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Full-Text Articles in Labor Relations

Reflective Practice Series: Selected Instructional Models Using Synchronous Video Conferencing Software, Martin W. Sivula Sep 2018

Reflective Practice Series: Selected Instructional Models Using Synchronous Video Conferencing Software, Martin W. Sivula

MBA Faculty Conference Papers & Journal Articles

With the vast array of resources available to instructors, one would think that instruction and teaching would yield success for all learners. Now, well into the 21st century has much changed in the classroom? Certainly, movable desks and chairs, advanced audio and visual equipment, and a plethora of all types of technologies which might be able to enhance training and education. Over the last several decades research on individualized instruction, cognitive science, educational psychology, and multimedia instruction (to name a few) have permeated the literature on instruction. With all the research and the vast array of studies on improving ...


Comparing Parental Leave Packages Across Countries, Angel Alls-Hall Apr 2018

Comparing Parental Leave Packages Across Countries, Angel Alls-Hall

Honors Projects

This project focuses on parental leave, which is a combination of maternity and paternity leave, and compares the existing policies in the United States to the United Kingdom, Norway, and Japan.


An Injury Incidence Analysis At The Wal-Mart Distribution Center In Mount Crawford, Va From February 2016 To January 2017, Christopher T. Ruszala Apr 2018

An Injury Incidence Analysis At The Wal-Mart Distribution Center In Mount Crawford, Va From February 2016 To January 2017, Christopher T. Ruszala

OTS Master's Level Projects & Papers

The study focused on the correlation of injuries and time in service for workers in labor intensive, repetitive jobs. The population for this study comprised all hourly employees working at the Wal-Mart Distribution Center located in Mount Crawford, VA. In compliance with OSHA requirements, when an employee injury requiring medical attention occurs the data is collected and recorded. These data records were provided by the Safety Manager of the facility. The data was collected from February 2016 through January 2017 to coincide with fiscal year. During this time period there were 685 employees working within the warehouse.

A Chi-square statistical ...


Glossary Of Business Evidence, Paul C. Boyd Apr 2018

Glossary Of Business Evidence, Paul C. Boyd

MBA Faculty Conference Papers & Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Investigating The Links Between Feedback Orientation And Leadership Self-Efficacy In Field Grade Officers, Robby Key Apr 2018

Investigating The Links Between Feedback Orientation And Leadership Self-Efficacy In Field Grade Officers, Robby Key

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

A myriad of challenges and shifting strategic priorities face today’s military leaders. Since the military is undergoing substantial change as it adjusts to the changing nature of war and a fluid world situation, Field Grade Officers (FGO) must actively develop and hone their leadership behavior by implementing effective feedback counsel. They must also increase their leadership self-efficacy to confidently accomplish specific leadership tasks and challenges. This non-experimental quantitative correlational research addresses the correlation of leadership self-efficacy and feedback orientation in FGOs. Given the impact of the feedback process on the FGO recipient, it is important to understand differences in ...


The Other Side Of A Merger: Labor Market Power, Wage Suppression, And Finding Recourse In Antitrust Law, Ioana Marinescu Mar 2018

The Other Side Of A Merger: Labor Market Power, Wage Suppression, And Finding Recourse In Antitrust Law, Ioana Marinescu

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Labor market concentration can worsen after a merger takes place, and this heightened concentration can negatively affect wages. The focus of antitrust analysis, however, has been on the prices of consumer products, not the wages of laborers. New research indicates that, on average, labor markets are highly concentrated, and that higher concentration is associated with significantly lower posted wages for new jobs. This brief uses existing economic tools to develop a model for evaluating labor market concentration and its effects, to determine if a merger will run the risk of anticompetitively suppressing wages, employment, and output. Regulators can use this ...


Good Game, Greyory Blake Jan 2018

Good Game, Greyory Blake

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis and its corresponding art installation, Lessons from Ziggy, attempts to deconstruct the variables prevalent within several complex systems, analyze their transformations, and propose a methodology for reasserting the soap box within the display pedestal. In this text, there are several key and specific examples of the transformation of various signifiers (i.e. media-bred fear’s transformation into a political tactic of surveillance, contemporary freneticism’s transformation into complacency, and community’s transformation into nationalism as a state weapon). In this essay, all of these concepts are contextualized within the exponential growth of new technologies. That is to say ...


