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Institutional Responses To Increased External Support For Graduate Students, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel J. Rees, Dominic J. Brewer Nov 1993

Institutional Responses To Increased External Support For Graduate Students, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel J. Rees, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

This paper uses institutionally based data to estimate how universities would respond to increased federal support for graduate students. It demonstrates that doctorate-producing universities do respond to changes in the number of full-time science and engineering students supported on external funds by altering the number of students that they support on institutional funds. Institutional adjustment to changes in external support levels appears to be quite rapid. However, in the aggregate, the magnitude of these responses is quite small.


Labor Rights And Labor Standards In International Trade, Lance A. Compa Oct 1993

Labor Rights And Labor Standards In International Trade, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This Article seeks to […] articulate a defense of enforceable international labor rights and labor standards as part of a trade, investment and development strategy that will benefit whole societies, not just their wealthy sectors.

Part I of this Article lays out consensus labor rights and standards drawn from various sources, with examples reflecting concrete concerns that have arisen with the new era in global trade. Part II reviews the forums in which international labor rights claims can be made, with a discussion of the different oversight or enforcement mechanisms provided in these forums. The conclusion suggests "next steps" for ...


International Labor Rights And The Sovereignty Question: Nafta And Guatemala, Two Case Studies, Lance A. Compa Oct 1993

International Labor Rights And The Sovereignty Question: Nafta And Guatemala, Two Case Studies, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Labor rights advocates in the United States and allied organizations abroad attempting to establish international fair labor standards run up against traditional notions of sovereignty in formulating national labor policies and development strategies. In the same way that entrenched sovereignty principles gradually yielded to international human rights claims after World War E, sovereignty is now being challenged by claims of international laborrights in the field of employment standards and industrial relations.

This Article seeks to illuminate this challenge to sovereignty in two case studies of labor rights advocacy. Part I sets the stage with an overview of the ...


Does The Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Create Jobs At Subsidized Firms?, John H. Bishop, Mark Montgomery Oct 1993

Does The Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Create Jobs At Subsidized Firms?, John H. Bishop, Mark Montgomery

Articles and Chapters

This paper uses the results of a survey of more than 3,500 private employers to determine whether use of the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC) alters the level of a firm's employment and/or whom the firm hires. We estimate that each subsidized hire generates between .13 and .3 new jobs at a participating firm. Use of the program also appears to induce employers to hire more young workers (age 25 and under). Our results suggest, however, that at least 70 percent of the tax credits granted employers are payments for workers who would have been hired even ...


Immigrant Labor And The Issue Of “Dirty Work” In Advanced Industrial Societies, Vernon M. Briggs Jul 1993

Immigrant Labor And The Issue Of “Dirty Work” In Advanced Industrial Societies, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Of the multiple explanations for the post-World War II immigration experiences of those advanced industrial nations where the phenomena occurred, the most pernicious has been that immigrants are needed to do the "dirty work." Despite the fact that efforts to characterize the general employment patterns of immigrants in different industrial societies "has proved frustrating," Michael Piore observed in 1979 that "the only immigrant jobs that seem common throughout the industrial world are menial jobs". Likewise, much of the debate in the United States that preceded the enactment of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of, 1986 (IRCA) centered on ...


Review Of The Book In Pursuit Of The Ph.D., Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jun 1993

Review Of The Book In Pursuit Of The Ph.D., Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] When William Bowen, the President of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (formerly the President of Princeton University), and Neil Rudenstine, the President of Harvard University (formerly Executive Vice President of Mellon), combine to write a book on doctoral study in the arts and sciences, the academic profession must take notice. And well it should. Building on Bowen and Julie Ann Sosa's (1989) predictions of forthcoming shortages of Ph.D.'s in the arts and sciences, In Pursuit of the Ph.D. provides a detailed analysis of the propensity of American college graduates to enter doctoral programs in the ...


