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1997

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Articles 1 - 30 of 41

Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Industrial Relations In The U.S. Automobile Industry: An Illustration Of Increased Decentralization And Diversity, Harry C. Katz Dec 1997

Industrial Relations In The U.S. Automobile Industry: An Illustration Of Increased Decentralization And Diversity, Harry C. Katz

Faculty Publications - Labor Relations, Law, and History

"This paper traces the evolution of employment relations in the U.S. auto industry over the post World War II period with particular emphasis on recent developments. There is a strong movement toward growing variation in employment relations within both the assembly and parts sectors of the auto industry. Variation appears both through the spread of more contingent compensation and team systems of work organization. There is also wide variety across plants and industry segments in basic employment systems including low wage, human resource, Japanese-oriented, and joint team-based approaches. Declining unionization is a particularly strong influence in the parts sector ...


Symposium On Employment Relations Reform In The World Automobile Industry: Introduction, Russell D. Lansbury, Harry C. Katz, Fun-Koo Park Dec 1997

Symposium On Employment Relations Reform In The World Automobile Industry: Introduction, Russell D. Lansbury, Harry C. Katz, Fun-Koo Park

Articles and Chapters

"The international automobile industry provides a useful basis for examining the degree and nature of change in employment relations under a variety of external conditions. By studying auto firms in various economies, it can be observed how employee relations strategies related to overall governance of the firm, to industry-level structures and institutions, and to the macro-economic and political institutions. These broader institutional arrangements in industrial relations may have a significant effect on how well the industry operates in both the domestic and international marketplace."


Health Hazard Manual: Wastewater Treatment Plant And Sewer Workers, Nellie J. Brown Dec 1997

Health Hazard Manual: Wastewater Treatment Plant And Sewer Workers, Nellie J. Brown

Manuals and User Guides

[Excerpt] This manual examines how exposure occurs during the treatment processes; ways to reduce exposure by engineering controls, administrative controls, process control strategies, and protective equipment; and some suggested medical surveillance.


從公有到私有企業 : 中國勞資關係的轉型, Kwok Keung Chow Nov 1997

從公有到私有企業 : 中國勞資關係的轉型, Kwok Keung Chow

Hong Kong Institute of Business Studies Working Paper Series

本文剖析國內官方勞動關係的傳統觀念,好像工人當家、罷工是極左思想等,如何在改革開放下出現本質的變化,相應地令勞動力市場也同時開放,亦令私有企業得以發展,也就令勞動關係出現轉型的現象,並進一步帶動了九十年代的《工會法》、《勞動法》等用作調整新勞動關係的法律相繼出台。為此,本文建議當局須從工會的運作和職能的重新確認上、勞動立法的擴展上、集體協約的建立上,以及勞動爭議的處理手法上等四方面來加以應付。


Migration And Labour Market Integration In Late Nineteenth-Century England And Wales, George R. Boyer Nov 1997

Migration And Labour Market Integration In Late Nineteenth-Century England And Wales, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] There is a long and well established tradition of studies analysing the pattern and causes of internal migration and assessing the degree of labour market integration in late nineteenth-century Britain. Some studies document the flows of migrants from one area to another and describe migrant characteristics and the directions of the predominant streams of migration. Others analyse the determinants of gross or net migration flows at the region or county level. The questions implicit in these studies are: How mobile was the labour force? What were the major factors which determined individual decisions to migrate? How are these factors ...


Organizing In The Nafta Environment: How Companies Use “Free Trade” To Stop Unions, Kate Bronfenbrenner Oct 1997

Organizing In The Nafta Environment: How Companies Use “Free Trade” To Stop Unions, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] These findings point to both an enormous challenge and a great opportunity for American unions. Clearly, under NAFTA and other free trade agreements more and more employers will feel emboldened to threaten to close the plant during organizing campaigns, and workers and unions will find organizing increasingly difficult. At the same time, unions have an opportunity to overcome these barriers to organizing if they commit enough resources to run large-scale, aggressive campaigns which mobilize the rank-and-file workers to build a union in their workplace, regardless of the intensity of the employer’s campaign.


Are Salaries In The National Hockey League Related To Nationality?, William (Bill) H. Williams, David A. Williams Oct 1997

Are Salaries In The National Hockey League Related To Nationality?, William (Bill) H. Williams, David A. Williams

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


1997-09-08 Constitution, Morehead State University. Staff Congress. Sep 1997

1997-09-08 Constitution, Morehead State University. Staff Congress.

