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2003

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Articles 1 - 30 of 74

Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Do Cognitive Test Scores Explain Higher U.S. Wage Inequality?, Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn Dec 2003

Do Cognitive Test Scores Explain Higher U.S. Wage Inequality?, Francine D. Blau, Lawrence M. Kahn

Articles and Chapters

Using microdata from the 1994-8 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) for nine countries, we examine the role of cognitive skills in explaining higher wage inequality in the United States. We find that while the greater dispersion of cognitive test scores in the United States plays a part in explaining higher U.S. wage inequality, higher labor market prices (i.e., higher returns to measured human capital and cognitive performance) and greater residual inequality still play important roles, and are, on average, quantitatively considerably more important than differences in the distribution of test scores in explaining higher U.S. wage inequality.


Interest-Based Bargaining In Education, Sally Klingel Nov 2003

Interest-Based Bargaining In Education, Sally Klingel

Research Studies and Reports

[Excerpt] Despite almost 20 years of experience with a variety of alternative techniques in collective bargaining in education, there is no summary of the research on negotiation practices or survey of practice variations in use. The parties in negotiations have little to guide them in their investigation of the utility of what are commonly referred to as Interest-Based Bargaining (IBB) strategies. In order to give negotiators tools with which they can make choices appropriate to their needs based on current knowledge and practice, this report offers an informed discussion of the utility of various bargaining models. It provides: ◗ A summary ...


The Dual Transformation Of Workplace Dispute Resolution, Alexander Colvin Oct 2003

The Dual Transformation Of Workplace Dispute Resolution, Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

This study examines the impact on grievance rates of variation in the structure of nonunion dispute resolution procedures and in systems of work organization. Nonunion dispute resolution procedures that feature non-managerial decision-makers had higher grievance rates than nonunion procedures with managerial decision-makers. Grievance rates were also lower in workplaces that had adopted self-managed teams.


Alternative Job Brokering: Addressing Labor Market Disadvantages, Improving The Temp Experience, And Enhancing Job Opportunities, Françoise Carré, Joaquín Herranz, Jr., Dorie Seavey, Carlha Vickers, Ashley Aull, Rebecca Keegan Oct 2003

Alternative Job Brokering: Addressing Labor Market Disadvantages, Improving The Temp Experience, And Enhancing Job Opportunities, Françoise Carré, Joaquín Herranz, Jr., Dorie Seavey, Carlha Vickers, Ashley Aull, Rebecca Keegan

Center for Social Policy Publications

Alternative staffing is a key form of labor market intermediation worthy of consideration alongside that provided by other community-based job placement programs. Furthermore, an examination of alternative staffing services underscores the essential role that supports to employment play in job-brokering for workers who are disadvantaged in the labor market because these are businesses that tend simultaneously and daily to the two sides of the work relationship (worker-client and customer business). Much can be learned from their experiences about the expertise and resources required to effectively broker jobs for these kinds of workers—expertise and resources that could be necessary if ...


Collective Bargaining And Staff Salaries In American Colleges And Universities, Daniel B. Klaff, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Oct 2003

Collective Bargaining And Staff Salaries In American Colleges And Universities, Daniel B. Klaff, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

Previous studies of union wage effects in higher education have examined faculty salaries, but not staff salaries. This study, using data from a 1997-98 survey conducted by the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers and other sources, investigates how union coverage affected staff salaries at 163 U.S. colleges and universities. The authors estimate a union salary premium of 9-11%, with variation from near zero for some of the 47 occupations in their sample to 13-16% for others, such as the skilled building trades. The union/nonunion differential appears to be larger in 2-year than in 4-year institutions, but does ...


Cosmopolitans And Locals: Status Rivalries, Deference, And Knowledge In International Teams, Martine R. Haas Sep 2003

Cosmopolitans And Locals: Status Rivalries, Deference, And Knowledge In International Teams, Martine R. Haas

Articles and Chapters

Drawing on sociological role theory, this chapter introduces and explains the distinction between cosmopolitan and local role orientations as status categories in international teams. Qualitative data from a multi-method field study conducted at a leading international development agency illustrate that the high status of cosmopolitans and locals in this setting was based on expectations that these team members would enable their teams to more effectively interpret knowledge obtained from outside sources. The possible dynamics of status rivalry and deference in teams with cosmopolitan and local membership are explored, and their implications for team performance are addressed. Status in groups thus ...


