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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Labor Rights And Labor Standards In International Trade, Lance A. Compa Oct 1993

Labor Rights And Labor Standards In International Trade, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This Article seeks to […] articulate a defense of enforceable international labor rights and labor standards as part of a trade, investment and development strategy that will benefit whole societies, not just their wealthy sectors.

Part I of this Article lays out consensus labor rights and standards drawn from various sources, with examples reflecting concrete concerns that have arisen with the new era in global trade. Part II reviews the forums in which international labor rights claims can be made, with a discussion of the different oversight or enforcement mechanisms provided in these forums. The conclusion suggests "next steps" for ...


International Labor Rights And The Sovereignty Question: Nafta And Guatemala, Two Case Studies, Lance A. Compa Oct 1993

International Labor Rights And The Sovereignty Question: Nafta And Guatemala, Two Case Studies, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Labor rights advocates in the United States and allied organizations abroad attempting to establish international fair labor standards run up against traditional notions of sovereignty in formulating national labor policies and development strategies. In the same way that entrenched sovereignty principles gradually yielded to international human rights claims after World War E, sovereignty is now being challenged by claims of international laborrights in the field of employment standards and industrial relations.

This Article seeks to illuminate this challenge to sovereignty in two case studies of labor rights advocacy. Part I sets the stage with an overview of the ...


[Review Of The Book The Four Little Dragons: The Spread Of Industrialization In East Asia], Gary S. Fields Apr 1993

[Review Of The Book The Four Little Dragons: The Spread Of Industrialization In East Asia], Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This slim and eminently readable volume presents the 1990 Edwin O. Reischauer lectures delivered by Ezra Vogel, the Henry Ford II Professor of Social Sciences at Harvard University and a leading scholar on Asia. In the first chapter Vogel establishes the context for the experiences of the "late late industrializes". Japan and "the Four Little Dragons" (Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan). The next three chapters are devoted to the experiences of Taiwan, Korea, and Hong Kong and Singapore, respectively. The last chapter offers an explanation for the dragons' successes.


The Development Of Members’ Attitudes Toward Their Unions: Sweden And Canada, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Daniel G. Gallagher, Kurt Wetzel Apr 1993

The Development Of Members’ Attitudes Toward Their Unions: Sweden And Canada, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Daniel G. Gallagher, Kurt Wetzel

Articles and Chapters

This study examines two widely researched attitudes of union members-satisfaction with and commitment to their union-using 1987-88 data on 1,675 union members in professional occupations in Sweden and 476 blue- and white-collar union members in Canada. The authors find, first, that union commitment and union satisfaction are theoretically and empirically different constructs. Second, tests of a theoretical model of union attitude formation indicate that different (though overlapping) sets of factors influence union commitment and union satisfaction. One finding is that activities and processes that provide members with greater information about the union, such as new member orientation programs, newsletters ...


Poverty Changes In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields Jan 1993

Poverty Changes In Developing Countries, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This chapter is concerned with measuring how the extent of poverty changes in a country over time. 'Poverty', as the term is used here, denotes the inability of an individual or a family to command sufficient resources to satisfy basic needs. The poverty line is a constant real amount below which people are said to be poor. The extent of poverty in a country is then based on variables such as the number who are poor and the extent of their resource shortfall.

This chapter treats three topics: how poverty is defined, how much poverty there is, and how ...


Inequality In Dual Economy Models, Gary S. Fields Jan 1993

Inequality In Dual Economy Models, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

Ever since the pathbreaking work of Kuznets (1955), economists have been concerned with the question of how inequality should respond to income growth in a two-sector economy. How does inequality change when those in a particular sector (here termed ‘high-income’ and ‘low-income’) get richer? When the high-income sector gets larger and incorporates a larger share of the population? The present paper adds a new perspective to the debate about the effects of the enrichment and enlargement of various sectors on (relative) income inequality.


The Art Of Ignoring Impatient Elephants, Lance A. Compa Jan 1993

The Art Of Ignoring Impatient Elephants, Lance A. Compa

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Migrant labour was the elephant in the room when American, Mexican and Canadian negotiators hammered out the North American Free Trade Agreement last year. The elephant is still in the room, as negotiators now try to work out a "side agreement" on labour rights and labour standards to fulfill a campaign promise by President Bill Clinton. They never mention migrant worker rights, the single biggest issue affecting labour standards and labour conditions on the North American continent.