Staff Congress Records

Staff Congress Constitution from September 8, 1997.


You Say You Want A Revolution? [Review Of The Book The Other Side Of The Sixties: Young Americans For Freedom And The Rise Of Conservative Politics], Nick Salvatore Sep 1997

You Say You Want A Revolution? [Review Of The Book The Other Side Of The Sixties: Young Americans For Freedom And The Rise Of Conservative Politics], Nick Salvatore

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Was the New Left a premature revolution, the fruits of which must await a future set of proper conditions to develop? Or was it more a victim of a giant government conspiracy that crushed a vibrant and growing oppositional tendency? Adherents of these and similar interpretations thus can explain the demise of the New Left while protecting its image as a tribune of a people in inevitable, if slow, political motion. But a perspective less protective of the New Left might reveal more. Perhaps treatments of that era have never fully captured either the complex turnings of America's ...


Reciprocally Interlocking Boards Of Directors And Executive Compensation, Kevin F. Hallock Sep 1997

Reciprocally Interlocking Boards Of Directors And Executive Compensation, Kevin F. Hallock

Articles and Chapters

Is executive compensation influenced by the composition of the board of directors? About 8% of chief executive officers (CEOs) are reciprocally interlocked with another CEO—the current CEO of firm A serves as a director of firm B and the current CEO of firm B serves as a director of firm A. Roughly 20% of firms have at least one current or retired employee sitting on the board of another firm and vice versa. I investigate how these and other features of board composition affect CEO pay by using a sample of 9,804 director positions in America's largest ...


Labour Migration In Southern And Eastern England, 1861-1901, George R. Boyer Aug 1997

Labour Migration In Southern And Eastern England, 1861-1901, George R. Boyer

Articles and Chapters

This paper examines the determinants of migration from 19 southern counties to six major destinations in England and Wales from 1861-70 to 1891-1900. I find that, while the size of origin-destination wage gaps and the distance between origin and destination areas were important determinants of migration flows, as expected, migration was also strongly influenced by the number of previous migrants from an origin county living in a destination. The assistance provided by previous migrants to friends and relatives contemplating migration led to a perpetuation of earlier migration patterns, and helps to explain the continued dominance of London as a destination ...


[Review Of The Book Success While Others Fail: Social Movement Unionism And The Public Workplace], Alexander Colvin Jul 1997

[Review Of The Book Success While Others Fail: Social Movement Unionism And The Public Workplace], Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this splendid book, Paul Johnston applies his broad understanding of contemporary social theory to an analysis of a series of carefully matched field research cases to achieve genuine theoretical insights. His analysis addresses such fundamental issues as the nature of public sector unionism—its goals and the weapons it uses to achieve them, the ways it differs from private sector unionism—and the dynamics of social movement unionism. This work is an important contribution to the resurgent body of inductive theory development in industrial relations research that has emerged in recent years.


Nafta's Labor Side Accord: A Three-Year Accounting, Lance A. Compa Jul 1997

Nafta's Labor Side Accord: A Three-Year Accounting, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Any number of idealized "social charters" with universal standards and swift, powerful enforcement powers could be drafted by critics of the labor side agreement. But the NAALC was negotiated by sovereign governments with clashing business, labor, and political concerns. The result is a hybrid agreement, one that preserves sovereignty but creates mutual obligations and combines broad cooperation and consultation programs alongside contentious review, evaluation, and dispute resolution mechanisms. Most of all, the NAALC promotes engagement on labor rights and labor standards in an experiment not tested in any other international forum.


Building Membership Participation, Ken Margolies May 1997

Building Membership Participation, Ken Margolies

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Membership involvement is important to help fight for good contracts, organize new members, and solve problems on the job. But most workers aren’t born union activists, and many don’t think their participation makes much difference. To convince them to get involved we have to show them that their participation will be worthwhile – and may even be enjoyable.


[Review Of The Book Unions And Workplace Change In Canada], Alexander Colvin Apr 1997

[Review Of The Book Unions And Workplace Change In Canada], Alexander Colvin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Some leading unions in Canada are notable for the diversity of their responses to workplace change. These unions' policies and strategies, which range from the Steelworkers' (USWA) bold experiment in employee ownership and co-determination at Algoma Steel to the Autoworkers' (CAW) activist response to the pressures of the Japanese production and management systems at the CAMI auto plant, have produced significant variation in change processes and outcomes. This range of activity by Canadian unions in response to workplace change provides a fertile area for study by industrial relations researchers, as well as important challenges for policy makers and practitioners ...