Assertive Grievance Presentation, Ken Margolies Sep 2003

Assertive Grievance Presentation, Ken Margolies

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Stewards who find they are getting nowhere with management on grievances might benefit from standing back a few feet and looking at the way they approach the process of actually presenting the grievance. Because having truth and justice and right and virtue and the facts on your side sometimes may not be enough, if your presentation needs work.


Wege Zur Transformation Gewerkschaftlicher Organisationsstrukturen, Martin Behrens, Richard W. Hurd, Jeremy Waddington Sep 2003

Wege Zur Transformation Gewerkschaftlicher Organisationsstrukturen, Martin Behrens, Richard W. Hurd, Jeremy Waddington

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Bei einer länderübergreifenden Betrachtung erweist sich die Neubelebung der Arbeiterbewegung als ein komplexer Prozess des Wandels, der je nach soziopolitischem und ökonomischem Kontext variiert.Zwar lassen sich zahlreiche, vielfältige Gewerkschaftsstrategien und Ergebnisse beobachten, aber dennoch sind in den meisten der untersuchten Länder (Deutschland, Italien, Spanien, Großbritannien, USA) verschiedene Formen der strukturellen Anpassung, wie Zusammenschlüsse und Übernahmen, sowie eine „Rationalisierung“ der internen Gewerkschaftsstrukturen übliche Elemente der Revitalisierungsbemühungen. Auch wenn viele Ansätze zur Veränderung der Gewerkschaftsstrukturen auf der Strecke blieben, so bleiben doch noch eine Reihe von Fällen bei denen Reformen zu den positive Ergebnissen führten,welche die Arbeitnehmerschaft dringend benötigte.


Sozialpartnerschaft Als Gewerkschaftsstrategie - Beispiele Aus 5 Ländern, Michael Fichter, Ian Greer Sep 2003

Sozialpartnerschaft Als Gewerkschaftsstrategie - Beispiele Aus 5 Ländern, Michael Fichter, Ian Greer

Articles and Chapters

Wie konnen Gewerkschaften in einem gewandelten, neoliberalen Umfeld erfolgreich agieren? Die Privatisierung der stadtischen Kliniken in Hamburg - bei der seitens der Gewerkschaft sowohl der Weg der Kooperation wie der der Konfrontation beschritten wurde - gibt ein bemerkenswertes Beispiel fur den Wandel von Arbeitgeber - und Gewerkschaftsstrategien, Mit Anleihen bei sozialen Bewegungen konnen Gewerkschaften, so zeigt die Erfahrung, solche Konflikte nicht nur besser bestehen, sondern gestarkt aus ihnen hervorgehen.


Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company And United Steelworkers Of America (Uswa) Locals 2, 12, 200, 286, 307, 831, 843, 878, And 904 (2003) Aug 2003

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company And United Steelworkers Of America (Uswa) Locals 2, 12, 200, 286, 307, 831, 843, 878, And 904 (2003)

Collective Bargaining Agreements - U.S. Department of Labor

No abstract provided.


Labor’S Weight Beyond Its Numbers, Lance A. Compa Jul 2003

Labor’S Weight Beyond Its Numbers, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Beyond numbers, what unions are doing on the ground reflects their vitality. Unions are allying with new grass-roots support groups in creative public advocacy for workers' rights generally, not just for their own members. Unions are also experimenting with new forms of social bargaining, using leverage such as pension fund investments and shareholder resolutions. They do this for their own organizational goals, but also for public goals such as transparent corporate governance and honest corporate accounting.


Interview With Dave Martin & Arthur Gordon, Michael Hillard Jul 2003

Interview With Dave Martin & Arthur Gordon, Michael Hillard

S.D. Warren Company

Dave Martin and Arthur Gordon recount their mill experiences including topics such as: life as a skilled paper machine tender, the hazards and difficulties of work in the mill, Martin's short tenure as a supervisor, and S.D. Warren's status as a premier paper maker. Martin describes difficult experience of new corporate management and how he was laid off several years after becoming a manager.


