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Conducting Case Studies, Lisa Hisae Nishii, Susanne M. Bruyere Dr. Jan 2016

Conducting Case Studies, Lisa Hisae Nishii, Susanne M. Bruyere Dr.

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The purpose of case study research is to complement these cross-organization studies with in-depth data collected from employees within organizations (in the case of our own work, two organizations—one each from the federal and private sectors). The two primary advantages of within-organization research are that it allows for an examination of (a) the intrapsychic perceptions, attributions, and attitudes of employees with disabilities that are not (usually) captured in administrative, national, or cross-organization datasets; and (b) the interplay between these individual-level experiences and the particular organizational context within which employees are working. There have been a number of cross-organization ...


Appr Appeals Process Report: Panels, Alexander Colvin, Sally Klingel, Honore Johnson Feb 2015

Appr Appeals Process Report: Panels, Alexander Colvin, Sally Klingel, Honore Johnson

Scheinman Institute on Conflict Resolution

[Excerpt] This report describes the characteristics of joint panels and examines where they are being used in New York State to resolve APPR teacher evaluation disputes. The information presented here was gathered by analyzing the provisions of the APPR appeal procedures, which are publicly available on the New York State Department of Education website.


Group-Average Observables As Controls For Sorting On Unobservables When Estimating Group Treatment Effects: The Case Of School And Neighborhood Effects, Joseph G. Altonji, Richard K. Mansfield Dec 2014

Group-Average Observables As Controls For Sorting On Unobservables When Estimating Group Treatment Effects: The Case Of School And Neighborhood Effects, Joseph G. Altonji, Richard K. Mansfield

Working Papers

We consider the classic problem of estimating group treatment effects when individuals sort based on observed and unobserved characteristics. Using a standard choice model, we show that controlling for group averages of observed individual characteristics potentially absorbs all the across-group variation in unobservable individual characteristics. We use this insight to bound the treatment effect variance of school systems and associated neighborhoods for various outcomes. Across four datasets, our conservative estimates indicate that a 90th versus 10th percentile school system increases high school graduation and college enrollment probabilities by at least 0.047 and 0.11. Other applications include measurement of ...


The Journey From Data To Qualitative Inductive Paper: Who Helps And How?, Špela Trefalt, Marya Besharov Oct 2014

The Journey From Data To Qualitative Inductive Paper: Who Helps And How?, Špela Trefalt, Marya Besharov

Articles and Chapters

How do qualitative inductive researchers move from raw data to publishable paper? Existing scholarly resources focus on how to analyze data more deeply and write it up to make a compelling contribution. Much less discussed but also critical is how researchers enlist others in the journey from data to paper – even when they are single authors of their work. Our chapter uncovers qualitative researchers’ helpers and the types of help they provide. Drawing on data from detailed accounts of single authored qualitative, inductive studies, we explain the role of qualitative and quantitative scholars, peers and hired professionals, field informants and ...


E-Learning In Postsecondary Education, Bradford S. Bell, Jessica E. Federman Apr 2013

E-Learning In Postsecondary Education, Bradford S. Bell, Jessica E. Federman

Articles and Chapters

Over the past decade postsecondary education has been moving increasingly from the class room to online. During the fall 2010 term 31 percent of U.S. college students took at least one online course. The primary reasons for the growth of e-learning in the nation's colleges and universities include the desire of those institutions to generate new revenue streams, improve access, and offer students greater scheduling flexibility. Yet the growth of e-learning has been accompanied by a continuing debate about its effectiveness and by the recognition that a number of barriers impede its widespread adoption in higher education.


American Higher Education In Transition, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 2012

American Higher Education In Transition, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In public higher education, tuition increases in recent decades have barely offset a long-run decline in state appropriations per full-time equivalent student. State appropriations per full-time equivalent student at public higher educational institutions averaged $6,454 in fiscal year 2010; at its peak in fiscal year 1987, the comparable number (in constant dollars) was $7,993 (State Higher Education Executive Officers 2011, figure 3), translating into a decline of 19 percent over the period. Even if one leaves out the "Great Recession," real state appropriations per full-time equivalent student were still lower in fiscal year 2008 than they were ...


