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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Institutional Responses To Increased External Support For Graduate Students, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel J. Rees, Dominic J. Brewer Nov 1993

Institutional Responses To Increased External Support For Graduate Students, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel J. Rees, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

This paper uses institutionally based data to estimate how universities would respond to increased federal support for graduate students. It demonstrates that doctorate-producing universities do respond to changes in the number of full-time science and engineering students supported on external funds by altering the number of students that they support on institutional funds. Institutional adjustment to changes in external support levels appears to be quite rapid. However, in the aggregate, the magnitude of these responses is quite small.


International Labor Rights And The Sovereignty Question: Nafta And Guatemala, Two Case Studies, Lance A. Compa Oct 1993

International Labor Rights And The Sovereignty Question: Nafta And Guatemala, Two Case Studies, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Labor rights advocates in the United States and allied organizations abroad attempting to establish international fair labor standards run up against traditional notions of sovereignty in formulating national labor policies and development strategies. In the same way that entrenched sovereignty principles gradually yielded to international human rights claims after World War E, sovereignty is now being challenged by claims of international laborrights in the field of employment standards and industrial relations.

This Article seeks to illuminate this challenge to sovereignty in two case studies of labor rights advocacy. Part I sets the stage with an overview of the ...


Does The Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Create Jobs At Subsidized Firms?, John H. Bishop, Mark Montgomery Oct 1993

Does The Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Create Jobs At Subsidized Firms?, John H. Bishop, Mark Montgomery

Articles and Chapters

This paper uses the results of a survey of more than 3,500 private employers to determine whether use of the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC) alters the level of a firm's employment and/or whom the firm hires. We estimate that each subsidized hire generates between .13 and .3 new jobs at a participating firm. Use of the program also appears to induce employers to hire more young workers (age 25 and under). Our results suggest, however, that at least 70 percent of the tax credits granted employers are payments for workers who would have been hired even ...


Immigrant Labor And The Issue Of “Dirty Work” In Advanced Industrial Societies, Vernon M. Briggs Jul 1993

Immigrant Labor And The Issue Of “Dirty Work” In Advanced Industrial Societies, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Of the multiple explanations for the post-World War II immigration experiences of those advanced industrial nations where the phenomena occurred, the most pernicious has been that immigrants are needed to do the "dirty work." Despite the fact that efforts to characterize the general employment patterns of immigrants in different industrial societies "has proved frustrating," Michael Piore observed in 1979 that "the only immigrant jobs that seem common throughout the industrial world are menial jobs". Likewise, much of the debate in the United States that preceded the enactment of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of, 1986 (IRCA) centered on ...


Review Of The Book In Pursuit Of The Ph.D., Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jun 1993

Review Of The Book In Pursuit Of The Ph.D., Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] When William Bowen, the President of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (formerly the President of Princeton University), and Neil Rudenstine, the President of Harvard University (formerly Executive Vice President of Mellon), combine to write a book on doctoral study in the arts and sciences, the academic profession must take notice. And well it should. Building on Bowen and Julie Ann Sosa's (1989) predictions of forthcoming shortages of Ph.D.'s in the arts and sciences, In Pursuit of the Ph.D. provides a detailed analysis of the propensity of American college graduates to enter doctoral programs in the ...


Organizational Culture: How Changes Impact Attitudes Toward Job Satisfaction, R. M. Browder May 1993

Organizational Culture: How Changes Impact Attitudes Toward Job Satisfaction, R. M. Browder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to examine how a shift in elements of organizational culture impacted attitudes toward job satisfaction in a medium-sized, consumer-owned electric utility over a period of 13 years. The unit of analysis was a municipal utility distributing electrical energy to approximately 27,000 customers. Data collection included the Science Research Associate Employee Inventory, a review of the organization's documents, and a subjective Job Satisfaction Questionnaire. A one-tailed z-test was performed to test whether or not the proportion of employees answering favorable in one survey was greater than the proportion answering favorable in the other ...


A Dead-End Street: Female Immigrants And Child Care, Vernon M. Briggs Mar 1993

A Dead-End Street: Female Immigrants And Child Care, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Over the past few decades, two highly significant, yet distinctly different influences have affected the U.S. labor market: the mass movement of adult women with young children into the labor force and an upsurge in mass immigration that includes a disproportionate number of unskilled and poorly-educated women from the Third World. Among these are many who have entered illegally. Estimates of the number of unskilled domestic workers residing illegally in the United States range between 50,000 and 150,000.


Did Teachers’ Race And Verbal Ability Matter In The 1960’S? Coleman Revisited, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Dominic J. Brewer Mar 1993

Did Teachers’ Race And Verbal Ability Matter In The 1960’S? Coleman Revisited, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

Our paper reanalyzes data from the classic 1966 study Equality of Educational Opportunity, or Coleman Report. It addresses whether teacher characteristics, including race and verbal ability, influenced "synthetic gain scores" of students (mean test scores of upper grade students in a school minus mean test scores of lower grade students in a school), in the context of an econometric model that allows for the possibility that teacher characteristics in a school are endogenously determined.