Best Practices In Human Resources: An In-Depth Analysis Of Innovative Hr Policy Used By Top Companies, Kathryn Stone Dec 2017

Best Practices In Human Resources: An In-Depth Analysis Of Innovative Hr Policy Used By Top Companies, Kathryn Stone

Senior Honors Theses

Throughout history, business and labor have had a tumultuous relationship, with some companies having little regard for their employees and other’s going above and beyond the call of traditional organizational practices and policies. The Social Exchange Theory posits that “there is a ‘norm of reciprocity’ between employers and employees in business, which means that when someone is treated well by a person or entity they will feel a sense of obligation to reciprocate” (Gilbert, Caroline, et al.). In other words, if an employee feels as if their company cares about their well-being and invests in their ability to thrive ...


Saying Goodbye To Unions In Higher Education: The Yale Hunger Strike In Perspective, Raymond L. Hogler Oct 2017

Saying Goodbye To Unions In Higher Education: The Yale Hunger Strike In Perspective, Raymond L. Hogler

Academic Labor: Research and Artistry

No abstract provided.


Workarounds In Nonprofit Management Counter Theory For Best Prac.Pdf, Stuart C. Mendel Aug 2017

Workarounds In Nonprofit Management Counter Theory For Best Prac.Pdf, Stuart C. Mendel

Stuart C Mendel

One quiet aspect of the exercise of best practices in nonprofit operations settings is that managers
typically must engage in creative problem solving to accommodate exceptions or unanticipated
conditions. Problem solving may be perceived as situational until the frequency of the
“workarounds” give pause to decision-makers, leading some to challenge the validity of the best
practice. This essay uses inductive method inquiry drawing upon existing nonprofit management
literature on best practices, workarounds and related topics. The essay posits that workarounds
are an underappreciated component of nonprofit management theory.


Work-Unit Absenteeism: Effects Of Satisfaction, Commitment, Labor Market Conditions, And Time, John Hausknecht, Nathan J. Hiller, Robert J. Vance Jun 2017

Work-Unit Absenteeism: Effects Of Satisfaction, Commitment, Labor Market Conditions, And Time, John Hausknecht, Nathan J. Hiller, Robert J. Vance

John Hausknecht

Prior research is limited in explaining absenteeism at the unit level and over time. We developed and tested a model of unit-level absenteeism using five waves of data collected over six years from 115 work units in a large state agency. Unit-level job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and local unemployment were modeled as time-varying predictors of absenteeism. Shared satisfaction and commitment interacted in predicting absenteeism but were not related to the rate of change in absenteeism over time. Unit-level satisfaction and commitment were more strongly related to absenteeism when units were located in areas with plentiful job alternatives.


A Quantitative Examination Of The Relationship Between Perceived Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment In Small Business Employees In The Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, Tammy Brown May 2017

A Quantitative Examination Of The Relationship Between Perceived Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment In Small Business Employees In The Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, Tammy Brown

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) has an average turnover that exceeds the national and regional average. Organizational turnover unfavorably influences productivity and has the potential to adversely affect, not only the Lynchburg MSA, but also the regional, state, and national economy. This quantitative non-experimental, correlational research examined the relationship between perceived job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the Lynchburg MSA. The results of this research supports earlier research and demonstrated a statistically significant positive relationship existed between perceived job satisfaction and organizational commitment in small business employees in the Lynchburg MSA. The results may serve as beneficial to small ...


The Determinants And Implications Of Firms' Workforce Composition: The Case Of Home Health, Kunhee Kim Apr 2017

The Determinants And Implications Of Firms' Workforce Composition: The Case Of Home Health, Kunhee Kim

Health Care Management Papers

This paper presents and tests a new model that highlights the role of reputation in determining firms' workforce composition and strategy. Facing demand uncertainty, firms in labor-intensive service industries, such as health care, often rely on temporary workers. Past research has shown that firms that employ more temporary workers when facing greater demand fluctuations. However, this strategy is challenged by accumulating evidence that permanent and temporary workers are not perfectly interchangeable in the production of quality. This paper examines the strategies of firms facing this trade-off: temporary workers provide flexibility in responding to demand fluctuations but can lower reputation through ...