Adverse Selection And Incentives In An Early Retirement Program, Kenneth T. Whelan, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Kevin F. Hallock, Ronald L. Seeber Oct 2011

Adverse Selection And Incentives In An Early Retirement Program, Kenneth T. Whelan, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Kevin F. Hallock, Ronald L. Seeber

Articles and Chapters

We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees of a large university. Using administrative record on the eligible population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on unit budgets, we find dips in per-employee finance in a budget unit during the application year and higher recent per employee layoffs were associated with increased probabilities of eligible employee program enrollment. Our results also suggest, on average, that employees whose salaries are lower than we would predict given their personal characteristics and ...


Vernon Briggs: Real-World Labor Economist, William P. Curington Jan 2010

Vernon Briggs: Real-World Labor Economist, William P. Curington

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Vernon Briggs stepped into a wastebasket and launched my career as a labor economist. In the spring of 1969, I was sleepwalking through the undergraduate economics program at the University of Texas and sitting in Dr. Briggs’s labor economics class. He was vigorously making a point when his misstep off the small classroom stage produced a roar of laughter but did not break his train of thought. He woke me up; I thought, “Man, I want to be as passionate about my life’s work as this guy.


Recent Trends In Funding For The Academic Humanities And Their Implications, Harriet Zuckerman, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 2009

Recent Trends In Funding For The Academic Humanities And Their Implications, Harriet Zuckerman, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Never abundant, financial support for the "academic humanities" is now scarce. How scarce it is, both in absolute and relative terms, and whether the humanities now confront particularly hard times, are the pressing questions. To piece together an answer, we ask first how much the government, foundations, and private donors provide for the humanities now compared to estimates John D'Arms made in 1995, when he completed his important review of "funding trends."

Then we probe expenditures universities and colleges make on the humanities. Is there evidence, for example, in institutional budget allocations that the humanities are holding their ...


Generation X: Redefining The Norms Of The Academy, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 2009

Generation X: Redefining The Norms Of The Academy, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The members of Generation X are the young faculty members of today and the immediate future. The panelists at this session of the conference were asked to discuss the effects of this generation on academic norms and institutional governance and the types of new models that may be emerging for academia as a result of them. More specifically, they were asked if the attitudes and loyalties of these young faculty members really do differ from that of the Baby Boom Generation, how their attitudes and behavior affect graduate programs, what academic institutions will need to do to attract the ...


Introduction To Doctoral Education And The Faculty Of The Future, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 2009

Introduction To Doctoral Education And The Faculty Of The Future, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Concern has been expressed, however, that the growing enrollment of foreign students in American PhD programs "crowds out" potential American citizen PhD holders and discourages them from pursuing PhD study. On the other hand, the aftermath of 9/11, the growth of research infrastructure and research support in other nations, and the growth of other nations' higher education systems all cast doubt on the ability of the United States to continue to rely on foreign PhD holders to meet our nation's need for scientific researchers and to fill future faculty positions.

Given all of these issues, in October ...


Changing The Education Of Scholars: An Introduction To The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation’S Graduate Education Initiative, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Harriet Zuckerman, Jeffrey A. Groen, Sharon M. Brucker Jan 2009

Changing The Education Of Scholars: An Introduction To The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation’S Graduate Education Initiative, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Harriet Zuckerman, Jeffrey A. Groen, Sharon M. Brucker

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In 1991 the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation launched the Graduate Education Initiative (GEI) to improve the structure and organization of PhD programs in the humanities and social sciences and to combat the high rates of student attrition and long time to degree completion prevailing in these fields. While attrition and time to completion were deemed to be important in and of themselves, and of great significance to degree seekers, they were also seen more broadly as indicators of the effectiveness of graduate programs. An array of characteristics of doctoral programs was earmarked as likely contributors to high attrition and ...