[Review Of The Book The Four Little Dragons: The Spread Of Industrialization In East Asia], Gary S. Fields Apr 1993

[Review Of The Book The Four Little Dragons: The Spread Of Industrialization In East Asia], Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This slim and eminently readable volume presents the 1990 Edwin O. Reischauer lectures delivered by Ezra Vogel, the Henry Ford II Professor of Social Sciences at Harvard University and a leading scholar on Asia. In the first chapter Vogel establishes the context for the experiences of the "late late industrializes". Japan and "the Four Little Dragons" (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan). The next three chapters are devoted to the experiences of Taiwan, Korea, and Hong Kong and Singapore, respectively. The last chapter offers an explanation for the dragons' successes.


The Development Of Members’ Attitudes Toward Their Unions: Sweden And Canada, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Daniel G. Gallagher, Kurt Wetzel Apr 1993

The Development Of Members’ Attitudes Toward Their Unions: Sweden And Canada, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Daniel G. Gallagher, Kurt Wetzel

Articles and Chapters

This study examines two widely researched attitudes of union members-satisfaction with and commitment to their union-using 1987-88 data on 1,675 union members in professional occupations in Sweden and 476 blue- and white-collar union members in Canada. The authors find, first, that union commitment and union satisfaction are theoretically and empirically different constructs. Second, tests of a theoretical model of union attitude formation indicate that different (though overlapping) sets of factors influence union commitment and union satisfaction. One finding is that activities and processes that provide members with greater information about the union, such as new member orientation programs, newsletters ...


A Dead-End Street: Female Immigrants And Child Care, Vernon M. Briggs Mar 1993

A Dead-End Street: Female Immigrants And Child Care, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Over the past few decades, two highly significant, yet distinctly different influences have affected the U.S. labor market: the mass movement of adult women with young children into the labor force and an upsurge in mass immigration that includes a disproportionate number of unskilled and poorly-educated women from the Third World. Among these are many who have entered illegally. Estimates of the number of unskilled domestic workers residing illegally in the United States range between 50,000 and 150,000.


Did Teachers’ Race And Verbal Ability Matter In The 1960’S? Coleman Revisited, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Dominic J. Brewer Mar 1993

Did Teachers’ Race And Verbal Ability Matter In The 1960’S? Coleman Revisited, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

Our paper reanalyzes data from the classic 1966 study Equality of Educational Opportunity, or Coleman Report. It addresses whether teacher characteristics, including race and verbal ability, influenced "synthetic gain scores" of students (mean test scores of upper grade students in a school minus mean test scores of lower grade students in a school), in the context of an econometric model that allows for the possibility that teacher characteristics in a school are endogenously determined.

We find that verbal aptitude scores of teachers influenced synthetic gain scores for both black and white students. Verbal aptitude mattered as much for black teachers ...


Poverty Changes In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields Jan 1993

Poverty Changes In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This chapter is concerned with measuring how the extent of poverty changes in a country over time. 'Poverty', as the term is used here, denotes the inability of an individual or a family to command sufficient resources to satisfy basic needs. The poverty line is a constant real amount below which people are said to be poor. The extent of poverty in a country is then based on variables such as the number who are poor and the extent of their resource shortfall.

This chapter treats three topics: how poverty is defined, how much poverty there is, and how ...


Inequality In Dual Economy Models, Gary S. Fields Jan 1993

Inequality In Dual Economy Models, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Ever since the pathbreaking work of Kuznets (1955), economists have been concerned with the question of how inequality should respond to income growth in a two-sector economy. How does inequality change when those in a particular sector (here termed ‘high-income’ and ‘low-income’) get richer? When the high-income sector gets larger and incorporates a larger share of the population? The present paper adds a new perspective to the debate about the effects of the enrichment and enlargement of various sectors on (relative) income inequality.


The Art Of Ignoring Impatient Elephants, Lance A. Compa Jan 1993

The Art Of Ignoring Impatient Elephants, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Migrant labour was the elephant in the room when American, Mexican and Canadian negotiators hammered out the North American Free Trade Agreement last year. The elephant is still in the room, as negotiators now try to work out a "side agreement" on labour rights and labour standards to fulfill a campaign promise by President Bill Clinton. They never mention migrant worker rights, the single biggest issue affecting labour standards and labour conditions on the North American continent.