When Job Performance Is All Relative: How Family Motivation Energizes Effort And Compensates For Intrinsic Motivation, Jochen I. Menges, Danielle V. Tussing, Andreas Wihler, Adam M. Grant Apr 2017

When Job Performance Is All Relative: How Family Motivation Energizes Effort And Compensates For Intrinsic Motivation, Jochen I. Menges, Danielle V. Tussing, Andreas Wihler, Adam M. Grant

Management Papers

Supporting one’s family is a major reason why many people work, yet surprisingly little research has examined the implications of family motivation. Drawing on theories of prosocial motivation and action identification, we propose that family motivation increases job performance by enhancing energy and reducing stress, and it is especially important when intrinsic motivation is lacking. Survey and diary data collected across multiple time points in a Mexican maquiladora generally support our model. Specifically, we find that family motivation enhances job performance when intrinsic motivation is low—in part by providing energy, but not by reducing stress. We conclude that ...


How To Conduct A Mini-Ethnographic Case Study: A Guide For Novice Researchers, Patricia I. Fusch Ph.D., Gene E. Fusch, Lawrence R. Ness Mar 2017

How To Conduct A Mini-Ethnographic Case Study: A Guide For Novice Researchers, Patricia I. Fusch Ph.D., Gene E. Fusch, Lawrence R. Ness

The Qualitative Report

The authors present how to construct a mini-ethnographic case study design with the benefit of an ethnographic approach bounded within a case study protocol that is more feasible for a student researcher with limited time and finances. The novice researcher should choose a design that enables one to best answer the research question. Secondly, one should choose the design that assists the researcher in reaching data saturation. Finally, the novice researcher must choose the design in which one can complete the study within a reasonable time frame with minimal cost. This is particularly important for student researchers. One can blend ...


Global Diversity & Inclusion At Microsoft, Joe Lawless Jan 2017

Global Diversity & Inclusion At Microsoft, Joe Lawless

MICCSR Case Studies

This case discusses diversity and inclusion initiatives at Microsoft, as well as criticisms of the state of industry efforts to increase diversity in the tech sector. Students are asked to develop ideas that leverage current efforts at Microsoft and come up with new ideas that should be considered.


Nonprofit Pay In A Competitive Market: Wage Penalty Or Premium?, Christian King, Gregory B. Lewis Jan 2017

Nonprofit Pay In A Competitive Market: Wage Penalty Or Premium?, Christian King, Gregory B. Lewis

Nutrition and Health Sciences -- Faculty Publications

Two competing theories argue that the nonprofit sector pays differently: Nonprofit employees may accept lower pay to be able to do meaningful work for a good cause, or they may earn higher pay due to nonprofit organizations’ tax exemptions and weaker incentives to hold down wages. To test these opposing expectations, we use the 2005-2013 American Community Surveys to examine pay differences among registered nurses working for nonprofit, for-profit, and public hospitals. We also test hypotheses that public and nonprofit hospitals have smaller pay disparities by gender, race, and relationship status. We find that pay is highest in nonprofit hospitals ...


Illegitimate Tasks As An Impediment To Job Satisfaction And Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects Of Gender And Effort-Reward Imbalance, Rachel Omansky, Erin M. Eatough, Marcus J. Fila Nov 2016

Illegitimate Tasks As An Impediment To Job Satisfaction And Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects Of Gender And Effort-Reward Imbalance, Rachel Omansky, Erin M. Eatough, Marcus J. Fila

Publications and Research

The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks. Additionally, we ...


Editorial Essay: Introduction To A Special Issue On Work And Employment Relations In Health Care, Ariel C. Avgar, Adrienne E. Eaton, Rebecca K. Givan, Adam Seth Litwin Aug 2016

Editorial Essay: Introduction To A Special Issue On Work And Employment Relations In Health Care, Ariel C. Avgar, Adrienne E. Eaton, Rebecca K. Givan, Adam Seth Litwin

Articles and Chapters

[Excerpt] This special issue of the ILR Review is designed to showcase the central role that work organization and employment relations play in shaping important outcomes such as the quality of care and organizational performance. Each of the articles included in this special issue makes an important contribution to our understanding of the large and rapidly changing health care sector. Specifically, these articles provide novel empirical evidence about the relationship between organizations, institutions, and work practices and a wide array of central outcomes across different levels of analysis. This breadth is especially important because the health care literature has largely ...