In Defense Of Public Service: Union Strategy In Transition, Richard W. Hurd Jul 2003

In Defense Of Public Service: Union Strategy In Transition, Richard W. Hurd

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Public sector unions have displayed healthy durability for the past twenty years, apparently immune to the economic and political forces that have buffeted the broader labor movement. While unions in the private economy have lost power and seen density decline by more than half, unions of government workers have retained influence and market share. Early in the twenty first century there are signs that this era of relative comfort may be coming to an end.

In the 1980s private sector unions were sent reeling by the combined forces of globalization, deregulation and increased management hostility. Today their public sector ...


Gum-Dipped: Reconstructing An Akron Neighborhood, Joyce Dyer Jul 2003

Gum-Dipped: Reconstructing An Akron Neighborhood, Joyce Dyer

The University of Akron Press Publications

Gum-Dipped: A Daughter Remembers Rubber Town tells the story of growing up in the rubber community of Firestone Park in Akron, Ohio—the former Rubber Capital of the World. The book begins with the rededication of the bronze Harvey Firestone statue on August 3, 2000, at the Centennial celebration for the Firestone Tire & Rubber Company. The statue—perched high on a hill at the entrance to Firestone Park, the residential community Harvey built for his workers in 1915—was sacred to the author, Joyce Coyne Dyer, and her father, Tom Coyne, during the fifties, a time when the Coynes worshipped ...


The Economic Well-Being Of Black Americans: The Overarching Influence Of U.S. Immigration Policies, Vernon M. Briggs Jul 2003

The Economic Well-Being Of Black Americans: The Overarching Influence Of U.S. Immigration Policies, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Of the myriad public policies that have impinged on the economic well being of black Americans over the years, none has had more overarching and continuous effects than those pertaining to immigration. Immigration policies and trends have set the stage that has allowed other outcomes to happen. From the beginning, when blacks were introduced into the British colonies that would later become the United States, to contemporary times, when the nation finds itself in the throes of the largest and longest period of mass immigration in its history, immigration policy has significantly influenced the geographical, occupational, and industrial employment ...


Working It Out, Ken Margolies Jul 2003

Working It Out, Ken Margolies

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Every steward knows that it’s almost always better to work out problems with management informally, without having to resort to filing a grievance. And ever steward knows that if you do have to file a grievance, it’s better to win it at the first step than have to go through the headaches that come with moving higher up the food chain, or, even worse, risk leaving things in the hands of an arbitrator.


Entrepreneurial Motivation, Scott Shane, Edwin A. Locke, Christopher J. Collins Jul 2003

Entrepreneurial Motivation, Scott Shane, Edwin A. Locke, Christopher J. Collins

Articles and Chapters

Recent research on entrepreneurship has focused largely on macro-level environmental forces. Although researchers adopting this focus have rightly criticized much of the existing empirical research on the role of human motivation in entrepreneurship, we believe that the development of entrepreneurship theory requires consideration of the motivations of people making entrepreneurial decisions. To provide a road map for researchers interested in this area, we discuss the major motivations that prior researchers have suggested should influence the entrepreneurial process, as well as suggest some motivations that are less commonly studied in this area. In addition to outlining the major reasons for exploring ...


Perceptions Of Ethical And Unethical Labor Negotiation Gambits, Gundars Kaupins, Mark Johnson Jun 2003

Perceptions Of Ethical And Unethical Labor Negotiation Gambits, Gundars Kaupins, Mark Johnson

Gundars E. Kaupins

A survey of 168 management students compared selected negotiation gambits. The results showed that the Expertise and the Reluctant Signer gambits appeared most ethical to the respondents. The Additions and Nibble gambits appeared least ethical. One explanation for the results is how deceptive the gambits might appear to the respondents.

Factor analysis revealed seven factors associated with the seventeen gambits. Most of the factors matched up with prior models of negotiation behavior through Numbers Deception and Information Gathering factors did not.

There are many other variables that might explain differences in the ethical perceptions of each gambit. Demographic results showed ...


