anticipated population growth to 392 million persons by the year 2050 will come from immigrants and their children (i.e., 82 million people). Demographic changes are converted into economic variables through labor force participation. Hence, unless there are significant policy changes, the major determinant of labor ...


Dualism In The Labor Market: A Perspective On The Lewis Model After Half A Century, Gary S. Fields Jul 2004

Dualism In The Labor Market: A Perspective On The Lewis Model After Half A Century, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

This paper asks how the Lewis model might be viewed from the perspective of economic science half a century later. Many of the core propositions remain intact, some might be amplified, and a small number might be revised.


Financial Forces And The Future Of American Higher Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Michael J. Rizzo Jul 2004

Financial Forces And The Future Of American Higher Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Michael J. Rizzo

Articles and Chapters

Recent shifts in state funding are altering the most basic realities of American higher education, from student access to faculty research.


Clarett V. National Football League And The Nonstatutory Labor Exemption In Antitrust Suits, Nathan Brooks Jun 2004

Clarett V. National Football League And The Nonstatutory Labor Exemption In Antitrust Suits, Nathan Brooks

Federal Publications

No abstract provided.


Will There Really Be A Labor Shortage?, Peter Cappelli Jun 2004

Will There Really Be A Labor Shortage?, Peter Cappelli

Management Papers

A number of studies have been released in recent years from prestigious think-tanks, such as the Hudson Institute, and leading consulting firms, such as Wyatt and McKinsey, predicting severe labor market shortages for the U.S. economy in the decades ahead. Some go as far as to suggest that the U.S. economy will experience widespread job vacancies that cannot be filled because of a shortfall of workers. In these arguments, the shortfall is typically blamed on the small size of the "baby bust" cohort, the generation that has followed the baby boomers into the labor market.


Review Of The Book Shakespeare, Einstein, And The Bottom Line: The Marketing Of Higher Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jun 2004

Review Of The Book Shakespeare, Einstein, And The Bottom Line: The Marketing Of Higher Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Befitting a former journalist, Kirp's book is extraordinarily well-written; once one picks it up it is hard to put down. Some economists may be put off by a book that contains no equations, tables, figures or regression results. Such an attitude, however, would be misguided and any academic economist interested in better understanding how market forces are reshaping higher education should read Shakespeare, Einstein, and the Bottom Line.


Trying To Make Sense Of Sexual Harassment Law After Oncale, Holman, And Rene, David Sherwyn, Paul Wagner, Gregg Gilman May 2004

Trying To Make Sense Of Sexual Harassment Law After Oncale, Holman, And Rene, David Sherwyn, Paul Wagner, Gregg Gilman

Articles and Chapters

The state of the law governing sexual harassment, which was far from clear, was rendered more turbid by a 1998 U.S. Supreme Court holding that offered examples of specific situations under which such harassment might be actionable. The Court’s ruling in a case of same-sex harassment has muddied the waters by opening the issue of the alleged harasser’s motivation.

This provides a defense for harassers who may rebut the accusation that their actions are motivated by sexual interests. In addition to making same-sex harassment difficult to prove, this holding makes it nearly impossible for an individual to ...


The Mixed Motive Instruction: Did The Supreme Court Make Discrimination Cases Unwinnable For Employers?, David Sherwyn, Paul Wagner, Joe Baumgarten May 2004

The Mixed Motive Instruction: Did The Supreme Court Make Discrimination Cases Unwinnable For Employers?, David Sherwyn, Paul Wagner, Joe Baumgarten

Articles and Chapters

Following a 2003 U.S. Supreme Court decision, employers face the prospect of fighting employment discrimination cases that they cannot afford to win. A decision involving Caesars Palace held that based on a 1991 federal statute, a complaining employee need not give direct evidence of discrimination as part of the complaint. This is a change in the treatment formerly given to the so-called mixed motive concept, in which a personnel decision regarding an employee who is part of a protected class may be motivated by both legitimate business considerations and discrimination. In addition to apparently shifting the burden of proof ...


Obesity, Educational Attainment, And State Economic Welfare, Martin W. Sivula Ph.D. May 2004

Obesity, Educational Attainment, And State Economic Welfare, Martin W. Sivula Ph.D.

MBA Faculty Conference Papers & Journal Articles

For the first time in history, estimates of the overweight people in the world rival estimates of those malnourished. The World Health Organization (WHO, 2002) ranked obesity among the top 10 risks to human health worldwide. In the early 1960s, nearly half of the Americans were overweight and 13% were obese. Today some 64% of U.S. adults are overweight and 30.5% are obese. Even more alarming, twice as many U.S. children are overweight than were twenty years ago, a 66% increase. Non-communicable diseases impose a heavy economic burden on already strained health systems. Health is a key ...


The Underrepresentation Of Minority Faculty In Higher Education: Panel Discussion, John Brooks Slaughter, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Eric Hanushek May 2004

The Underrepresentation Of Minority Faculty In Higher Education: Panel Discussion, John Brooks Slaughter, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Eric Hanushek

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The 3 July 2002 issue of the Chronicle of Higher Education described the matter we are discussing today in these words: "Taken together. African-Americans and persons of Hispanic origin represent only 8 percent of full-time faculty nation-wide, and while 5 percent are African-American, half of them work at historically black institutions. The proportion of black faculty members at white institutions is 2.3 percent, virtually the same as it was 20 years ago."

