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1995

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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Newsletter Vol.23 No.4 1995, National Center For The Study Of Collective Bargaining In Higher Education And The Professions Nov 1995

Newsletter Vol.23 No.4 1995, National Center For The Study Of Collective Bargaining In Higher Education And The Professions

National Center Newsletters

No abstract provided.


In Search Of A Niche, John H. Bishop Oct 1995

In Search Of A Niche, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

"As enrollment in secondary vocational education programs declines and employers re-evaluate the attributes needed for success in today’s job market, some observers of the U.S. education system have called for schools to limit – or even eliminate – the teaching of occupational skills. Does this mean employers don’t reward such training?"


Newsletter Vol.23 No.3 1995, National Center For The Study Of Collective Bargaining In Higher Education And The Professions Sep 1995

Newsletter Vol.23 No.3 1995, National Center For The Study Of Collective Bargaining In Higher Education And The Professions

National Center Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Workplace Safety Is Everyone's Concern, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr Sep 1995

Workplace Safety Is Everyone's Concern, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr

Douglas J. Swanson, Ed.D APR

No abstract provided.


Why Not Unions To Combat Sweatshops?, Jeffrey Grabelsky Aug 1995

Why Not Unions To Combat Sweatshops?, Jeffrey Grabelsky

Articles and Chapters

No abstract provided.


A World Without Work? [Review Of The Books The End Of Work And The Jobless Future], Lance A. Compa Jul 1995

A World Without Work? [Review Of The Books The End Of Work And The Jobless Future], Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] These two books take different routes to the same conclusion: This Time It's For Real. The end of work is now upon us, and the jobless future beckons. This was portended in the past--by the development of steam-powered machinery, then electrical power, then by mid-twentieth century automation reflected in numerically-controlled machine tools, and even by the first and second generations of computers--but never realized as new outlets for employment took shape. Those days are done now. Advanced computers and software are bringing into being what Jeremy Rifkin calls a "near-workerless economy."


Editor’S Introduction To The Review Symposium On The Book Myth And Measurement: The New Economics Of The Minimum Wage, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jul 1995

Editor’S Introduction To The Review Symposium On The Book Myth And Measurement: The New Economics Of The Minimum Wage, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Why has Myth and Measurement engendered so much controversy? In part, because it deals with the minimum wage. The minimum wage was the first piece of protective labor legislation adopted at the national level, and proposals to increase the minimum wage invariably lead to heated debate between labor and business interests. When a book co-authored by the then chief economist in the Clinton Labor Department purports to show that, contrary to received wisdom, minimum wage increases do not appear to have any diverse effects on employment, it is predictable that conservative critics will attack its findings.


Mass Immigration, Free Trade, And The Forgotten American Worker, Vernon M. Briggs Jr May 1995

Mass Immigration, Free Trade, And The Forgotten American Worker, Vernon M. Briggs Jr

Articles and Chapters

If continued mass immigration and the pursuit of free trade result in undermining the nation's trade union movement and its labor-protection laws, then the price is too high. It must also be considered exorbitant if these policies continue to help reduce American workers' living standards and widen income inequality within the nation.


[Review Of The Book When Strikes Make Sense—And Why: Lessons From Third Republic Coal Miners], Kate Bronfenbrenner May 1995

[Review Of The Book When Strikes Make Sense—And Why: Lessons From Third Republic Coal Miners], Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Cohn's study is based on an analysis of wage and strike data from French coal miners between 1890 and 1935. Using a statistical analysis of the relative impact of strike activity and market determinants on changes in coal miner wages over the 45-year period, as well as a more traditional historical review of primary union, government, and employer sources, Cohn comes to some rather interesting conclusions about the relationship between strike activity and wage outcomes.


Newsletter Vol.23 No.2 1995, National Center For The Study Of Collective Bargaining In Higher Education And The Professions Apr 1995

Newsletter Vol.23 No.2 1995, National Center For The Study Of Collective Bargaining In Higher Education And The Professions

National Center Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Role Models In Education (Symposium Introduction), Ronald G. Ehrenberg Apr 1995

Role Models In Education (Symposium Introduction), Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

It is our hope that by assembling these papers in one place, the Review will contribute to future policy debate on the importance of role models in education. Moreover, the papers' findings may have even broader importance. In many respects, the relationship between teachers and students can be viewed as analogous to the relationship between supervisors and employees. If the race, gender, and ethnicity of teachers "matter," so may the race, gender, and ethnicity of supervisors in the employment relationship. These papers thus suggest analogous types of research that could be profitably undertaken that relate to the employment relationship.