Grieve It Again: Of Stare Decisis, Res Judicata And Collateral Estoppel In Labor Arbitration, Timothy J. Heinsz Mar 1997

Grieve It Again: Of Stare Decisis, Res Judicata And Collateral Estoppel In Labor Arbitration, Timothy J. Heinsz

Boston College Law Review

No abstract provided.


Beyond A Reasonable Accommodation: Hostile Work Environment Claims Under The Ada, Sandra M. Tomkowicz Jan 1997

Beyond A Reasonable Accommodation: Hostile Work Environment Claims Under The Ada, Sandra M. Tomkowicz

Accounting Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Wage Floors And Unemployment: A Two-Sector Analysis, Gary S. Fields Jan 1997

Wage Floors And Unemployment: A Two-Sector Analysis, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

This paper analyzes the effect of a wage floor on unemployment. Using a model with covered and noncovered sectors, comparative static analysis is performed with respect to the size of the wage floor, the elasticity of demand for labor in the covered sector, and the elasticity of the wage in the noncovered sector with respect to the size of the noncovered sector labor force. It turns out, contrary to the existing literature, that for none of these parameters is the comparative static effect unidirectional.


Regional Integration And Transnational Politics: Popular Sector Strategies In The Nafta Era, Maria Lorena Cook Jan 1997

Regional Integration And Transnational Politics: Popular Sector Strategies In The Nafta Era, Maria Lorena Cook

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This chapter argues that although economic integration between the United States and Mexico had been taking place for some time, it was the formal recognition of this process as represented by the discussions surrounding the North American Free Trade Agreement that facilitated transnational political action by non-state actors. Whereas the globalization of the economy and the prevalence of neoliberal economic policies may be considered by some to undermine popular sector organization and actions, formal recognition of regional economic integration in North America has produced a ‘transnational political’ arena that has expanded the resources available to non-governmental groups, increased their ...


Relativism, Reflective Equilibrium, And Justice, Justin Schwartz Jan 1997

Relativism, Reflective Equilibrium, And Justice, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

THIS PAPER IS THE CO-WINNER OF THE FRED BERGER PRIZE IN PHILOSOPHY OF LAW FOR THE 1999 AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE BEST PUBLISHED PAPER IN THE PREVIOUS TWO YEARS.

The conflict between liberal legal theory and critical legal studies (CLS) is often framed as a matter of whether there is a theory of justice that the law should embody which all rational people could or must accept. In a divided society, the CLS critique of this view is overwhelming: there is no such justice that can command universal assent. But the liberal critique of CLS, that it degenerates into ...


Another Look At Nafta, Lance A. Compa Jan 1997

Another Look At Nafta, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

"Weak," "toothless," "worthless" and "a farce"—these were some of the epithets applied to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) labor side accord negotiated by the United States, Mexico, and Canada in 1993. Trade unionists and labor rights supporters were upset, first by the text of the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC) when it appeared, then by early experiences after it went into effect on January 1, 1994. But those wanting progress on labor rights and standards in international trade should be careful of making some idealized “best” the enemy of the good.


Comparing The Naalc And The European Union Social Charter (Transcript), Lance A. Compa Jan 1997

Comparing The Naalc And The European Union Social Charter (Transcript), Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

This is a transcript of Professor Lance Compa’s presentation to the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation Conference held in Washington, DC on November 12, 1996 and published in the American University Journal of International Law and Policy.

[Excerpt] After all of the excellent comments this morning and so far this afternoon, both from the panelists and from the floor, I am not sure that I can say anything new about the NAALC. So, what I want to do in this intervention is add some comparative discussion with respect to the European Union and the social charter of the ...


The Role Of Union Strategies In Nlrb Certification Elections, Kate Bronfenbrenner Jan 1997

The Role Of Union Strategies In Nlrb Certification Elections, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Analyzing 1986-87 data from 261 NLRB certification election campaigns, the author finds that union tactic variables explain more of the variance in election outcomes than any other group of variables, including employer tactics, bargaining unit demographics, organizer background, election background, employer characteristics, and election environment. The results suggest that unions can significantly improve the probability of winning an election by using a rank-and-file-intensive organizing strategy. This strategy includes a reliance on person-to-person contact; an emphasis on union democracy and representative participation: the building of support for the first contract during the organizing drive; the use of escalating pressure tactics ...


