Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Labor Relations Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 122

Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Context, Coalitions, And Organizing: Immigrant Labor Rights Advocacy In San Francisco And Houston, Shannon Gleeson, Els De Graauw Jan 2017

Context, Coalitions, And Organizing: Immigrant Labor Rights Advocacy In San Francisco And Houston, Shannon Gleeson, Els De Graauw

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In the pages that follow, we first situate immigrant labor rights struggles in scholarship on the “right to the city.” We then present San Francisco and Houston, focusing on their immigration histories, current demographic profiles, and contexts for advancing immigrant labor rights. We next describe the parallel types of organizations that have advocated for stronger wage and labor rights in San Francisco and Houston and the similar principles that have motivated them to advocate with local government. In discussing the wage and labor rights campaigns in each city, we draw out key differences in the policy changes that advocates ...


Introduction To A Special Issue On Inequality In The Workplace (“What Works?), Pamela S. Tolbert, Emilio J. Castilla Jan 2017

Introduction To A Special Issue On Inequality In The Workplace (“What Works?), Pamela S. Tolbert, Emilio J. Castilla

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] While overt expressions of racial and gender bias in U.S. workplaces have declined markedly since the passage of the original Civil Rights Act and the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission a half century ago (Eagly and Chaiken 1993; Schuman, Steeh, Bobo, and Krysan 1997; Dobbin 2009), a steady stream of research indicates that powerful, if more covert forms of bias persist in contemporary workplaces (Greenwald and Banaji 1995; Pager, Western, and Bonikowski 2009; England 2010; Heilman 2012). In line with this research, high rates of individual and class-based lawsuits alleging racial and gender discrimination suggest that ...


Editorial Essay: Introduction To A Special Issue On Work And Employment Relations In Health Care, Ariel C. Avgar, Adrienne E. Eaton, Rebecca K. Givan, Adam Seth Litwin Aug 2016

Editorial Essay: Introduction To A Special Issue On Work And Employment Relations In Health Care, Ariel C. Avgar, Adrienne E. Eaton, Rebecca K. Givan, Adam Seth Litwin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This special issue of the ILR Review is designed to showcase the central role that work organization and employment relations play in shaping important outcomes such as the quality of care and organizational performance. Each of the articles included in this special issue makes an important contribution to our understanding of the large and rapidly changing health care sector. Specifically, these articles provide novel empirical evidence about the relationship between organizations, institutions, and work practices and a wide array of central outcomes across different levels of analysis. This breadth is especially important because the health care literature has largely ...


Precarity And Agency Through A Migration Lens, Marcel Paret, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2016

Precarity And Agency Through A Migration Lens, Marcel Paret, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This special issue leverages the migrant experience to better understand precarity and agency in the contemporary world. By way of introduction, we examine the broader bodies of literature on precarity and agency, relate them to research on migration, and link them to the contributions in the special issue. Laying a foundation for further research, we illuminate three approaches to study the precarity-migration-agency nexus: an industry-specific approach, a sending country/deportee approach, and a collective action approach. We conclude with a critical analysis of freedom and national borders, considering the 'open borders' movement, postnational citizenship, and opposition to marketization.


The Impact Of Family Economic Structure On Dual-Earners’ Career And Family Satisfaction, Ronit Waismel-Manor, Asaf Levanon, Pamela S. Tolbert Jan 2016

The Impact Of Family Economic Structure On Dual-Earners’ Career And Family Satisfaction, Ronit Waismel-Manor, Asaf Levanon, Pamela S. Tolbert

Articles and Chapters

The present study builds on the explanatory power of the “doing gender” perspective to understand the effects of family economic structure on the family and career satisfaction of husbands and wives. Using data from a two-panel, couple-level survey of full-time employed middle-class families in the Northeastern United States, we find that when wives’ earnings increase relative to their husbands’, their career satisfaction significantly increases whereas their husbands’ is significantly depressed. In contrast, family economic structure has little effect on women’ and men’s level of family satisfaction, although we find a significant reduction in family satisfaction among couples who have ...