Do Teachers’ Race, Gender, And Ethnicity Matter? Evidence From The National Education Longitudinal Study Of 1988, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel D. Goldhaber, Dominic J. Brewer Apr 1995

Do Teachers’ Race, Gender, And Ethnicity Matter? Evidence From The National Education Longitudinal Study Of 1988, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel D. Goldhaber, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), the authors find that the match between teachers' race, gender, and ethnicity and those of their students had little association with how much the students learned, but in several instances it seems to have been a significant determinant of teachers' subjective evaluations of their students. For example, test scores of white female students in mathematics and science did not increase more rapidly when the teacher was a white woman than when the teacher was a white man, but white female teachers evaluated their white female students more highly than ...


Review Of The Book The Cost Of Talent: How Executives And Professionals Are Paid And How It Affects America, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Mar 1995

Review Of The Book The Cost Of Talent: How Executives And Professionals Are Paid And How It Affects America, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Why should the former President of Harvard University be concerned that during the 1970s and 1980s the earnings of doctors, lawyers in private practice, and top corporate executives grew substantially relative to the earnings of professors, teachers, and high level federal civil servants? Why should he care that physicians with specialized hospital-based practices, such as neurosurgeons, have seen their earnings rise substantially relative to physicians practicing family medicine during the same period?

In each case, the answer is that Bok believes that occupational choices are determined, at least at the margin, by the pecuniary and nonpecuniary benefits that the ...


Obits For Labor Unions Are Premature, Kate Bronfenbrenner Jan 1995

Obits For Labor Unions Are Premature, Kate Bronfenbrenner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The press recently declared the end of the labor movement. It reported on a major new study by Harvard economist Richard Freeman and Joel Rogers of the University of Wisconsin, suggesting that American workers would prefer cooperative relationships with management to traditional labor unions.

Coupled with union membership at less than 16 percent of the work force and a new wave of far-from-pro-labor Republicans marching into Washington, many see this as definitive proof of labor's obsolescence. A more careful analysis, however, reveals that this is far from the truth.


[Review Of The Book Employment And Development: A New Review Of Evidence, By David Turnham], Gary S. Fields Jan 1995

[Review Of The Book Employment And Development: A New Review Of Evidence, By David Turnham], Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] I first encountered David Turnham’s work after majoring in labor economics in undergraduate and graduate school and spending a year in Nairobi studying and modeling the labor market there. The atmosphere in Kenya was crackling with intellectual excitement: John Harris and Michael Todaro had just showed how the solution to urban unemployment might be rural development, George Johnson had demonstrated that earnings function analysis ‘worked’ despite doubts about the quality of developing country data and the applicability of developed country concepts, Dharam Ghai was developing the basic human needs approach to development, and Joe Stiglitz was formulating efficiency ...


A New Conceptualization Of Union Commitment: Development And Test Of And Integrated Theory, Magnus Sverke, Sarosh Kuruvilla Jan 1995

A New Conceptualization Of Union Commitment: Development And Test Of And Integrated Theory, Magnus Sverke, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Articles and Chapters

An introductory conceptual and empirical review stresses the need for a stable theoretical basis for union commitment research. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new conceptualization of union commitment based on the integration of two theories (the theory of reasoned action and the rationalistic approach to commitment). The integrated theory suggests that union commitment is composed of two dimensions, one based on instrumentality and one based on ideology, which are causally related to pro-union behavioral intentions and, in turn, to union participation. Propositions derived from the integrated theory are tested using data on 1486 blue-collar workers in ...


Industrialization Strategy And Industrial Relations Policy In Malaysia, Sarosh C. Kuruvilla Jan 1995

Industrialization Strategy And Industrial Relations Policy In Malaysia, Sarosh C. Kuruvilla

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this chapter, a different view is taken of the relationship between industrialization strategies and industrial relations policy and practice. I argue that it is not the logic of industrialism or the levels of industrialization per se but the choice of an industrialization strategy and the shifts between such strategies that influence changes in industrial relations policies.