Whose Job Is It Anyway? Preparing Arbitrators For Consumer Dispute Resolution Programs, David B. Lipsky, Rocco M. Scanza, Mary Newhart, Richard D. Fincher Oct 2008

Whose Job Is It Anyway? Preparing Arbitrators For Consumer Dispute Resolution Programs, David B. Lipsky, Rocco M. Scanza, Mary Newhart, Richard D. Fincher

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In many respects, we have entered into a golden era in the evolution and study of conflict resolution. One of the most obvious examples of this new era is the significant growth of conflict resolution programs in institutions of higher education. The purpose of this article is to examine the current state of university and law school conflict resolution programs. We then offer some conclusions and recommendations for addressing what we believe to be the critically important role academia can and should play in training arbitrators.

Our review of academic programs suggests that the array of offerings has grown ...


Education And Taiwan’S Changing Employment And Earnings Structure, Gary S. Fields, Amanda Newton Kraus Jan 2007

Education And Taiwan’S Changing Employment And Earnings Structure, Gary S. Fields, Amanda Newton Kraus

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Between 1980 and 1992, the enormous changes in economic development in Taiwan had significant impacts on the island's labour market. Examples of these changes include the island's almost legendary and meteoric economic growth, the maintenance of essentially full employment, an increase of around 116 per cent in real labour earnings, considerable upgrading of the educational qualifications of the labour force as a whole, a sustained and systematic shift in the composition of the labour force from agriculture into manufacturing and services and occupational upgrading (defined as the expansion of the share of the labour force in the ...


Phd Attainment Of Graduates Of Selective Private Academic Institutions, Jeffrey A. Groen, Matthew P. Nagowski, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 2007

Phd Attainment Of Graduates Of Selective Private Academic Institutions, Jeffrey A. Groen, Matthew P. Nagowski, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] It is therefore important to understand the forces that have caused a decline in the PhD attainment rate of American college graduates. The fraction of bachelor's recipients who go on to receive PhDs nationwide is influenced by many factors, including high school graduation rates, college enrollment rates of high school graduates, college graduation rates for college enrollees, the distribution of undergraduate majors, and the academic backgrounds of college students. PhD attainment also depends upon changes in the economic rewards to pursuing PhD study relative to entering the workforce or pursuing study for other professional occupations, such as law ...


Community Colleges Go Outside To Fill Key Posts, Barbara Viniar Jun 2006

Community Colleges Go Outside To Fill Key Posts, Barbara Viniar

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Ask one community college leader if hiring individuals who haven’t come through the ranks makes sense, and he will say absolutely not, the cultural adjustment is too difficult. Ask another, and she will say that with the right guidance and orientation, “outsiders” make excellent hires. Ask another, and you’ll hear that there is an adequate by underrepresented pool of potential leaders among women and minorities already in community colleges, why go outside?


Retesting In Selection: A Meta-Analysis Of Practice Effects For Tests Of Cognitive Ability, John P. Hausknecht, Jane A. Halpert, Nicole T. Di Paolo, Meghan O. Moriarty Gerrard Jun 2006

Retesting In Selection: A Meta-Analysis Of Practice Effects For Tests Of Cognitive Ability, John P. Hausknecht, Jane A. Halpert, Nicole T. Di Paolo, Meghan O. Moriarty Gerrard

Articles and Chapters

Previous studies indicate that as many as 25-50% of applicants in organizational and educational settings are retested with measures of cognitive ability. Researchers have shown that practice effects are found across measurement occasions such that scores improve when these applicants retest. This study uses meta-analysis to summarize the results of 50 studies of practice effects for tests of cognitive ability. Results from 107 samples and 134,436 participants revealed an adjusted overall effect size of .26. Moderator analyses indicated that effects were larger when practice was accompanied by test coaching, and when identical forms were used. Additional research is needed ...