Change Management And Guided Pathways: Creating A Plan For Implementation At A Washington State Community College, Sandra Spadoni, Saovra Ear Jun 2016

Change Management And Guided Pathways: Creating A Plan For Implementation At A Washington State Community College, Sandra Spadoni, Saovra Ear

Ed.D. Capstone Projects

Objective: This article addresses a problem of practice in community college leadership: how to effectively use change management strategies to implement a guided pathways model at a community college. Guided pathways is a recent national movement to create more structured and better coordinated academic pathways within community colleges. Using the case study of one Washington State community college looking to implement this model, we identified change management strategies for community college leaders seeking to implement the guided pathways model. Methods: We conducted interviews with national consultants, state system leaders, and college leaders around the country who have effectively implemented this ...


Annapurna’S Porters: Labor Conditions And The Factors That Shape Them, Ari Grant-Sasson Apr 2016

Annapurna’S Porters: Labor Conditions And The Factors That Shape Them, Ari Grant-Sasson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This project sought to determine what the labor conditions of porters working in Annapurna are and the factors both immutable and human-influenced that shape them. To do so, I interviewed government bodies, national and regional trekking organizations, unions, agencies, guides and porters to ascertain what issues a broad term such as “labor conditions” encompasses. Participants highlighted the importance of insurance, wages, weight carried, equipment, access to employment, job training and topography as important factors. I will argue that large advocacy organizations shape these issues, and therefore the porter market, at a national level. Discrepancies in employment experiences between porters are ...


Myth: Hard Work And Credentials Determine Employment Opportunities Feb 2016

Myth: Hard Work And Credentials Determine Employment Opportunities

Alev Dudek

"The way one's career develops has little to do with what one went to school for, envisioned, or carefully planned. Careers generally result from coincidence. Regardless of these facts, job seekers are told to endure extensive career testing and planning, or they are asked to create artificial networks that seldom lead to more than frustration. They are given tests that allegedly determine which careers a particular individual would excel in and be a good fit for based on his or her skills and interests, as if the individual would not excel in other careers as much, or as if ...


From Hierarchies To Markets: Fedex Drivers And The Work Contract As Institutional Marker, Julia Tomassetti Aug 2015

From Hierarchies To Markets: Fedex Drivers And The Work Contract As Institutional Marker, Julia Tomassetti

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Judges are often called upon today to determine whether certain workers are “employees” or “independent contractors.” The distinction is important, because only employees have rights under most statutes regulating work, including wage and hour, anti-discrimination, and collective bargaining law. Too often judges exclude workers from statutory protection who resemble what legal scholars have described as typical, industrial employees — long-term, full-time workers with set wages and routinized responsibilities within a large firm. To explain how courts reach these counterintuitive results, the article examines recent federal decisions finding that FedEx delivery drivers are independent contractors rather than employees. It argues that the ...


Fear And Reaction To Toxic Leadership, Sabrina Michele Maxwell Aug 2015

Fear And Reaction To Toxic Leadership, Sabrina Michele Maxwell

Sabrina Michele Maxwell

The brain is a powerful muscle when it comes to emotional understanding. This article provides a new viewpoint on the reaction of fear, paralleled with toxic leadership.


The Globalization Of Service Work: Comparative Institutional Perspectives On Call Centers (Introduction To A Special Issue Of The Industrial & Labor Relations Review), Rosemary Batt, David Holman, Ursula Holtgrewe May 2015

The Globalization Of Service Work: Comparative Institutional Perspectives On Call Centers (Introduction To A Special Issue Of The Industrial & Labor Relations Review), Rosemary Batt, David Holman, Ursula Holtgrewe

Rosemary Batt

This introduction to the special issue on the globalization of service work provides an overview of the call center sector and its development in coordinated, liberal market, and emerging market economies. The introduction's authors situate this research in literature on the comparative political economy and industrial relations. Drawing on qualitative research and a unique survey of 2,500 establishments in 17 countries conducted in 2003-2006, they discuss the extent of convergence and divergence in management practices and employment relations. They also describe the research methodology for the overall research project, highlight its major findings, and summarize the contributions of ...