We find that verbal aptitude scores of teachers influenced synthetic gain scores for both black and white students. Verbal aptitude mattered as much for black teachers ...


Poverty Changes In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields Jan 1993

Poverty Changes In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This chapter is concerned with measuring how the extent of poverty changes in a country over time. 'Poverty', as the term is used here, denotes the inability of an individual or a family to command sufficient resources to satisfy basic needs. The poverty line is a constant real amount below which people are said to be poor. The extent of poverty in a country is then based on variables such as the number who are poor and the extent of their resource shortfall.

This chapter treats three topics: how poverty is defined, how much poverty there is, and how ...


Inequality In Dual Economy Models, Gary S. Fields Jan 1993

Inequality In Dual Economy Models, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Ever since the pathbreaking work of Kuznets (1955), economists have been concerned with the question of how inequality should respond to income growth in a two-sector economy. How does inequality change when those in a particular sector (here termed ‘high-income’ and ‘low-income’) get richer? When the high-income sector gets larger and incorporates a larger share of the population? The present paper adds a new perspective to the debate about the effects of the enrichment and enlargement of various sectors on (relative) income inequality.


Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz Jan 1993

Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

A number of (present or former) analytical Marxists, such as Jon Elster, have argued that functional explanation has almost no place in the social sciences. (Although the discussion is framed in terms of a debate among analytical Marxists, the point is quite general, and Marxism is used for illustrative purposes.) Functional explanation accounts for what is to be explained by reference to its function; thus, sighted organism have eyes because eyes enable them to see. Elster and other critics of functional explanation argue that this pattern of explanation is inconsistent with "methodological individualism," the idea, as they understand it, that ...


The Route To The Top: Female Union Leaders And Union Policy, Lois Spier Gray Jan 1993

The Route To The Top: Female Union Leaders And Union Policy, Lois Spier Gray

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Although women now constitute about one third of the members of labor unions in the United States, they are still barely visible in top leadership. To what extent are women currently making inroads in union leadership and what types of union responsibilities do they hold? Is there a glass ceiling? How do the career patterns of women unionists compare with those of men? What can unions do to facilitate their recognition? These are the key questions I examine in this article, drawing on past research supplemented by insights from union leaders I interviewed.


Labor Law Successorship: A Corporate Law Approach, Edward B. Rock, Michael L. Wachter Jan 1993

Labor Law Successorship: A Corporate Law Approach, Edward B. Rock, Michael L. Wachter

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Economic Restructuring And Emerging Patterns Of Industrial Relations, Stephen R. Sleigh Jan 1993

Economic Restructuring And Emerging Patterns Of Industrial Relations, Stephen R. Sleigh

Upjohn Press

This book's essays analyze innovative responses by unions, corporations and governments to job loss caused by economic restructuring, drawing on examples from Western Europe and the U.S.


How Would Universities Respond To Increased Federal Support For Graduate Students?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel J. Rees, Dominic J. Brewer Jan 1993

How Would Universities Respond To Increased Federal Support For Graduate Students?, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Daniel J. Rees, Dominic J. Brewer

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper has demonstrated that doctorate-producing universities respond to changes in the number of FTSEG students supported on external funds by altering the number of FTSEG students that they support on institutional funds. While institutional adjustment to changes in external support levels appears to be quite rapid, in the aggregate the magnitude of these responses is quite small. A increase of 100 in the number of FTSEG students supported by external funds is estimated to reduce the number supported on institutional funds by 22 to 23. Since some of the institutional funds that are "saved" may be redirected to ...


Why Warn? The Impact Of Recent Plant-Closing And Layoff Prenotification Legislation In The United States, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, George H. Jakubson Jan 1993

Why Warn? The Impact Of Recent Plant-Closing And Layoff Prenotification Legislation In The United States, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, George H. Jakubson

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] WARN was passed only after a decade of strenuous debate. We can now look back and address a number of issues it raised. What benefits did its proponents think would arise from the notice legislation, and what costs did its opponents think there would be? What public policies toward advance notice do other nations have? Did displaced workers in the United States receive advance notice before the passage of WARN? What do we know empirically about the effects on workers and firms of the provision of advance notice? What has experience under WARN taught us? Finally, what research issues ...


Metatheory And Friendly Competition In Theory Growth: The Case Of Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler, Rebecca Ford Jan 1993

Metatheory And Friendly Competition In Theory Growth: The Case Of Power Processes In Bargaining, Edward J. Lawler, Rebecca Ford

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper analyzes the theoretical development taking place in a program of research on power processes in bargaining (see Bacharach and Lawler 1976, 1980, 1981a, 1981b; Lawler and Bacharach 1976, 1979, 1987; Lawler, Ford, and Blegen 1988; Lawler and Yoon 1990; Lawler 1986, 1992). The theoretical program takes as its starting point a situation where individuals, groups, organizations, or even societies with conflicting interests voluntarily enter into explicit bargaining. Explicit (as opposed to tacit) bargaining assumes the mutual acknowledgment of negotiations, conflicting issues along which compromise is possible, and open lines of communication through which parties can exchange offers ...