Introduction: Bringing Jobs Back In: Toward A New Multi-Level Approach To The Study Of Work And Organizations, M. Diane Burton, Lisa E. Cohen, Michael Lounsbury Jan 2016

Introduction: Bringing Jobs Back In: Toward A New Multi-Level Approach To The Study Of Work And Organizations, M. Diane Burton, Lisa E. Cohen, Michael Lounsbury

Articles and Chapters

In this paper, we call for renewed attention to the structure and structuring of work within and between organizations. We argue that a multi-level approach, with jobs as a core analytic construct, is a way to draw connections among economic sociology, organizational sociology, the sociology of work and occupations, labor studies and stratification and address the important problems of both increasing inequality and declining economic productivity.


A New Approach To Migrant Labor Rights Enforcement: The Crisis Of Undocumented Worker Abuse And Mexican Consular Advocacy In The United States, Xóchitl Bada, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2015

A New Approach To Migrant Labor Rights Enforcement: The Crisis Of Undocumented Worker Abuse And Mexican Consular Advocacy In The United States, Xóchitl Bada, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This paper examines the genesis and evolution of consular efforts to enforce the workplace rights of immigrant workers in the United States. We draw on a survey of 52 Mexican consulates in the United States, in-depth interviews with the initial cohort of 15 consular participants in the Semana de Derechos Laborales/Labor Rights Week, and several key informants who helped coordinate these efforts in the community. Our findings confirm a shift from “limited” to “active” engagement over the last decade on the part of the Mexican government (Délano 2011), placing special emphasis on the role played by non-governmental actors in ...


Between Support And Shame: The Impacts Of Workplace Violations For Immigrant Families, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2015

Between Support And Shame: The Impacts Of Workplace Violations For Immigrant Families, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

Purpose - This study examines the conditions that lead to workplace violations for low-wage immigrant workers, and how family life shapes their decision to speak up. I also highlight how both employer abuse and the claims making process can impact individuals and their families.

Methodology/approach - This research adopts a mixed-method approach that includes a survey of 453 low-wage workers seeking pro bono legal assistance and 115 follow-up interviews with claimants. I also conduct a five-year ethnography of both a monthly state workshop provided for injured workers and a pro bono legal aid clinic in a predominantly Latino agricultural community on ...


Brokering Immigrant Worker Rights: An Examination Of Local Immigration Control, Administrative Capacity And Civil Society, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2015

Brokering Immigrant Worker Rights: An Examination Of Local Immigration Control, Administrative Capacity And Civil Society, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

We know a great deal about the clash between federal immigration and labour standards enforcement directives, but less regarding how these two processes are functioning at the local level and the role that demographic factors and civil society play. This article examines the impact of a climate of local immigration enforcement on worker legal mobilisation in metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the USA. I focus on national origin discrimination and find that MSAs with a 287(g) agreement within their boundaries have lower claims rates. Conversely, claims rates are higher in MSAs where an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) agency ...


The Role Of Leader Emotion Management In Leader-Member Exchange And Follower Outcomes, Laura M. Little, Janaki Gooty, Michele Williams Jan 2015

The Role Of Leader Emotion Management In Leader-Member Exchange And Follower Outcomes, Laura M. Little, Janaki Gooty, Michele Williams

Articles and Chapters

Drawing upon social exchange and emotion regulation theories, we develop and test a model of four specific leader behaviors directed at managing followers’ negative emotions. These leader interpersonal emotion management (IEM) strategies are posited to affect followers’ organizational citizenship behaviors performed within interpersonal relationships (OCBIs) and job satisfaction via follower perceptions of the quality of the leader-follower exchange relationship. In contrast to most current cognitive-transactional views of social exchange, here we posit that some, but not all, leader emotion management behaviors promote and strengthen the leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship. Specifically, we contend that followers’ perception of problem-focused leader emotion-management strategies ...