Gender Equity In Intercollegiate Athletics: Determinants Of Title Ix Compliance, Deborah J. Anderson, John J. Cheslock, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Mar 2006

Gender Equity In Intercollegiate Athletics: Determinants Of Title Ix Compliance, Deborah J. Anderson, John J. Cheslock, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt The year 2002 marked the 30th anniversary of the passage of Title IX, which prohibits discrimination by gender in any federally funded educational activity. Although the scope of Title IX includes all aspects of education, the application of Title IX to college athletics has been especially complicated because athletics programs, unlike most academic classes, usually are sex-segregated by sport. As explained in more detail below, Title IX essentially requires that all institutes of higher education provide student access to sport participation on a gender-neutral basis. As a result, athletic opportunities for female undergraduates have expanded significantly since 1972. For ...


Institute For Community College Development Addresses Leadership Crisis, Barbara Viniar Jan 2006

Institute For Community College Development Addresses Leadership Crisis, Barbara Viniar

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] It is projected that between 2001 and 2007, 47 percent of community college presidents will have left their positions. At a time when challenges are growing more complex, the senior administrators who typically moved into presidencies are also "aging out," leaving fewer qualified individuals in the pipeline. The Institute for Community College Development (ICCD), a partnership between the State University of New York (SUNY) and Cornell, was founded by a group of community college presidents to respond to this leadership crisis. ICCD has been part of ILR since 2001.


Labor And Regional Development In The U.S.A.: Building A High Road Infrastructure In Buffalo, New York, Ian Greer, Lou Jean Fleron Jan 2006

Labor And Regional Development In The U.S.A.: Building A High Road Infrastructure In Buffalo, New York, Ian Greer, Lou Jean Fleron

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] In a country where worker representatives lack broadly institutionalized roles as "social partners," how can they play a constructive role in solving the problems of regional development? In Buffalo, New York, regularized, labor-inclusive procedures of problem solving involving multiple coalition partners – what we call a high-road social infrastructure – has emerged. Socially engaged researchers and educators have played a role in spreading lessons and organizing dialogue. Despite the emergence of regional cooperation, however, successful development politics are hampered by many of the same problems seen in European regions, including uncertainty about the best union strategy, hostility from business and political ...


The Many Facets Of Economic Mobility, Gary S. Fields Jan 2006

The Many Facets Of Economic Mobility, Gary S. Fields

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The main point of this chapter is to show that the different indices used in the mobility literature are not measures of the same underlying conceptual entity. In elementary statistics, students are taught that the mean and median are both measures of central tendency but they are different measures of central tendency; the variance and Gini coefficient are measures of dispersion but they are different measures of dispersion; and central tendency and dispersion are fundamentally different concepts from one another. In much the same way, this chapter maintains that the different mobility indices in common use are measuring fundamentally ...


The Changing Nature Of The Faculty And Faculty Employment Practices, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jan 2006

The Changing Nature Of The Faculty And Faculty Employment Practices, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The nature of faculty employment practices at American colleges and universities is changing rapidly. So too is the gender, racial and ethnic composition of American faculty members. These changes, along with the growing importance and costs of scientific research, the increased commercialization of faculty research, the elimination of mandatory retirement for tenured faculty members and the growing costs of retiree health insurance, the growing salary differentials across universities and academic fields within a university, and the growth of collective bargaining for tenured and tenure-track faculty and graduate assistants at public universities and now adjuncts at private universities, have put ...


Crafting A Class: The Trade-Off Between Merit Scholarships And Enrolling Lower-Income Students, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Liang Zhang, Jared M. Levin Jan 2006

Crafting A Class: The Trade-Off Between Merit Scholarships And Enrolling Lower-Income Students, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Liang Zhang, Jared M. Levin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] It is well known that test scores are correlated with students’ socio-economic backgrounds. Hence, to the extent that colleges are successful in “buying” higher test-score students, one should expect that their enrollment of students from families in the lower tails of the family income distribution should decline. However, somewhat surprisingly, there have been no efforts to test if this is occurring.

Our paper presents such a test. While institutional-level data on the dollar amounts of merit scholarships offered by colleges and universities are not available, data are available on the number of National Merit Scholarship (NMS) winners attending an ...