We are privileged to have the opportunity to explore this issue from two different perspectives. The first contends that unless major changes occur, the number of ...


Prospects In The Academic Labor Market For Economists, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Apr 2004

Prospects In The Academic Labor Market For Economists, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] American colleges and universities are increasingly substituting nontenure track full-time and part-time faculty for full-time tenured and tenure track faculty. Moreover, institutions of public higher education, where almost two-thirds of the full-time faculty members at four-year institutions are employed, are under severe financial pressure. The share of state budgets devoted to public higher education is declining. The salaries of economics department faculty members at public higher education institutions have fallen substantially relative to the salaries of their counterparts at private higher education institutions, and it is becoming increasingly difficult for the publics to compete for top faculty in economics ...


Applicant Reactions To Selection Procedures: An Updated Model And Meta-Analysis, John Hausknecht, David V. Day, Scott C. Thomas Mar 2004

Applicant Reactions To Selection Procedures: An Updated Model And Meta-Analysis, John Hausknecht, David V. Day, Scott C. Thomas

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] An updated theoretical model of applicant reactions to selection procedures is proposed and tested using meta-analysis. Results from 86 independent samples (N = 48,750) indicated that applicants who hold positive perceptions about selection are more likely to view the organization favorably and report stronger intentions to accept job offers and recommend the employer to others. Applicant perceptions were positively correlated with actual and perceived performance on selection tools and with self perceptions. The average correlation between applicant perceptions and gender, age, and ethnic background was near zero. Face validity and perceived predictive validity were strong predictors of many applicant ...


The Clear Picture On Clear Channel Communications, Inc.: A Corporate Profile, Maria C. Figueroa, Damone Richardson, Pam Whitefield Jan 2004

The Clear Picture On Clear Channel Communications, Inc.: A Corporate Profile, Maria C. Figueroa, Damone Richardson, Pam Whitefield

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This research was commissioned by the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) with the expressed purpose of assisting the organization and its affiliate unions – which represent some 500,000 media and related workers – in understanding, more fully, the changes taking place in the arts and entertainment industry. Specifically, this report examines the impact that Clear Channel Communications, with its dominant positions in radio, live entertainment and outdoor advertising, has had on the industry in general, and workers in particular.


Unions, Markets, And Democracy In Latin America, Maria Lorena Cook Jan 2004

Unions, Markets, And Democracy In Latin America, Maria Lorena Cook

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In the 1990s scholars of Latin America moved from a concern with democratization to a focus on the implementation of market economic reforms. With this shift, the appreciation of labor unions' value to society was lost. Whereas earlier analyses of democratic transitions recognized organized labor's important role in bringing an end to dictatorships, later studies of market reform viewed labor organizations as either obstacles to be overcome, "losers" to be compensated, or simply irrelevant.

Perhaps more important than scholarship's neglect of labor unions is the neglect that is reflected in policies toward labor in the region. Economic ...


Public Sector Unions: Will They Thrive Or Struggle To Survive?, Richard W. Hurd, Sharon Pinnock Jan 2004

Public Sector Unions: Will They Thrive Or Struggle To Survive?, Richard W. Hurd, Sharon Pinnock

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] There is emerging consensus among public sector union leaders at the national level1 that the threats they face today are eerily similar to those ignored by private sector unions 20 years ago. Privatization, reinventing government, a changing public sector work force, anti-government forces on Capitol Hill and in statehouses, union myopia, and member apathy all are taken with the utmost seriousness. The situation calls for a sophisticated strategic response. Because they are operating from a position of relative strength, public sector unions must be at the forefront of any effort to re-establish union influence in our society. With this ...


Adoption And Use Of Dispute Resolution Procedures In The Nonunion Workplace, Alexander Colvin Jan 2004

Adoption And Use Of Dispute Resolution Procedures In The Nonunion Workplace, Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper investigates the adoption, structure, and function of dispute resolution procedures in the nonunion workplace. Whereas grievance procedures in unionized workplaces have been an important area of study in the field of industrial relations, research on dispute resolution procedures in nonunion workplaces has lagged behind. As a result, our knowledge of the development of nonunion procedures remains relatively limited. Similarly, with a few noteworthy exceptions (e.g. Lewin, 1987, 1990), our knowledge of workplace grievance activity is almost entirely based on research conducted in unionized settings. Given the major differences in the institutional contexts of union and nonunion ...


The Rise And Fall Of The Organizing Model In The U.S., Richard W. Hurd Jan 2004

The Rise And Fall Of The Organizing Model In The U.S., Richard W. Hurd

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Much of the strategic debate in the U.S. has revolved around the organizing model, which is associated with more activist, grassroots methods of organizing and member mobilization. In spite of widespread endorsement of this model, the reality is that rhetoric has far outpaced action and mobilization is still a relatively isolated phenomenon. Furthermore, with only occasional pauses union density has continued its downward trend, especially in the private sector. This chapter reviews the evolution of recent union strategy in the U.S., with particular attention to organizational change initiated to promote the organizing priority. It also assesses the ...