'They Come Here To Work': An Evaluation Of The Economic Argument In Favor Of Immigrant Rights, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2015

'They Come Here To Work': An Evaluation Of The Economic Argument In Favor Of Immigrant Rights, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

Advocates commonly highlight the exploitation that hard-working undocumented immigrants commonly suffer at the hands of employers, the important contribution they make to the US economy, and the fiscal folly of border militarization and enhanced immigration enforcement policies. In this paper, I unpack these economic rationales for expanding immigrant rights, and examine the nuanced ways in which advocates deploy this frame. To do so, I rely on statements issued by publicly present immigrant rights groups in six places: California, Florida, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington, DC. I also draw on interviews with immigrant advocates in San Jose, CA and Houston ...


Is It Me Or Her? How Gender Composition Evokes Interpersonally Sensitive Behavior On Collaborative Cross-Boundary Projects, Michele Williams, Evan Polman Jan 2015

Is It Me Or Her? How Gender Composition Evokes Interpersonally Sensitive Behavior On Collaborative Cross-Boundary Projects, Michele Williams, Evan Polman

Articles and Chapters

This paper investigates how professional workers’ willingness to act with interpersonal sensitivity is influenced by the gender and power of their interaction partners. We call into question the idea that mixed-gender interactions involve more interpersonal sensitivity than all-male interactions primarily because women demonstrate more interpersonal sensitivity than do men. Rather, we argue that the social category “women” can evoke more sensitive behavior from others such that men as well as women contribute to an increase in sensitivity in mixed-gender interactions. We further argue that the presence of women may trigger increased sensitivity such that men can also be the recipients ...


The Liberating Consequences Of Creative Work: How A Creative Outlet Lifts The Physical Burden Of Secrecy, Jack Goncalo, Lynne C. Vincent, Verena Krause Jan 2015

The Liberating Consequences Of Creative Work: How A Creative Outlet Lifts The Physical Burden Of Secrecy, Jack Goncalo, Lynne C. Vincent, Verena Krause

Articles and Chapters

A newly emerging stream of research suggests creativity can be fruitfully explored, not as an outcome variable, but as a contributor to the general cognitive and behavioral responding of the individual. In this paper, we extend this nascent area of research on the consequences of creativity by showing that working on a creative task can contribute to feelings of liberation— feelings that can help people to overcome psychological burdens. We illustrate the liberating effects of creativity by integrating the embodied cognition literature with recent research showing that keeping a secret is experienced as a psychological and physical burden. While secrecy ...


Empathy Gaps Between Helpers And Help-Seekers: Implications For Cooperation, Vanessa K. Bohns, Francis J. Flynn Jan 2015

Empathy Gaps Between Helpers And Help-Seekers: Implications For Cooperation, Vanessa K. Bohns, Francis J. Flynn

Articles and Chapters

Help-seekers and potential helpers often experience an “empathy gap” – an inability to understand each other’s unique perspectives. Both parties are concerned about their reputation, self-esteem, and relationships, but these concerns differ in ways that lead to misinterpretation of the other party’s actions, and, in turn, missed opportunities for cooperation. In this article, we review research that describes the role-specific concerns of helpers and help-seekers. We then review studies of emotional perspective-taking, which can help explain why help-seekers and helpers often experience empathy gaps. We go on to discuss recent work that illustrates the consequences of empathy gaps between ...


Thinking About You: Perspective Taking, Perceived Restraint, And Performance, Michele Williams Jan 2015

Thinking About You: Perspective Taking, Perceived Restraint, And Performance, Michele Williams

Articles and Chapters

Conflict often arises when incompatible ideas, values or interests lead to actions that harm others. Increasing people’s willingness to refrain from harming others can play a critical role in preventing conflict and fostering performance. We examine perspective taking as a relational micro-process related to such restraint. We argue that attending to how others appraise events supports restraint in two ways. It motivates people to act with concern and enables them to understand what others view as harmful versus beneficial. Using a matched sample of 147 knowledge workers and 147 of their leaders, we evaluate the impact of appraisal-related perspective ...