Method Or Madness? Inside The U.S. News & World Report College Rankings, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Oct 2005

Method Or Madness? Inside The U.S. News & World Report College Rankings, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The rankings exacerbate, but are not the major cause of the increased competition in American higher education that has taken place over the last few decades. The real shame is that this competition has institutions focusing on improving the selectivity of their entering first-year classes. Institutions appear to be increasingly valued for the test scores of the students they attract, not for their value added to their students and to society.


Inopportunity Of Gender: The G.I. Bill And The Higher Education Of The American Female, 1939-1954, Matthew P. Nagowski May 2005

Inopportunity Of Gender: The G.I. Bill And The Higher Education Of The American Female, 1939-1954, Matthew P. Nagowski

Student Works

While the 1944 Serviceman’s Readjustment Act, commonly known as the G.I. Bill, has been instilled within the collective consciousness of the United States as one of the most overwhelmingly positive pieces of legislation in the nation’s history, there has been little empirical inquiry into the effect that it had on the non-veteran female. Both Marcus (2003) and Bound and Turner (2001) find that of the World War II veterans that obtained a higher education on the G.I. Bill, fully 20 percent of them, or 400,000, would not have attended college had it not been for ...


Involving Undergraduates In Research To Encourage Them To Undertake Ph.D. Study In Economics, Ronald G. Ehrenberg May 2005

Involving Undergraduates In Research To Encourage Them To Undertake Ph.D. Study In Economics, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Recent evidence suggests that the growing use of part-time and full-time non-tenure-track faculty nationwide adversely influences American college students’ graduation rates (Ehrenberg and Liang Zhang, 2005). I have become concerned that the increased usage of non-tenure track faculty members also likely adversely influences the propensity of undergraduate students to go on for Ph.D.s in economics for two reasons.

First, many students enter college with the expressed intent of becoming doctors or lawyers, getting an MBA, or going on for advanced degrees in the sciences or humanities. However, with the exception perhaps of the small number of high-school ...


[Review Of The Twilight Of The Old Unionism], Richard W. Hurd Jan 2005

[Review Of The Twilight Of The Old Unionism], Richard W. Hurd

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Leo Troy is known for the penetrating questions he raises about the role of unions and the institutionalized collective bargaining system. A skeptical voice among industrial relations scholars, he was one of the first to proclaim the late twentieth century collapse of unions in the U.S. private sector. This book presents a no-holds- barred version of his thesis that irrepressible economic forces have overpowered legal protections to render unions obsolete. It is the third installment of Troy’s self-described “trilogy on labor relations in the United States.” Unfortunately, this is the weakest of the three, lacking both the ...


The Changing Nature Of Faculty Employment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Liang Zhang Jan 2005

The Changing Nature Of Faculty Employment, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Liang Zhang

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] The last two decades of the twentieth century saw a significant growth in the shares of faculty members in American colleges and universities that are part-time or are full-time without tenure-track status (Anderson 2002, Baldwin and Chronister 2001, Conley et al. 2002). Growing student enrollments faced by academic institutions during tight financial times, and growing differentials between the salaries of part-time and full-time non-tenure-track faculty on the one hand, and tenured and tenure-track faculty on the other hand, are among the explanations given for these trends. However, surprisingly, there have been few econometric studies that seek to test whether ...


Financial Forces And The Future Of American Higher Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Michael J. Rizzo Jul 2004

Financial Forces And The Future Of American Higher Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Michael J. Rizzo

Articles and Chapters

Recent shifts in state funding are altering the most basic realities of American higher education, from student access to faculty research.


Review Of The Book Shakespeare, Einstein, And The Bottom Line: The Marketing Of Higher Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg Jun 2004

Review Of The Book Shakespeare, Einstein, And The Bottom Line: The Marketing Of Higher Education, Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] Befitting a former journalist, Kirp's book is extraordinarily well-written; once one picks it up it is hard to put down. Some economists may be put off by a book that contains no equations, tables, figures or regression results. Such an attitude, however, would be misguided and any academic economist interested in better understanding how market forces are reshaping higher education should read Shakespeare, Einstein, and the Bottom Line.