How Institutions And Business Strategies Affect Wages: A Cross-National Study Of Call Centers, Rosemary Batt, Hiroatsu Nohara May 2015

How Institutions And Business Strategies Affect Wages: A Cross-National Study Of Call Centers, Rosemary Batt, Hiroatsu Nohara

Rosemary Batt

This paper, drawing on a 2003-2006 establishment-level survey of 1,819 call centers in 15 countries, examines effects of industrial relations institutions and employer strategies on wage variation across coordinated, liberal, and emerging market economies. The authors find several contradictory patterns, which confirm theoretical predictions for some countries and contradict them for others, suggesting diverse institutional reactions to the emergence of a new economic activity. Consistent with prior research, Denmark, France, and Sweden exhibit patterns of low wage dispersion and no union wage premium, and the United States, Canada, and emerging market economies exhibit quite high levels of dispersion. Contrary ...


Human Resource And Employment Practices In Telecommunications Services, 1980-1998, Rosemary Batt, Jeffrey Keefe May 2015

Human Resource And Employment Practices In Telecommunications Services, 1980-1998, Rosemary Batt, Jeffrey Keefe

Rosemary Batt

[Excerpt] In the academic literature on manufacturing, much research and debate have focused on whether firms are adopting some form of “high-performance” or “high-involvement” work organization based on such practices as employee participation, teams, and increased discretion, skills, and training for frontline workers (Ichniowski et al., 1996; Kochan and Osterman, 1994; MacDuffie, 1995). Whereas many firms in the telecommunications industry flirted with these ideas in the 1980s, they did not prove to be a lasting source of inspiration for the redesign of work and employment practices. Rather, work restructuring in telecommunications services has been driven by the ability of firms ...


The Effect Of Regional Airline Attendance Policies On Pilot Self-Removal From Duty For Illness Or Fatigue, David R. Freiwald Ph.D., Csp, Michael F. O'Toole Ph.D. May 2015

The Effect Of Regional Airline Attendance Policies On Pilot Self-Removal From Duty For Illness Or Fatigue, David R. Freiwald Ph.D., Csp, Michael F. O'Toole Ph.D.

Michael F O'Toole Ph.D.

The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of current regional airline attendance policies on the willingness of crewmembers to remove themselves from duty when ill or fatigued. This study sought to determine if the current punitive attendance policies are encouraging crewmembers to operate contrary to federal regulation. A survey was given to current pilots of four regional airlines with similar attendance policies. The responses were correlated with supplied demographic and experiential data. The goal of the paper was to examine the major areas of concern and suggested solutions. The overwhelming majority of respondents felt that their companies ...


The Effect Of Regional Airline Attendance Policies On Pilot Self-Removal From Duty For Illness Or Fatigue, David R. Freiwald Ph.D., Csp, Michael F. O'Toole Ph.D. Apr 2015

The Effect Of Regional Airline Attendance Policies On Pilot Self-Removal From Duty For Illness Or Fatigue, David R. Freiwald Ph.D., Csp, Michael F. O'Toole Ph.D.

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of current regional airline attendance policies on the willingness of crewmembers to remove themselves from duty when ill or fatigued. This study sought to determine if the current punitive attendance policies are encouraging crewmembers to operate contrary to federal regulation. A survey was given to current pilots of four regional airlines with similar attendance policies. The responses were correlated with supplied demographic and experiential data. The goal of the paper was to examine the major areas of concern and suggested solutions. The overwhelming majority of respondents felt that their companies ...


Un Estudio Comparado Del Valor Económico Y Social De Dos Universidades Adventistas, Gus Gregorutti Jan 2015

Un Estudio Comparado Del Valor Económico Y Social De Dos Universidades Adventistas, Gus Gregorutti

Faculty Publications

This study seeks to understand the key factors that contribute tothe successful continuation of the food industries of two Adventistuniversities in Colombia and Peru. These factories have been contributingsocially and economically through employment opportunitiesfor students from lower social strata. The study gathered data froma series of interviews with managers of both factories. The resultsshowed that the success of continuity and contribution is relatedto efficient administrative relations between universities and factoriesand a culture of innovation that seeks to have the best humanresources to adapt to markets. Respondents also expressed someconcerns for the future performance of the current model of university-industry. The ...