Affect, Emotion And Emotion Regulation In The Workplace: Feelings And Attitudinal Restructuring, Michele Williams Jan 2015

Affect, Emotion And Emotion Regulation In The Workplace: Feelings And Attitudinal Restructuring, Michele Williams

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Almost 40 years after publishing A Behavioral Theory of Labor Negotiations in 1965, the fields of negotiations and organizational behavior experienced an “affective revolution” (Barsade, Brief and Spataro 2003). Although Walton and McKersie could not have predicted the widespread academic and public interest in emotion and emotional intelligence, they foreshadowed this affect-laden direction in the section of their book on attitudinal structuring, which identified the dimension of friendliness-hostility as a critical aspect of the relationship between negotiating parties in the workplace and other settings.


Narratives Of Deservingness And The Institutional Youth Of Immigrant Workers, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2015

Narratives Of Deservingness And The Institutional Youth Of Immigrant Workers, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This article speaks to the special issue’s goal of disrupting the deserving/undeserving immigrant narrative by critically examining eligibility criteria available under two arenas of relief for undocumented immigrants: 1) the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provides temporary deportation relief and work authorization for young adults who meet an educational requirement and other criteria, and 2) current and proposed pathways to legal status for those unauthorized immigrants who come forward to denounce workplace injustice, among other crimes. For each of these categories of “deserving migrants,” I illuminate the exclusionary nature each of these requirements, which ...


Creativity From Constraint? How Political Correctness Influences Creativity In Mixed-Sex Work Groups, Jack Goncalo, Jennifer A. Chatman, Michelle M. Duguid, Jessica A. Kennedy Aug 2014

Creativity From Constraint? How Political Correctness Influences Creativity In Mixed-Sex Work Groups, Jack Goncalo, Jennifer A. Chatman, Michelle M. Duguid, Jessica A. Kennedy

Articles and Chapters

Most group creativity research is premised on the assumption that creativity is unleashed by removing normative constraints. As work organizations become increasingly diverse in terms of gender, however, this assumption needs to be reconsidered since mixed-sex interactions carry a high risk of offense. Departing from the assumption that normative constraints necessarily stifle creativity, we develop a theoretical perspective in which creativity in mixed-sex groups is enhanced by imposing a norm to be politically correct (PC)—a norm that sets clear expectations for how men and women should interact with one another. We present evidence from two group experiments showing that ...


Navigating Occupational Health Rights: The Function Of Illegality, Language, And Class Inequality In Workers' Compensation, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2014

Navigating Occupational Health Rights: The Function Of Illegality, Language, And Class Inequality In Workers' Compensation, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In this chapter, I argue that although undocumented status has little formal bearing on the ability of workers like Jose to access key rights such as workers' compensation, illegality shapes every aspect of occupational health and the claims-making experience. I interrogate three key factors of institutional inequality: 1) undocumented workers' position within the labor market; which shapes risk of injury and eligibility for coverage; 2) the ability of undocumented workers to navigate their claims through the workers' compensation bureaucracy; and 3) undocumented workers' disenfranchisement from the welfare state and their limited options following disability.

Within each of these institutional ...


Workers, Families, And Immigration Policies, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2014

Workers, Families, And Immigration Policies, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Unauthorized immigration to the US has a long and varied history shaped by a number of shifts in immigration policy. Of the global immigrant stock, 10–15 % is estimated to be undocumented (20–30 million; International Organization for Migration 2008). Today, undocumented immigrants comprise roughly 40 % of the immigrant flow to the US. Although immigrants often come to this country as a result of complex factors that were initiated or supported by the US—including free trade agreements and wars that devastated immigrants’ home countries and their national economies—once they become unauthorized, they find themselves in extremely vulnerable ...