Discontinuous Losses From Poverty, Generalized Pα Measures, And Optimal Transfers To The Poor, Gary S. Fields, François Bourguignon Jan 1997

Discontinuous Losses From Poverty, Generalized Pα Measures, And Optimal Transfers To The Poor, Gary S. Fields, François Bourguignon

Articles and Chapters

This paper examines the distributional properties of poverty measures which are discontinuous at the poverty line. It is shown that among all the additive poverty measures, only those measures with some discontinuous jump at the poverty line are such that it is optimal to allocate a given antipoverty budget either to the richest of the poor, or to the poorest of the poor, or to both. A special class of such poverty measures is an extension of the well-known 𝑃𝛼, the properties of which are investigated.


Employee Morale In The U.S. Class I Railroad Industry, Paula C. Morrow, Michael C. Crum, Frank J. Dooley Jan 1997

Employee Morale In The U.S. Class I Railroad Industry, Paula C. Morrow, Michael C. Crum, Frank J. Dooley

Management Publications

The U.S. railroad industry has experienced a dramatic turnaround since economic regulatory reform was legislated with the Staggers Rail Act of 1980. Increased competitive pressures and reduced regulation of ratemaking, routing, and network restructuring have lead to significant improvements in operating efficiency, service quality, and financial performance.


Making Free Trade More Fair: Developments In Protecting Labor Rights, Maria Lorena Cook, Morley Gunderson, Mark Thompson, Anil Verma Jan 1997

Making Free Trade More Fair: Developments In Protecting Labor Rights, Maria Lorena Cook, Morley Gunderson, Mark Thompson, Anil Verma

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The IRRA-NAFTA Committee was first appointed in 1995 by then president, Walter Gershenfeld, to make a report to the membership on the industrial relations implications of NAFTA and other trade-related developments. The Committee's mandate was renewed in 1996 by president Hoyt Wheeler. In this year's report the committee focused on some of the attempts that are underway to improve protection of labor interests under free trade conditions. This is a summary of the longer full report available upon request from the IRRA National Office.


Are Black Colleges Producing Today's African-American Lawyers?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 1997

Are Black Colleges Producing Today's African-American Lawyers?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

In past years, almost all of America's black lawyers came from historically black colleges and universities because these schools were the only ones that would admit black students. Today, it appears that black colleges are producing increasingly fewer of the nation's black lawyers.


Enhancing The Attractiveness Of Research To Female Faculty, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 1997

Enhancing The Attractiveness Of Research To Female Faculty, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] CSWEP has long been concerned about the underrepresentation of women in faculty positions at major research universities. I have been charged by the committee with enumerating a set of policies that might enhance the attractiveness of research universities to female faculty. After presenting some data that suggest the magnitude of the underrepresentation problem, I do so below. In each case, I sketch the pros and cons of the policy. Although the focus is on increasing the attractiveness of research universities to female faculty, many of the policies would increase the attractiveness of academic careers per se to new female ...


The American University: Dilemmas And Directions, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 1997

The American University: Dilemmas And Directions, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] American research universities clearly are national treasures. Over the past decade, however, these institutions have increasingly come under attack for a wide variety of alleged sins. Further, their economic bases are increasingly being eroded because of budget problems at federal and state levels, coupled with increased demand for resources to meet competing social needs, such as health care. Thus, although American universities are national treasures, many fear they are entering a period of decline and may well prove to be an endangered species.

Why are research universities being attacked, and why are their supporters in both the private and ...


Up Against The Fallen Wall: The Crisis Of Social Partnership In Unified Germany, Lowell Turner Jan 1997

Up Against The Fallen Wall: The Crisis Of Social Partnership In Unified Germany, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This book addresses two central and related sets of questions. First, what type of political economy is emerging in unified Germany? How "West German" is it? Is Germany permanently polarized into East and West or converging on a single, integrated political economy? To what extent is the "coordinated market economy" (Soskice 1991) becoming less, or differently, coordinated? The answers to these questions will affect the outcomes of issues ranging from policy and politics to production organization.

Second, what has happened to the famous German "social partnership" since unification? Do the employer offensives of 1993-1996 in the pattern-setting metal and ...