Collective Bargaining Amidst Education Reform, Samuel Bacharach, David B. Lipsky, Joseph Shedd Jan 1993

Collective Bargaining Amidst Education Reform, Samuel Bacharach, David B. Lipsky, Joseph Shedd

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] It is increasingly clear that the prospects for educational reform in America and the future of collective bargaining in public education are closely intertwined and becoming more so. The authors of this paper attempt to provide a framework for understanding both sets of developments and their interrelationships. Tracing the evolution of the current reform movement, then discussing the origins of the present system of bargaining in public education, we argue that reformers and bargainers alike are beginning to grapple with the same realities: new issues and new kinds of power that are inherent in the changing labor and product ...


Do Most Employers And Workers Underinvest In Training And Learning On The Job?, John H. Bishop Jan 1993

Do Most Employers And Workers Underinvest In Training And Learning On The Job?, John H. Bishop

Articles and Chapters

"Many economists question the need for social intervention in training, arguing that the benefits accruing to employers and employees create sufficient incentive for private financing. Research findings indicate that in practice this means depending on employers because it is they who pay for the bulk of employee training, even when the skills being taught are useful at other firms. Yet in practice, private incentives for on-the-job learning and training do not currently generate broader results that are in the public interest. This chapter looks at the theoretical and empirical evidence of market failure in training provisions. It argues that the ...


The Route To The Top: Female Union Leaders And Union Policy, Lois Spier Gray Jan 1993

The Route To The Top: Female Union Leaders And Union Policy, Lois Spier Gray

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Although women now constitute about one third of the members of labor unions in the United States, they are still barely visible in top leadership. To what extent are women currently making inroads in union leadership and what types of union responsibilities do they hold? Is there a glass ceiling? How do the career patterns of women unionists compare with those of men? What can unions do to facilitate their recognition? These are the key questions I examine in this article, drawing on past research supplemented by insights from union leaders I interviewed.


Organizing And Representing Clerical Workers: The Harvard Model, Richard W. Hurd Jan 1993

Organizing And Representing Clerical Workers: The Harvard Model, Richard W. Hurd

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The private sector clerical work force is largely nonunion, simultaneously offering the labor movement a major source of potential membership growth and an extremely difficult challenge. Based on December 1990 data, there are eighteen million workers employed in office clerical, administrative support, and related occupations. Eighty percent of these employees are women, accounting for 30 percent of all women in the labor force. Among private sector office workers, 57 percent work in the low-union-density industry groups of services (only 5.7 percent union) and finance, insurance, and real estate (only 2.5 percent union). With barely over ten million ...


A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of Union Commitment In Australia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Roderick D. Iverson Jan 1993

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of Union Commitment In Australia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Roderick D. Iverson

Articles and Chapters

This paper evaluates the applicability of the different factor structures of union commitment identified in previous studies to the Australian case. Confirmatory factor analysis results using LISREL VII suggest that union commitment is best represented by four distinct factors, ‘union loyalty ’, ‘responsibility to the union’, ‘willingness to work for the union’, and ‘belief in unionism’ in this sample of Australian workers. OLS regression results indicate that the four factors are differentially related to a set of common predictor variables. White-collar workers reported higher levels of commitment than blue-collar workers. Participation in leadership positions and previous experience with union handling of ...


How Would Universities Respond To Increased Federal Support For Graduate Students?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel J. Rees, Dominic J. Brewer Jan 1993

How Would Universities Respond To Increased Federal Support For Graduate Students?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel J. Rees, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper has demonstrated that doctorate-producing universities respond to changes in the number of FTSEG students supported on external funds by altering the number of FTSEG students that they support on institutional funds. While institutional adjustment to changes in external support levels appears to be quite rapid, in the aggregate the magnitude of these responses is quite small. A increase of 100 in the number of FTSEG students supported by external funds is estimated to reduce the number supported on institutional funds by 22 to 23. Since some of the institutional funds that are "saved" may be redirected to ...


