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Articles 181 - 207 of 207

Full-Text Articles in Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics

Beyond The Dichotomous Worlds Hypothesis: Towards A Plurality Of Corporate Governance Logics, Jordan Otten Jan 2007

Beyond The Dichotomous Worlds Hypothesis: Towards A Plurality Of Corporate Governance Logics, Jordan Otten

Jordan Otten

The dichotomous worlds hypothesis holds that corporate governance systems worldwide are either based on the Anglo-American shareholder model or the Eurasian stakeholder model. We suggest a more fine-grained classification, based on five corporate governance logics –socially constructed, historical patterns of material practices, assumptions, values, beliefs, and rules by which all parties involved in economic productive activities structure their material interdependencies and provide meaning to the social reality of corporate life. These logics are discovered through a content analysis of the corporate governance reform codes of 38 countries.


Theories On Executive Pay: A Literature Overview And Critical Assessment, Jordan Otten Jan 2007

Theories On Executive Pay: A Literature Overview And Critical Assessment, Jordan Otten

Jordan Otten

Executive pay is a major issue in the corporate governance debate. As well in practice as in theory debate still exists how executive pay levels and structures can be explained. This paper provides an overview of 16 theories that have been used in the literature to explain the phenomenon. The theories can be classified into three types of approaches; 1) the value approach; 2) the agency approach; and 3) the symbolic approach. A critical assessment of the theories shows that the dominant use in the literature of the perfect contracting approach of agency theory neglects: 1) the socially determined symbolic ...


“El Derecho Alimentario De La Unión Europea: La Aplicación Del Principio De Precaución”, Luis González Vaqué Dec 2005

“El Derecho Alimentario De La Unión Europea: La Aplicación Del Principio De Precaución”, Luis González Vaqué

Luis González Vaqué

The precautionary principle enables rapid response in the face of a possible danger to human, animal or plant health, or to protect the environment. In particular, where scientific data do not permit a complete evaluation of the risk, recourse to this principle may, for example, be used to stop distribution or order withdrawal from the market of products likely to be hazardous.

El principio de precaución permite reaccionar rápidamente ante un posible peligro para la salud humana, animal o vegetal, o para proteger el medio ambiente. De hecho, en caso de que los datos científicos no permitan una determinación completa ...


Sorry, But It's The Law: The Westernization Of Islam, Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis Jul 2005

Sorry, But It's The Law: The Westernization Of Islam, Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis

Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis

The last quartile of the 20th Century vastly changed the religio-cultural landscape of the West. Previously the stronghold of Christianity, the West has entered into a period of deep diversity as a result of the unprecedented level of migration of non-Western, non-Christian peoples to western destinations. These new immigrants, with their foreign cultures and unfamiliar religions, came westward with the full expectation that they--like the diverse array of Christian emigrants who migrated westward decades before--would fully enjoy religious liberty in nations long heralded for their commitment to democratic principles and respect for civil rights. How are these immigrants faring on ...


Sorry, But It's The Law: The Westernization Of Islam, Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis Jul 2005

Sorry, But It's The Law: The Westernization Of Islam, Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis

Gwendolyn Yvonne Alexis

The last quartile of the 20th Century vastly changed the religio-cultural landscape of the West. Previously the stronghold of Christianity, the West has entered into a period of deep diversity as a result of the unprecedented level of migration of non-Western, non-Christian peoples to western destinations. These new immigrants, with their foreign cultures and unfamiliar religions, came westward with the full expectation that they--like the diverse array of Christian emigrants who migrated westward decades before--would fully enjoy religious liberty in nations long heralded for their commitment to democratic principles and respect for civil rights. How are these immigrants faring on ...


Pathologies Of Accountability: Icann And The Challenge Of “Multiple Accountabilities Disorder”, Jonathan Koppell Dec 2004

Pathologies Of Accountability: Icann And The Challenge Of “Multiple Accountabilities Disorder”, Jonathan Koppell

Jonathan GS Koppell

Accountability is a core concept of public administration, yet disagreement about its meaning is masked by consensus on its importance and desirability. This article proposes a five-part typology of accountability conceptions. Transparency, liability, controllability, responsibility, and responsiveness are defined as distinct dimensions of accountability, providing an improvement on the current state of conceptual fuzziness. The typology provides a vocabulary for the core argument: that conflicting expectations borne of disparate conceptions of accountability undermine organizational effectiveness. This phenomenon—labeled multiple accountabilities disorder— is illustrated with a case study. ICANN, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, is a nascent organization ...


