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Does The Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Create Jobs At Subsidized Firms?, John H. Bishop, Mark Montgomery Oct 1993

Does The Targeted Jobs Tax Credit Create Jobs At Subsidized Firms?, John H. Bishop, Mark Montgomery

Articles and Chapters

This paper uses the results of a survey of more than 3,500 private employers to determine whether use of the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit (TJTC) alters the level of a firm's employment and/or whom the firm hires. We estimate that each subsidized hire generates between .13 and .3 new jobs at a participating firm. Use of the program also appears to induce employers to hire more young workers (age 25 and under). Our results suggest, however, that at least 70 percent of the tax credits granted employers are payments for workers who would have been hired even ...


Immigrant Labor And The Issue Of “Dirty Work” In Advanced Industrial Societies, Vernon M. Briggs Jul 1993

Immigrant Labor And The Issue Of “Dirty Work” In Advanced Industrial Societies, Vernon M. Briggs

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[Excerpt] Of the multiple explanations for the post-World War II immigration experiences of those advanced industrial nations where the phenomena occurred, the most pernicious has been that immigrants are needed to do the "dirty work." Despite the fact that efforts to characterize the general employment patterns of immigrants in different industrial societies "has proved frustrating," Michael Piore observed in 1979 that "the only immigrant jobs that seem common throughout the industrial world are menial jobs". Likewise, much of the debate in the United States that preceded the enactment of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of, 1986 (IRCA) centered on ...


A Dead-End Street: Female Immigrants And Child Care, Vernon M. Briggs Mar 1993

A Dead-End Street: Female Immigrants And Child Care, Vernon M. Briggs

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Over the past few decades, two highly significant, yet distinctly different influences have affected the U.S. labor market: the mass movement of adult women with young children into the labor force and an upsurge in mass immigration that includes a disproportionate number of unskilled and poorly-educated women from the Third World. Among these are many who have entered illegally. Estimates of the number of unskilled domestic workers residing illegally in the United States range between 50,000 and 150,000.


Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz Jan 1993

Functional Explanation And Metaphysical Individualism, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

A number of (present or former) analytical Marxists, such as Jon Elster, have argued that functional explanation has almost no place in the social sciences. (Although the discussion is framed in terms of a debate among analytical Marxists, the point is quite general, and Marxism is used for illustrative purposes.) Functional explanation accounts for what is to be explained by reference to its function; thus, sighted organism have eyes because eyes enable them to see. Elster and other critics of functional explanation argue that this pattern of explanation is inconsistent with "methodological individualism," the idea, as they understand it, that ...