Economic Development Strategy, Government Labour Policy And Firm-Level Industrial Relations Practices In Malaysia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Ponniah Arudsothy Jan 1995

Economic Development Strategy, Government Labour Policy And Firm-Level Industrial Relations Practices In Malaysia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Ponniah Arudsothy

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Malaysia is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world and is in many ways, a Third World success story. Twenty years of sustained growth and diversification have reduced the economy’s reliance on primary products like tin and rubber. Malaysia is still the world’s largest exporter of tin, rubber, and palm oil, and a significant producer of oil, natural gas, and timber. More recently it has become one of the largest manufacturers of semiconductors, and a sizeable producer of electronic and electrical products and textiles. Exports account for about 61 per cent of GNP, making the economy ...


What's Wrong With Exploitation?, Justin Schwartz Jan 1995

What's Wrong With Exploitation?, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Abstract: Marx thinks that capitalism is exploitative, and that is a major basis for his objections to it. But what's wrong with exploitation, as Marx sees it? (The paper is exegetical in character: my object is to understand what Marx believed,) The received view, held by Norman Geras, G.A. Cohen, and others, is that Marx thought that capitalism was unjust, because in the crudest sense, capitalists robbed labor of property that was rightfully the workers' because the workers and not the capitalists produced it. This view depends on a Labor Theory of Property (LTP), that property rights are ...


In Defence Of Exploitation, Justin Schwartz Jan 1995

In Defence Of Exploitation, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

The concept of exploitation is thought to be central to Marx's Critique of capitalism. John Roemer, an analytical (then-) Marxist economist now at Yale, attacked this idea in a series of papers and books in the 1970s-1990s, arguing that Marxists should be concerned with inequality rather than exploitation -- with distribution rather than production, precisely the opposite of what Marx urged in The Critique of the Gotha Progam.

This paper expounds and criticizes Roemer's objections and his alternative inequality based theory of exploitation, while accepting some of his criticisms. It may be viewed as a companion paper to my ...


...And The Twain Shall Meet?, Lance A. Compa Jan 1995

...And The Twain Shall Meet?, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] No country or company should gain a commercial edge in international trade by jailing or killing union organizers, crushing independent union movements, or banning strikes. Gaining an advantage in labor costs should not depend on exploiting child labor or forced labor, or discriminating against women or oppressed ethnic groups. Deliberately exposing workers to life-threatening safety and health hazards, or holding wages and benefits below livable levels should not be permissible corporate strategies. But these are exactly the abuses that happen all too often in a rapidly globalized world trading system based on "free trade."


Income Distribution In Developing Economies: Conceptual, Data, And Policy Issues In Broad-Based Growth, Gary S. Fields Jan 1995

Income Distribution In Developing Economies: Conceptual, Data, And Policy Issues In Broad-Based Growth, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The aim of economic development is to raise the standard of living of a country's people, especially its poor. Economic growth, particularly when broadly based, is a means to that end.

'Underdevelopment' can be defined as a state of severely constrained choices. When one is choosing from among an undesirable set of alternatives, the outcome will itself be undesirable. Standards of living will be low. If standards of living are to be improved, people must have a better set of alternatives from which to choose.

'Economic development' is the process by which the constraints on choices are relaxed ...


Newsletter Vol.23 No.1 1995, National Center For The Study Of Collective Bargaining In Higher Education And The Professions Jan 1995

Newsletter Vol.23 No.1 1995, National Center For The Study Of Collective Bargaining In Higher Education And The Professions

National Center Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Inscribing The Workers: An Experiment In Factory Discipline Or The Inculcation Of Manners?, R. Williams Jan 1995

Inscribing The Workers: An Experiment In Factory Discipline Or The Inculcation Of Manners?, R. Williams

Faculty of Business - Accounting & Finance Working Papers

The establishment of the factory system during the beginning of the Industrial Revolution created a demand for labour. Labour that was unused to the confines and rigours of factory life. In an attempt to encourage punctuality and conscientiousness the industrialists of the late eighteenth century resorted to a number of practices designed to encourage their employees to give up their old habits and take on a new rhythm of life tied to the demands of the factory. At the same time, the guiding principle of improvement of product and factors of production led many industrialists to devote considerable energy to ...