A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of Union Commitment In Australia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Roderick D. Iverson Jan 1993

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of Union Commitment In Australia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Roderick D. Iverson

Articles and Chapters

This paper evaluates the applicability of the different factor structures of union commitment identified in previous studies to the Australian case. Confirmatory factor analysis results using LISREL VII suggest that union commitment is best represented by four distinct factors, ‘union loyalty ’, ‘responsibility to the union’, ‘willingness to work for the union’, and ‘belief in unionism’ in this sample of Australian workers. OLS regression results indicate that the four factors are differentially related to a set of common predictor variables. White-collar workers reported higher levels of commitment than blue-collar workers. Participation in leadership positions and previous experience with union handling of ...


Two Dimensions Of Union Commitment Based On The Theory Of Reasoned Action: Cross-Cultural Comparison, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Magnus Sverke Jan 1993

Two Dimensions Of Union Commitment Based On The Theory Of Reasoned Action: Cross-Cultural Comparison, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Magnus Sverke

Articles and Chapters

Following Friedman and Harvey's (1986) call for additional theory development of the union commitment construct, this study applies the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) to the study of union commitment. The theory is tested using questionnaire data from diverse samples of 1,914 professional union members from Sweden and 1,088 blue-collar union members from the United States of America. Confirmatory factor analysis results of LISREL 7 indicate support for the two dimensions of union commitment posited by the theory - Union Attitudes and Opinions, and Pro-Union Behavioural Intentions. The construct validity of the dimensions is demonstrated ...


The Transformation Of Industrial Relations In Eastern Germany, Ulrich Jürgens, Larissa Klinzing, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

The Transformation Of Industrial Relations In Eastern Germany, Ulrich Jürgens, Larissa Klinzing, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

Citing case studies based on interviews they conducted in 1991 and 1992 with labor representatives and managers at six eastern German manufacturing firms, the authors argue that the future could hold either vigor and growth or stagnation and permanent second-class status for the economy and labor movement in eastern Germany, depending largely on actor strategy and choice. The rapid spread of privatization and open markets is tending to undermine unions' influence, on the one hand; but on the other hand, institutional transfer from former West Germany (especially of codetermination law and centralized, regional-level collective bargaining) is giving unions and works ...


Social Partnership In Germany: Lessons For U.S. Labor And Management, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

Social Partnership In Germany: Lessons For U.S. Labor And Management, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

German industrial relations in the postwar period have made a major contribution to German industrial success. The German system is rooted in the explicit recognition of well organized interests: strong, assertive employers and employers' associations not afraid to demand what they think is right, including wage restraint as well as reorganization of production toward "lean production"; and strong, assertive unions not afraid to demand what they think is right, including broad skills training, high wages, a shorter workweek, and a "human-centered" work organization. Amazingly, these strong forces end up with negotiated outcomes in a system that is accurately called "social ...


Trade Unions And Collective Bargaining: Suggestions For Emerging Democracies In Eastern Europe And The Former Soviet Union, Harry C. Katz, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

Trade Unions And Collective Bargaining: Suggestions For Emerging Democracies In Eastern Europe And The Former Soviet Union, Harry C. Katz, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

This paper provides lessons for industrial relations reform efforts in the new nations emerging from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. Our purpose is to identify the basic industrial-relations practices that enable the advanced industrial countries to compete in world markets. The paper does not provide a detailed descriptive account of the existing industrial-relations institutions in the formerly communist countries, nor does it assess the likely short-run consequences of the economic restructuring under way across the new nations. Rather, our focus is on the experiences in the advanced economies and the lessons those experiences contain regarding successful industrial-relations practice.


Prospects For Worker Participation In Management In The Single Market, Lowell Turner Jan 1993

Prospects For Worker Participation In Management In The Single Market, Lowell Turner

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This paper examines the development of and debates over the so-called social dimension of the single market project, with particular reference to the issues of employee information, consultation, and participation rights. The Social Charter, issued by the European Commission and agreed to in December 1989 by eleven of the twelve member states of the Council of Ministers, lists the expansion of such rights as one of its planks. In principle, therefore, most employers, governments, and unions are in agreement; the problem comes in implementation and regulation.