Two Dimensions Of Union Commitment Based On The Theory Of Reasoned Action: Cross-Cultural Comparison, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Magnus Sverke Jan 1993

Two Dimensions Of Union Commitment Based On The Theory Of Reasoned Action: Cross-Cultural Comparison, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Magnus Sverke

Articles and Chapters

Following Friedman and Harvey's (1986) call for additional theory development of the union commitment construct, this study applies the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) to the study of union commitment. The theory is tested using questionnaire data from diverse samples of 1,914 professional union members from Sweden and 1,088 blue-collar union members from the United States of America. Confirmatory factor analysis results of LISREL 7 indicate support for the two dimensions of union commitment posited by the theory - Union Attitudes and Opinions, and Pro-Union Behavioural Intentions. The construct validity of the dimensions is demonstrated ...


The Unionization Of Clerical, Technical, And Professional Employees In Higher Education: Threat Or Opportunity, Richard W. Hurd Jan 1993

The Unionization Of Clerical, Technical, And Professional Employees In Higher Education: Threat Or Opportunity, Richard W. Hurd

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Union organizing among non-teaching white collar employees of colleges and universities persists. To the discomfort of many university administrators, high visibility union successes at Yale, Columbia, Harvard, the University of Cincinnati, and the University of Illinois were not isolated instances but part of a trend.

Professional, technical, and clerical employees' desire for a more effective voice, has combined with the economic insecurity associated with stubborn budgetary pressures, to encourage these workers to pursue union representation. Unions have responded to this opportunity with enthusiasm, experimenting with innovative organizing and bargaining strategies in the relatively open environment offered by institutions of ...


The Transformation Of Industrial Relations In Eastern Germany, Ulrich Jürgens, Larissa Klinzing, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

The Transformation Of Industrial Relations In Eastern Germany, Ulrich Jürgens, Larissa Klinzing, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

Citing case studies based on interviews they conducted in 1991 and 1992 with labor representatives and managers at six eastern German manufacturing firms, the authors argue that the future could hold either vigor and growth or stagnation and permanent second-class status for the economy and labor movement in eastern Germany, depending largely on actor strategy and choice. The rapid spread of privatization and open markets is tending to undermine unions' influence, on the one hand; but on the other hand, institutional transfer from former West Germany (especially of codetermination law and centralized, regional-level collective bargaining) is giving unions and works ...


Die Politik Der Neuen Arbeitsorganisation: Kooperation, Opposition Oder Partizipation?, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

Die Politik Der Neuen Arbeitsorganisation: Kooperation, Opposition Oder Partizipation?, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Es ist inzwischen ein Allgemeinplatz, daβ unter der Last sich verändernder Weltmärkte, politischer Kräfteverhältnisse und Technologien traditionelle fordistische Produktionsmethoden neuen, flexibleren Organisationsformen Platz machen. Vor allem die auβerordentliche Wettbewerbsfähigkeit japanischer Firmen, die innovative Formen der Produktionsorganisation nutzen, zwingen westliche Manager, die Produktion zu reorganisieren; und überall übt dieser betriebswirtschaftliche Zwang starken Druck auf die Gewerkschaften aus. In vielen Ländern sind diese Prozesse eng mit dem Niedergang der Gewerkschaften im letzten Jahrzehnt verbunden und haben diesen zum Teil mit hervorgerufen. Dies gilt vor allem für Länder wie Groβbritannien, Frankreich, Italien und die USA, wo Gewerkschaften keinen institutionell gesicherten Einfluβ auf ...


Social Partnership In Germany: Lessons For U.S. Labor And Management, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

Social Partnership In Germany: Lessons For U.S. Labor And Management, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

German industrial relations in the postwar period have made a major contribution to German industrial success. The German system is rooted in the explicit recognition of well organized interests: strong, assertive employers and employers' associations not afraid to demand what they think is right, including wage restraint as well as reorganization of production toward "lean production"; and strong, assertive unions not afraid to demand what they think is right, including broad skills training, high wages, a shorter workweek, and a "human-centered" work organization. Amazingly, these strong forces end up with negotiated outcomes in a system that is accurately called "social ...