[Review Of The Book William Johnson’S Natchez: The Ante-Bellum Diary Of A Free Negro], Nick Salvatore Jan 1995

[Review Of The Book William Johnson’S Natchez: The Ante-Bellum Diary Of A Free Negro], Nick Salvatore

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] To raise this issue of Johnson's silences and social isolation is not to engage in historical pity. He made choices from the options available to him and suffered the consequences as they developed. But his history underscores the fact that slavery generated a corresponding social system that was unforgiving to the individual caught in its contradictory currents. As Michael P. Johnson and James L. Roark suggest in Black Masters, their sensitive study of another slave owner and ex-slave, William Ellison of South Carolina, a purely personal solution to such volatile social relations proved impossible. What bound William Johnson ...


Enforcing International Labor Rights Through Corporate Codes Of Conduct, Lance A. Compa, Tashia Hinchliffe-Darricarrère Jan 1995

Enforcing International Labor Rights Through Corporate Codes Of Conduct, Lance A. Compa, Tashia Hinchliffe-Darricarrère

Articles and Chapters

This article first reviews initiatives by the international community to address the "linkage" between trade and international labor rights and fair labor standards through domestic trade statutes, regional trade agreements and other governmental approaches. It then examines several private sector efforts embracing "codes of conduct" for labor and employment practices in international commerce. Some are proposed by sources external to multinational corporations as codes by which they can pledge to abide. Others are initiated by individual companies themselves. The authors focus their treatment on codes of conduct issued by Levi Strauss &. Co. and Reebok Corporation as examples of the challenges ...


Lighting The Spark: Comet Program Mobilizes The Ranks For Construction Organizing, Jeffrey Grabelsky Jan 1995

Lighting The Spark: Comet Program Mobilizes The Ranks For Construction Organizing, Jeffrey Grabelsky

Articles and Chapters

This article describes the COMET (Construction Organizing Membership Education Training) program. Faced with declining membership and market share and an erosion of bargaining strength and political influence, building trades unions have undertaken a number of Initiatives to reverse their fortunes. COMET, an educational program that generates membership support and participation in organizing, has emerged as one of the most noteworthy of these new initiatives. Before COMET, organizing efforts were stymied by the reluctance of many union members and leaders to recruit into membership the large nonunion workforce. COMET appears to have transformed the political culture within those local unions that ...


Student, Staff, And Employer Incentives For Improved Student Achievement And Work Readiness, John H. Bishop Jan 1995

Student, Staff, And Employer Incentives For Improved Student Achievement And Work Readiness, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

“This article proposes a strategy for banishing mediocrity and building in its place an excellent American system of secondary education. Before a cure can be prescribed, however, a diagnosis must be made.”


Structural Power And Emotional Processes In Negotiation: A Social Exchange Approach, Edward J. Lawler, Jeongkoo Yoon Jan 1995

Structural Power And Emotional Processes In Negotiation: A Social Exchange Approach, Edward J. Lawler, Jeongkoo Yoon

Articles and Chapters

This chapter focuses in the abstract on when and how repeated negotiations between the same actors foster positive feelings or emotions and, in turn, an affective commitment to their relationship. However, we have in mind applications to pivotal dyads within organizations and also to the emergence of "friction” or "stickiness” in market relations. Implicit in the idea that negotiations in pivotal dyads shape institutional patterns is the notion that repeated negotiations between the same two actors are likely to become more than instrumental ways for the particular actors to get work done. We suggest a simple process by which dyadic ...


Mutual Dependence And Gift Giving In Exchange Relations, Edward J. Lawler, Jeongkoo Koon, Mouraine R. Baker, Michael D. Large Jan 1995

Mutual Dependence And Gift Giving In Exchange Relations, Edward J. Lawler, Jeongkoo Koon, Mouraine R. Baker, Michael D. Large

Articles and Chapters

We incorporate elements of a social-constructionist viewpoint into social-exchange theory and show how mutual dependence can produce expressive behavior in the form of gift giving. Exchange networks typically create varying degrees of mutual dependence in component dyads, and greater mutual dependence produces more frequent exchange. We propose that over time, frequent exchange generates an expressive relation and unilateral, token gifts are an indicator of emerging expressiveness in an exchange relation. To experimentally test the impact of mutual dependence on token gift giving, two focal actors, each with one alternative partner, attempted to negotiate an exchange across multiple opportunities. The results ...