Nonprofits At The Crossroad: Embrace Change, Learn To Compete, Art Stewart Dec 2004

Nonprofits At The Crossroad: Embrace Change, Learn To Compete, Art Stewart

Art Stewart

The tide of continuous change brought on by the impact of a global marketplace is impacting the fundamental way we conduct our relationships, commerce, and civic engagement as well as the formation and implementation of our public policy, and the manner in which we define and exercise our belief systems. Competition is now essential to acquiring what we need on both a personal and communal basis. We compete in the way we relate to each other - vying for attention and engagement, loyalty and trust, and physical needs. We compete in our civic engagement - striving for numbers of supporters, empathy for ...


"Myth & Mystique: Growth Brands Are All About Marketplace Behavior", Art Stewart Dec 2004

"Myth & Mystique: Growth Brands Are All About Marketplace Behavior", Art Stewart

Art Stewart

No abstract provided.


Re-Claiming Authentic Leadership For Nonprofit Sustainability, Art Stewart Dec 2004

Re-Claiming Authentic Leadership For Nonprofit Sustainability, Art Stewart

Art Stewart

In the past few years, we have witnessed stunning examples of great - and greatly flawed - leadership that has contributed to a new norm of regulation and accountability, breached stakeholder trust, and dubious public confidence. No consensus is needed to acknowledge that the nonprofit sector has suffered from a lack of leadership, whether it is social service agencies, advocacy organizations, charities and foundations, philanthropic institutions or associations. Many top executives of nonprofit organizations have displayed consistent shortcomings in vision, courage, responsibility, and commitment. Still too, many others have exercised impressive perseverance in the name of service, education, and social change that ...


Building Reputational Capital Dec 2003

Building Reputational Capital

kjackson@fordham.edu

No abstract provided.


Working Across Cultures, John Hooker Dec 2002

Working Across Cultures, John Hooker

John Hooker

No abstract provided.


Hybrid Organizations And The Alignment Of Interests: The Case Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac, Jonathan Koppell Jun 2001

Hybrid Organizations And The Alignment Of Interests: The Case Of Fannie Mae And Freddie Mac, Jonathan Koppell

Jonathan GS Koppell

This article explores the political influence of government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs). Using Congress's overhaul of the regulatory infrastructure for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac as a case study, the article presents two principal findings: (1) The characteristics that distinguish government-sponsored enterprises from traditional government agencies and private companies endow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac with unique political resources; and (2) the alignment of interest groups around Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac is subject to strategic manipulation by the GSEs. A triangular model of this alignment is proposed and employed to analyze the legislative outcome. The case has implications for students ...


Rights Of Inequality: Rawlsian Justice, Equal Opportunity, And The Status Of The Family, Justin Schwartz Jan 2001

Rights Of Inequality: Rawlsian Justice, Equal Opportunity, And The Status Of The Family, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Is the family subject to principles of justice? In A Theory of Justice, John Rawls includes the (monogamous) family along with the market and the government as among the "basic institutions of society" to which principles of justice apply. Justice, he famously insists, is primary in politics as truth is in science: the only excuse for tolerating injustice is that no lesser injustice is possible. The point of the present paper is that Rawls doesn't actually mean this. When it comes to the family, and in particular its impact on fair equal opportunity (the first part of the the ...


Logic-Based Methods For Optimization: Combining Optimization And Constraint Satisfaction, John Hooker Dec 1999

Logic-Based Methods For Optimization: Combining Optimization And Constraint Satisfaction, John Hooker

John Hooker

No abstract provided.


The Final Countdown To Y2k: Is Your Small Business Ready?, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr Jul 1999

The Final Countdown To Y2k: Is Your Small Business Ready?, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr

Douglas J. Swanson, Ed.D APR

No abstract provided.


Optimization Methods For Logical Inference, Vijay Chandru, John Hooker Dec 1998

Optimization Methods For Logical Inference, Vijay Chandru, John Hooker

John Hooker

No abstract provided.


Professional Development Seminars: Scouting Out Your Best Opportunities, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr May 1997

Professional Development Seminars: Scouting Out Your Best Opportunities, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr

Douglas J. Swanson, Ed.D APR

No abstract provided.


Relativism, Reflective Equilibrium, And Justice, Justin Schwartz Jan 1997

Relativism, Reflective Equilibrium, And Justice, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

THIS PAPER IS THE CO-WINNER OF THE FRED BERGER PRIZE IN PHILOSOPHY OF LAW FOR THE 1999 AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE BEST PUBLISHED PAPER IN THE PREVIOUS TWO YEARS.

The conflict between liberal legal theory and critical legal studies (CLS) is often framed as a matter of whether there is a theory of justice that the law should embody which all rational people could or must accept. In a divided society, the CLS critique of this view is overwhelming: there is no such justice that can command universal assent. But the liberal critique of CLS, that it degenerates into ...