The Benefits Of Climate For Inclusion For Gender-Diverse Groups, Lisa Hisae Nishii Dec 2013

The Benefits Of Climate For Inclusion For Gender-Diverse Groups, Lisa Hisae Nishii

Articles and Chapters

I introduce the construct of climate for inclusion, which involves eliminating relational sources of bias by ensuring that identity group status is unrelated to access to resources, creating expectations and opportunities for heterogeneous individuals to establish personalized cross-cutting ties, and integrating ideas across boundaries in joint problem solving. I show that within inclusive climates, interpersonal bias is reduced in such a way that gender diversity is associated with lower levels of conflict. In turn, the negative effect that group conflict typically has on unit-level satisfaction disappears. This has important implications, as unit-level satisfaction is negatively associated with turnover in groups.


Opposites Fit: Regulatory Focus Complementarity And Relationship Well-Being, Vanessa K. Bohns, Gale M. Lucas, Daniel C. Molden, Eli J. Finkel, Michael K. Coolsen, Madoka Kumashiro, Caryl E. Rusbult, E. Tory Higgins Feb 2013

Opposites Fit: Regulatory Focus Complementarity And Relationship Well-Being, Vanessa K. Bohns, Gale M. Lucas, Daniel C. Molden, Eli J. Finkel, Michael K. Coolsen, Madoka Kumashiro, Caryl E. Rusbult, E. Tory Higgins

Articles and Chapters

Two studies of romantic couples examined the circumstances under which complementary goal-pursuit strategies (specifically, the pairing of a relationship partner who prefers to pursue goals eagerly with a relationship partner who prefers to pursue goals vigilantly) lead to positive relationship outcomes. As hypothesized, couples who reported higher levels of goal congruence (Study 1) or greater self-other overlap (Study 2) benefited from complementary regulatory focus orientations. We suggest that such benefits stem from the advantages provided by the availability of both eager and vigilant strategic preferences, which allow complementary couples to “divide and conquer” goal pursuits as a unit so that ...


Shifting Agendas, Evolving Coalitions: Advocating For Immigrant Worker Rights In Houston, Shannon Gleeson Jan 2013

Shifting Agendas, Evolving Coalitions: Advocating For Immigrant Worker Rights In Houston, Shannon Gleeson

Articles and Chapters

This article examines how labor advocates in Houston, Texas, have moved beyond traditional union organizing and individual lawyering to create a wide menu of claims-making options for low-wage Latino immigrant workers. I examine four such moments of immigrant worker advocacy: shepherding workers through the federal bureaucracy for workplace protections, legitimating new local institutions for claims-making, deploying direct action to force employers into compliance, and lastly lobbying for municipal policy change to strengthen penalties for wage theft. Each of these options relies on a coalition that brokers the relationship between aggrieved workers and the bureaucracies entrusted with enforcing their rights. These ...


Missing Links: Referrer Behavior And Job Segregation, Brian Rubineau, Roberto Fernandez Jan 2013

Missing Links: Referrer Behavior And Job Segregation, Brian Rubineau, Roberto Fernandez

Articles and Chapters

The importance of networks in labor markets is well-known, and their job segregating effects in organizations taken as granted. Conventional wisdom attributes this segregation to the homophilous nature of contact networks, and leaves little role for organizational influences. But employee referrals are necessarily initiated within a firm by employee referrers subject to organizational policies. We build theory regarding the role of referrers in the segregating effects of network recruitment. Using mathematical and computational models, we investigate how empirically-documented referrer behaviors affect job segregation. We show that referrer behaviors can segregate jobs beyond the effects of homophilous network recruitment. Further, and ...


Missing Links: Referrer Behavior And Job Segregation (Appendix), Brian Rubineau, Roberto Fernandez Jan 2013

Missing Links: Referrer Behavior And Job Segregation (Appendix), Brian Rubineau, Roberto Fernandez

Articles and Chapters

No abstract provided.