Who Benefits From Teams? Comparing Workers, Supervisors, And Managers, Rosemary Batt Jun 2003

Who Benefits From Teams? Comparing Workers, Supervisors, And Managers, Rosemary Batt

Articles and Chapters

This paper offers a political explanation for the diffusion and sustainability of team-based work systems by examining the differential outcomes of team structures for 1200 workers, supervisors, and middle managers in a large unionized telecommunications company. Regression analyses show that participation in self-managed teams is associated with significantly higher levels of perceived discretion, employment security, and satisfaction for workers and the opposite for supervisors. Middle managers who initiate team innovations report higher employment security, but otherwise are not significantly different from their counterparts who are not involved in innovations. By contrast, there are no significant outcomes for employees associated with ...


Comments On Geraghty, Márquez, And Vizcarra, George R. Boyer Jun 2003

Comments On Geraghty, Márquez, And Vizcarra, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

Professor Boyer reviews and comments upon the three dissertations that were finalists for the Alexander Gerschenkron Prize in 2002.


Enforcing Internationally Recognized Human Rights Violations Under The Alien Tort Claims Act: An Analysis Of The Ninth Circuit’S Decision In Doe V. Unocal Corp., Joshua E. Kastenberg May 2003

Enforcing Internationally Recognized Human Rights Violations Under The Alien Tort Claims Act: An Analysis Of The Ninth Circuit’S Decision In Doe V. Unocal Corp., Joshua E. Kastenberg

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] "On September 18, 2002, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that a United States based corporation can be held civilly liable for “aiding and abetting” the internationally recognized human rights violation of forced labor. This case, Doe v. Unocal Corp.1 (Doe II), is significant for its ramifications to human rights litigation in United States courts as well as to future liability for multinational corporations conducting commerce in foreign states. The uniqueness of this case is found in its precedent. No prior federal court has held a corporation liable for human rights violations under the Alien Tort Claims ...


Workplace Codes Of Conduct In China And Related Labor Conditions, Thomas Lum Apr 2003

Workplace Codes Of Conduct In China And Related Labor Conditions, Thomas Lum

Federal Publications

This report provides an overview of U.S. interests and policies regarding China’s labor conditions. It compares a cross section of labor codes of conduct utilized by U.S. corporations and their suppliers that manufacture toys, shoes, apparel, and other labor intensive merchandise in China for export. Many consumer goods imported from China to the United States are produced by Hong Kong, Taiwanese, and South Korean factories in China for U.S. brands. Serious labor rights abuses have been reported in many of these factories. All of the codes sampled in this report mandate labor standards that are consistent ...


Institutional Pressures, Human Resource Strategies, And The Rise Of Nonunion Dispute Resolution Procedures, Alexander Colvin Apr 2003

Institutional Pressures, Human Resource Strategies, And The Rise Of Nonunion Dispute Resolution Procedures, Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

The author investigates factors influencing the adoption of dispute resolution procedures in the nonunion workplace. Various explanations are tested using data from a 1998 survey of dispute resolution procedures in the telecommunications industry. The results suggest that both institutional pressures and human resource strategies are factors driving the adoption of nonunion procedures. Among institutional factors, rising individual employment rights litigation and expanded court deferral to nonunion arbitration have led to increased adoption of mandatory arbitration procedures in the nonunion workplace. At the same time, an older institutional factor—union substitution by nonunion employers aimed at avoiding union organizing—continues to ...


Studying Ourselves: The Academic Labor Market (Presidential Address To The Society Of Labor Economists, Baltimore, May 3, 2002), Ronald G. Ehrenberg Apr 2003

Studying Ourselves: The Academic Labor Market (Presidential Address To The Society Of Labor Economists, Baltimore, May 3, 2002), Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The study of academic labor markets by economists goes back at least to Adam Smith’s suggestion in The Wealth of Nations that a professor’s compensation be tied to the number of students that enrolled in his classes. This article focuses on three academic labor market issues that students at Cornell and I are currently addressing: the declining salaries of faculty employed at public colleges and universities relative to the salaries of their counterparts employed at private higher education institutions, the growing dispersion of average faculty salaries across academic institutions within both the public and private sectors, and ...