Trade Unions And Collective Bargaining: Suggestions For Emerging Democracies In Eastern Europe And The Former Soviet Union, Harry C. Katz, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

Trade Unions And Collective Bargaining: Suggestions For Emerging Democracies In Eastern Europe And The Former Soviet Union, Harry C. Katz, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

This paper provides lessons for industrial relations reform efforts in the new nations emerging from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. Our purpose is to identify the basic industrial-relations practices that enable the advanced industrial countries to compete in world markets. The paper does not provide a detailed descriptive account of the existing industrial-relations institutions in the formerly communist countries, nor does it assess the likely short-run consequences of the economic restructuring under way across the new nations. Rather, our focus is on the experiences in the advanced economies and the lessons those experiences contain regarding successful industrial-relations practice.


From Revolutionary Coalitions To Bilateral Deterrence: A Nonzero-Sum Approach To Social Power, Edward J. Lawler Jan 1993

From Revolutionary Coalitions To Bilateral Deterrence: A Nonzero-Sum Approach To Social Power, Edward J. Lawler

Articles and Chapters

This chapter reviews a program of work investigating how social power, defined as a structurally based capability, affects the tactics chosen in a conflict. A nonzero-sum approach to power stipulates that the total amount of power in a relationship can have effects distinct from those of relative power or power difference. This assumption is grounded in Emerson's power dependence theory and reminiscent of Tannenbaum's concept of control. The basic ideas are that (1) higher total power in a relationship has an integrative effect on that relationship, resulting in more conciliatory and less hostile responses to conflict; and (2 ...


Why Warn? The Impact Of Recent Plant-Closing And Layoff Prenotification Legislation In The United States, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, George H. Jakubson Jan 1993

Why Warn? The Impact Of Recent Plant-Closing And Layoff Prenotification Legislation In The United States, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, George H. Jakubson

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] WARN was passed only after a decade of strenuous debate. We can now look back and address a number of issues it raised. What benefits did its proponents think would arise from the notice legislation, and what costs did its opponents think there would be? What public policies toward advance notice do other nations have? Did displaced workers in the United States receive advance notice before the passage of WARN? What do we know empirically about the effects on workers and firms of the provision of advance notice? What has experience under WARN taught us? Finally, what research issues ...


Steward Training In The Construction Industry: The United Brotherhood Of Carpenters And Joiners Of America Faces The Challenge, Jeffrey Grabelsky Jan 1993

Steward Training In The Construction Industry: The United Brotherhood Of Carpenters And Joiners Of America Faces The Challenge, Jeffrey Grabelsky

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This article examines the development and delivery of the Carpenters union national construction steward training program. It describes the collaboration of the union and Cornell University in the design of the curriculum and the use of a train-the-trainer model in the delivery of the steward program in construction locals throughout the United States and Canada. Finally, it evaluates the effectiveness of the program in relation to the transfer of knowledge to participating stewards.


Metatheory And Friendly Competition In Theory Growth: The Case Of Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler, Rebecca Ford Jan 1993

Metatheory And Friendly Competition In Theory Growth: The Case Of Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler, Rebecca Ford

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper analyzes the theoretical development taking place in a program of research on power processes in bargaining (see Bacharach and Lawler 1976, 1980, 1981a, 1981b; Lawler and Bacharach 1976, 1979, 1987; Lawler, Ford, and Blegen 1988; Lawler and Yoon 1990; Lawler 1986, 1992). The theoretical program takes as its starting point a situation where individuals, groups, organizations, or even societies with conflicting interests voluntarily enter into explicit bargaining. Explicit (as opposed to tacit) bargaining assumes the mutual acknowledgment of negotiations, conflicting issues along which compromise is possible, and open lines of communication through which parties can exchange offers ...


Prospects For Worker Participation In Management In The Single Market, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

Prospects For Worker Participation In Management In The Single Market, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper examines the development of and debates over the so-called social dimension of the single market project, with particular reference to the issues of employee information, consultation, and participation rights. The Social Charter, issued by the European Commission and agreed to in December 1989 by eleven of the twelve member states of the Council of Ministers, lists the expansion of such rights as one of its planks. In principle, therefore, most employers, governments, and unions are in agreement; the problem comes in implementation and regulation.