Underestimating Our Influence Over Others At Work, Vanessa K. Bohns, Francis J. Flynn Jan 2013

Underestimating Our Influence Over Others At Work, Vanessa K. Bohns, Francis J. Flynn

Articles and Chapters

Employees at all organizational levels have influence over their subordinates, their colleagues, and even their bosses. But are they aware of this influence? We present evidence suggesting that employees are constrained by cognitive biases that lead them to underestimate their influence over others in the workplace. As a result of this underestimation of influence, employees may be reluctant to spearhead organizational change, discount their own role in subordinates’ performance failures, and fail to speak up in the face of wrongdoing. In addition to reviewing evidence for this bias, we propose five moderators that, when present, may reverse or attenuate the ...


Regulatory Focus And Interdependent Economic Decision-Making, Jun Gu, Vanessa K. Bohns, Geoffrey J. Leonardelli Jan 2013

Regulatory Focus And Interdependent Economic Decision-Making, Jun Gu, Vanessa K. Bohns, Geoffrey J. Leonardelli

Articles and Chapters

Traditional theories of self-interest cannot predict when individuals pursue relative and absolute economic outcomes in interdependent decision-making, but we argue that regulatory focus (Higgins, 1997) can. We propose that a concern with security (prevention focus) motivates concerns with social status, leading to the regulation of relative economic outcomes, but a concern with growth (promotion focus) motivates the maximization of opportunities, leading to a focus on absolute outcomes. Two studies supported our predictions; regardless of prosocial or proself motivations, a promotion focus yielded greater concern with absolute outcomes, but a prevention focus yielded greater concern with relative outcomes. Also, Study 3 ...


Underestimating Our Influence Over Others’ Unethical Behavior And Decisions, Vanessa K. Bohns, M. Mahdi Roghaniziad, Amy Z. Xu Jan 2013

Underestimating Our Influence Over Others’ Unethical Behavior And Decisions, Vanessa K. Bohns, M. Mahdi Roghaniziad, Amy Z. Xu

Articles and Chapters

We examined the psychology of “instigators,” i.e., people who surround an unethical act and influence the wrongdoer (the “actor”) without directly committing the act themselves. In four studies, we found that instigators of unethical acts underestimated their influence over actors. In Studies 1 and 2, university students enlisted other students to commit a “white lie” (Study 1) or commit a small act of vandalism (Study 2) after making predictions about how easy it would be to get their fellow students to do so. In Studies 3 and 4, online samples of participants responded to hypothetical vignettes, e.g., about ...


Leading Amidst Competing Technical And Institutional Demands: Revisiting Selznick’S Conception Of Leadership, Marya Besharov, Rakesh Khurana Nov 2012

Leading Amidst Competing Technical And Institutional Demands: Revisiting Selznick’S Conception Of Leadership, Marya Besharov, Rakesh Khurana

Articles and Chapters

This chapter explores how Selznick’s approach to leadership can inform contemporary organizational theory and research. Drawing on Selznick’s writing in Leadership in Administration and related works, we characterize organizations as simultaneously technical entities pursuing economic goals and value-laden entities pursuing non-economic goals arising from their members and their role in society. These two aspects of organizations are deeply intertwined and in continual tension with one another, and the essential task of leadership is to uphold both – protecting and promoting values while also meeting technical imperatives. To do so, leaders establish a common purpose that includes values and ideals ...


Managing Social-Business Tensions: A Review And Research Agenda For Social Enterprise, Michaël Gonin, Marya Besharov, Wendy Smith, Nicholas Gachet Nov 2012

Managing Social-Business Tensions: A Review And Research Agenda For Social Enterprise, Michaël Gonin, Marya Besharov, Wendy Smith, Nicholas Gachet

Articles and Chapters

In a world filled with poverty, environmental degradation, and moral injustice, social enterprises offer a ray of hope. These organizations seek to achieve social missions through business ventures. Yet social missions and business ventures are associated with divergent goals, values, norms, and identities. Attending to them simultaneously creates tensions, competing demands, and ethical dilemmas. Effectively understanding social enterprises therefore depends on insight into the nature and management of these tensions. While existing research recognizes tensions between social missions and business ventures, we lack any systematic analysis. Our paper addresses this issue. We first categorize the types of tensions that arise ...