Making Sense Of Highway Construction: A Taxonomic Framework For Ergonomic Exposure Assessment And Intervention Research, Susan Moir, Victor Paquet, Laura Punnett, Bryan Buchholz, David Wegman Mar 2003

Making Sense Of Highway Construction: A Taxonomic Framework For Ergonomic Exposure Assessment And Intervention Research, Susan Moir, Victor Paquet, Laura Punnett, Bryan Buchholz, David Wegman

Susan Moir

Making sense of highway construction: a taxonomic framework for ergonomic exposure assessment and intervention researchConstruction is one of the most hazardous industries in the United States. Occupational health research to characterize the hazards in construction work has been hampered by the lack of a systematic approach to classification of construction work and its associated hazards. A taxonomy of construction work, a nested system of classification, has been developed to systematize the collection and reporting of exposure assessment data for the characterization and reduction of hazards and the prevention of musculoskeletal injury. This taxonomy subdivides construction work into the categories of ...


Interview With Karl Dornish, Michael Hillard Mar 2003

Interview With Karl Dornish, Michael Hillard

S.D. Warren Company

Dornish was senior production manager at S.D. Warren Westbrook, 1954-1970s, then at S.D. Warren-Somerset/Hinckley from late 1970s until around 1990. He spent a few years at S.D. Warren's Muskegon, Michigan mill before retiring in Waterville, Maine area, and is a graduate of Colby College.


Interview With Gary Cook, Michael Hillard Mar 2003

Interview With Gary Cook, Michael Hillard

S.D. Warren Company

Cook was a union official for Maine and New Hampshire with the United Paperworkers International Union (UPIU) from 1975 - 2000s. His first role was as an International Representative (business agent for many union locals) and later a regional Vice President of the UPIU. Before 1975 he worked as a paper worker at the International Paper Plant in Jay, Maine. Serviced UPIU Local 1069 at S.D. Warren, Westbrook in 1980s and 1990s.


Interview With Ray Pineau, Michael Hillard Mar 2003

Interview With Ray Pineau, Michael Hillard

S.D. Warren Company

Ray Pineau was a leader in the historic Jay, Maine International Paper Strike in 1987-88. He is featured in Julius Getman's book on the strike, "The Betrayal of Local 14." Pineau's interview includes his observations on the politics and attitudes of the S.D. Warren workers and union leaders during the Jay Strike; Pineau worked at S.D. Warren for a brief period during the strike. Later he became a representative in the Maine State Legislature, helping to found a labor caucus in the 1990s and 2000s.


Case Studies On The Implementation Of The Workforce Investment Act: Focus On Leadership, Sheila Fesko, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Allison Cohen Hall Mar 2003

Case Studies On The Implementation Of The Workforce Investment Act: Focus On Leadership, Sheila Fesko, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Allison Cohen Hall

Case Studies Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

The workforce development system has undergone significant change in the past five years, including the development and implementation of new partnerships. Maintaining the integrity of services and conducting major organizational change has been a challenge for local, state, and federal leaders. Some states have a limited vision of how this new workforce system can operate and the ways in which their customers can benefit from the new partnerships. Other states, however, have embraced the challenge put forth in the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and have built on previous collaborations or begun new initiatives. This publication discusses some of the challenges ...


Case Studies On The Implementation Of The Workforce Investment Act: Focus On Merging Cultures, Allison Cohen Hall, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Sheila Fesko Mar 2003

Case Studies On The Implementation Of The Workforce Investment Act: Focus On Merging Cultures, Allison Cohen Hall, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Sheila Fesko

Case Studies Series, Institute for Community Inclusion

The implementation of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) requires major organizational change for employment, training, and disability agencies. The initiative emphasizes coordination, collaboration and communication among organizations for better service delivery. At this time, states are developing systems that will enable them to address the needs of all customers, including those with disabilities, who are seeking employment. Traditionally, service systems have required that consumers and their families who need a variety of services be able to negotiate the culture and language of multiple agencies. With the new WIA legislation, this task is now being required of the agencies themselves. In ...