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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

An Affect Theory Of Social Exchange, Edward J. Lawler Aug 2012

An Affect Theory Of Social Exchange, Edward J. Lawler

Edward J Lawler

This article develops a theory that explains how and when emotions, produced by social exchange, generate stronger or weaker ties to relations, groups, or networks. It is argued that social exchange produces positive or negative global feelings, which are internally rewarding or punishing. The theory indicates that social units (relations, groups, networks) are perceived as a source of these feelings, contingent on the degree of jointness in the exchange task. The jointness of the task is greatest if (1) actors find it difficult to distinguish their individual effects on or contributions to solving the exchange task (nonseparability) and (2) actors ...


Relational Cohesion Theory, Edward J. Lawler Jan 2010

Relational Cohesion Theory, Edward J. Lawler

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Relational cohesion theory explains how and when people who are exchanging things of value develop stable, cohesive relations. It starts from the idea that people tend to interact or do things with others because they get something they value or want from those others. They give something to the other and receive something in return. This is termed a social exchange. The valued "goods” that are exchanged may be tangible or intangible. Employees exchange their labor for pay, clients exchange money for services, neighbors exchange assistance with each other's yards, coworkers exchange advice and information, roommates exchange respect ...


Social Exchange And Micro Social Order, Edward J. Lawler, Shane R. Thye, Jeongkoo Yoon Jan 2008

Social Exchange And Micro Social Order, Edward J. Lawler, Shane R. Thye, Jeongkoo Yoon

Articles and Chapters

This study uses an affect theory of social exchange (Lawler 2001) to investigate how and when network structures generate “micro social orders.” Micro social order entails recurrent interactions, emotional reactions, perceptions of a group, and affective sentiments. The core theoretical argument is that micro orders, involving behavioral, cognitive, and affective dimensions, develop and are stronger to the degree that (1) actors engage in highly joint tasks or activities and (2) these tasks generate a sense of shared responsibility for the interaction outcomes. A laboratory experiment varies different forms of social exchange—negotiated, reciprocal, generalized, and productive— within a network structure ...


Affect And Group Attachments: The Role Of Shared Responsibility, Edward J. Lawler Jan 2007

Affect And Group Attachments: The Role Of Shared Responsibility, Edward J. Lawler

Articles and Chapters

This paper theorizes the role of shared responsibility in the development of affective group attachments, interweaving ideas from social exchange and social identity theories. The main arguments are that (1) people engaged in task interaction experience positive or negative emotions from those interactions; (2) tasks that promote more sense of shared responsibility across members lead people to attribute their individual emotions to groups or organizations; and (3) group attributions of own emotions are the basis for stronger or weaker group attachments. The paper suggests that social categorization and structural interdependence promote group attachments by producing task interactions that have positive ...


Social Exchange Theory Of Emotions, Edward J. Lawler, Shane R. Thye Jan 2006

Social Exchange Theory Of Emotions, Edward J. Lawler, Shane R. Thye

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Emotions are likely to be produced when two or more people exchange valued outcomes (i.e., goods, rewards, payoffs). Emotions are internal events that occur within an actor and that stem from conditions or events external to the actor (e.g., the behavior of others, results of exchange, social context). These may take various forms, including general feelings of pleasure/satisfaction or displeasure/dissatisfaction or more specific feelings of anger, shame, pride, gratitude, and so forth. It is reasonable to presume that any emotions felt by actors due to their exchange could have important effects on their future exchanges ...


The Affect Theory Of Social Exchange, Edward J. Lawler Jan 2006

The Affect Theory Of Social Exchange, Edward J. Lawler

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The affect theory of social exchange places emotion and feelings at the center of social exchange theorizing (Lawler 2001). It posits that exchange generates emotions and that emotions are internal responses that reward and punish actors. Emotions that occur regularly in exchange processes include feeling good about successful exchange, feeling shame about the terms accepted, feeling gratitude toward a conciliatory exchange partner, and feeling anger at a difficult or hostile exchange partner. The theory argues that such emotions and feelings have important consequences for the relations, networks, and groups within which they occur.


Interaction, Emotion, And Collective Identities, Edward J. Lawler Jan 2003

Interaction, Emotion, And Collective Identities, Edward J. Lawler

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This chapter poses the question: How do emotional aspects of social interaction affect the emergence and salience of collective identities? I assume that social interaction inherently involves an implicit or explicit joint task—namely to accomplish some result that can only be produced with others. The most fundamental “task” of social interaction can be construed as the coordination and alignment of behavior, such that actors successfully conclude the interact ion episode. Essential to this task is a working consensus about definitions of self and other in the social situation, i.e., consensual self-other identities. A central component of my ...


An Affect Theory Of Social Exchange, Edward J. Lawler Sep 2001

An Affect Theory Of Social Exchange, Edward J. Lawler

Articles and Chapters

This article develops a theory that explains how and when emotions, produced by social exchange, generate stronger or weaker ties to relations, groups, or networks. It is argued that social exchange produces positive or negative global feelings, which are internally rewarding or punishing. The theory indicates that social units (relations, groups, networks) are perceived as a source of these feelings, contingent on the degree of jointness in the exchange task. The jointness of the task is greatest if (1) actors find it difficult to distinguish their individual effects on or contributions to solving the exchange task (nonseparability) and (2) actors ...