Reinventing Government: The Promise Of Comparative Institutional Choice And Government Created Corporations, Nancy J. Knauer Jan 1997

Reinventing Government: The Promise Of Comparative Institutional Choice And Government Created Corporations, Nancy J. Knauer

Nancy J. Knauer

This Article focuses on a subset of private/public partnerships - those that involve relationships between the public sector and charitable organizations, specifically "government created charitable organizations" (GCCOs). For example, the first President Bush, known as the "Education President," championed the creation of the New American Schools Development Corporation (NASDC) as the cornerstone of his education policy. Designed as an independent charitable organization, the NASDC's proposed budget relied on private corporate contributions. In this way, the federal government could assert that it would fund its new educational program without increasing the federal bureaucracy, raising taxes, or cutting other budget items ...


An Appraisal Of Local Exchange And Trading Systems In The United Kingdom, Colin C. Williams May 1996

An Appraisal Of Local Exchange And Trading Systems In The United Kingdom, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

During the past few years, Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) have emerged through the
United Kingdom and are being widely heralded as a new tool for promoting community development.
Indeed, 64 per cent of local authorities have expressed an intention to develop a LETS in their area (Gibbs et al, 1995). However, there has been little, if any, appraisal of LETS which can inform such policy initiatives. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to report the results of a national survey of the origins, objectives, growth, magnitude, character and impacts of LETS. Arising out of this, several alterations ...


How Charitable Organizations Influence Federal Tax Policy: "Rent-Seeking" Charities Or Virtuous Politicians?, Nancy J. Knauer Jan 1996

How Charitable Organizations Influence Federal Tax Policy: "Rent-Seeking" Charities Or Virtuous Politicians?, Nancy J. Knauer

Nancy J. Knauer

Tax-exempt charitable organizations exert considerable influence over Congress, the Department of the Treasury, and the Internal Revenue Service in matters dealing with exemption from federal income tax and the tax deductibility of charitable contributions. This Article uses both public choice and public interest analysis to help identify various features of the charitable community and explain how exempt organizations weild political influence despite the restrictions placed on their activities under the tax code. Arguing that the influence of charitable organizations over tax policy can be explained from either a public choice or public interest vantage point, the Article concluds that the ...


How To Improve Your Professional Credibility, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr Jul 1995

How To Improve Your Professional Credibility, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr

Douglas J. Swanson, Ed.D APR

No abstract provided.


What's Wrong With Exploitation?, Justin Schwartz Jan 1995

What's Wrong With Exploitation?, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Abstract: Marx thinks that capitalism is exploitative, and that is a major basis for his objections to it. But what's wrong with exploitation, as Marx sees it? (The paper is exegetical in character: my object is to understand what Marx believed,) The received view, held by Norman Geras, G.A. Cohen, and others, is that Marx thought that capitalism was unjust, because in the crudest sense, capitalists robbed labor of property that was rightfully the workers' because the workers and not the capitalists produced it. This view depends on a Labor Theory of Property (LTP), that property rights are ...


In Defence Of Exploitation, Justin Schwartz Jan 1995

In Defence Of Exploitation, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

The concept of exploitation is thought to be central to Marx's Critique of capitalism. John Roemer, an analytical (then-) Marxist economist now at Yale, attacked this idea in a series of papers and books in the 1970s-1990s, arguing that Marxists should be concerned with inequality rather than exploitation -- with distribution rather than production, precisely the opposite of what Marx urged in The Critique of the Gotha Progam.

This paper expounds and criticizes Roemer's objections and his alternative inequality based theory of exploitation, while accepting some of his criticisms. It may be viewed as a companion paper to my ...


Guarding Your Company's Intellectual Property Rights: Patents, Trademarks, And Copyright Protection, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr Jul 1994

Guarding Your Company's Intellectual Property Rights: Patents, Trademarks, And Copyright Protection, Douglas J. Swanson Ed.D Apr

Douglas J. Swanson, Ed.D APR

No abstract provided.


The Paradox Of Ideology, Justin Schwartz Jan 1993

The Paradox Of Ideology, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

A standard problem with the objectivity of social scientific theory in particular is that it is either self-referential, in which case it seems to undermine itself as ideology, or self-excepting, which seem pragmatically self-refuting. Using the example of Marx and his theory of ideology, I show how self-referential theories that include themselves in their scope of explanation can be objective. Ideology may be roughly defined as belief distorted by class interest. I show how Marx thought that natural science was informed by class interest but not therefore necessarily ideology. Capitalists have an interest in understanding the natural world (to a ...


From Libertarianism To Egalitarianism, Justin Schwartz Jan 1992

From Libertarianism To Egalitarianism, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

A standard natural rights argument for libertarianism is based on the labor theory of property: the idea that I own my self and my labor, and so if I "mix" my own labor with something previously unowned or to which I have a have a right, I come to own the thing with which I have mixed by labor. This initially intuitively attractive idea is at the basis of the theories of property and the role of government of John Locke and Robert Nozick. Locke saw and Nozick agreed that fairness to others requires a proviso: that I leave "enough ...