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Full-Text Articles in Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics

Equine Welfare As A Mainstream Phenomenon, Bernard E. Rollin Sep 2019

Equine Welfare As A Mainstream Phenomenon, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

The 20th century has witnessed a bewildering array of ethical revolutions, from civil rights to environmentalism to feminism. Often ignored is the rise of massive societal concern across the world regarding animal treatment. Regulation of animal research exists in virtually all Western countries, and reform of “factory farming” is regnant in Europe and rapidly emerging in the United States. In 2012, a series of articles in The New York Times focused welfare attention squarely on the horse industry. Opponents of concern for animals often dismiss the phenomenon as rooted in emotion and extremist lack of appreciation of how unrestricted animal ...


Management Of Cull Dairy Cows—Consensus Of An Expert Consultation In Canada, Jane Stojkov, G. Bowers, M. Draper, Todd Duffield, P. Duivenvoorden, M. Groleau, Deb Haupstein, R. Peters, Jane Pritchard, C. Radom, N. Sillett, W. Skippon, H. Trépanier, David Fraser Sep 2019

Management Of Cull Dairy Cows—Consensus Of An Expert Consultation In Canada, Jane Stojkov, G. Bowers, M. Draper, Todd Duffield, P. Duivenvoorden, M. Groleau, Deb Haupstein, R. Peters, Jane Pritchard, C. Radom, N. Sillett, W. Skippon, H. Trépanier, David Fraser

David Fraser, PhD

Many cull dairy cows enter the marketing system and travel to widely dispersed and specialized slaughter plants, and they may experience multiple handling events (e.g., loading, unloading, mixing), change of ownership among dealers, and feed and water deprivation during transport and at livestock markets. The objectives of this study were to describe the diverse management of cull dairy cows in Canada and establish consensus on ways to achieve improvements. A 2-day expert consultation meeting was convened, involving farmers, veterinarians, regulators, and experts in animal transport, livestock auction, and slaughter. The 15 participants, recruited from across Canada, discussed regional management ...


Gender And Communication In Bhagavad Gita - Organizing For Inclusivity.Pdf, Jon P. Radwan Aug 2019

Gender And Communication In Bhagavad Gita - Organizing For Inclusivity.Pdf, Jon P. Radwan

Jon P. Radwan

Twenty-first century research on sustainability and development advises organizations to work toward increased inclusivity and equality.  Where modern theory stressed independence and autonomy, global communication and technology revolutions now require a holistic systems perspective stressing inter-dependence and balance.  In particular, gendered exclusion patterns and misogyny have been identified as both ethically suspect and organizationally counter-productive.  All religious traditions address gender relations, and despite patriarchal histories many wisdom traditions share valuable lessons on gender inclusivity.  Within the Hindu tradition the Bhagavad Gita is a spiritual masterpiece with a profound message of unity, including both masculine and feminine manifestations of God.  This ...


Capturing Regulatory Agendas?: An Empirical Study Of Industry Use Of Rulemaking Petitions, Daniel E. Walters Aug 2019

Capturing Regulatory Agendas?: An Empirical Study Of Industry Use Of Rulemaking Petitions, Daniel E. Walters

Daniel Walters

A great deal of skepticism toward administrative agencies stems from the widespread perception that they excessively or even exclusively cater to business interests. From the political right comes the accusation that business interests use regulation to erect barriers to entry that protect profits and stifle competition. From the political left comes the claim that business interests use secretive interactions with agencies to erode and negate beneficial regulatory programs. Regulatory “capture” theory elevates many of these claims to the status of economic law. Despite growing skepticism about capture theory in academic circles, empirical studies of business influence and capture return ambiguous ...


Using The Five Domains Model To Assess The Adverse Impacts Of Husbandry, Veterinary, And Equitation Interventions On Horse Welfare, Paul Mcgreevy, Jeannine Berger, Nic De Brauwere, Orla Doherty, Anna Harrison, Julie Fiedler, Claudia Jones, Sue Mcdonnell, Andrew Mclean, Lindsay Nakonechny, Christine Nichol, Liane Preshaw, Peter Thomson, Vicky Tzioumis, John Webster, Sarah Wolfensohn, James Yeates, Bidda Jones Jul 2019

Using The Five Domains Model To Assess The Adverse Impacts Of Husbandry, Veterinary, And Equitation Interventions On Horse Welfare, Paul Mcgreevy, Jeannine Berger, Nic De Brauwere, Orla Doherty, Anna Harrison, Julie Fiedler, Claudia Jones, Sue Mcdonnell, Andrew Mclean, Lindsay Nakonechny, Christine Nichol, Liane Preshaw, Peter Thomson, Vicky Tzioumis, John Webster, Sarah Wolfensohn, James Yeates, Bidda Jones

Paul McGreevy, PhD

The aim of this study was to conduct a series of paper-based exercises in order to assess the negative (adverse) welfare impacts, if any, of common interventions on domestic horses across a

broad range of different contexts of equine care and training. An international panel (with professional expertise in psychology, equitation science, veterinary science, education, welfare, equestrian coaching, advocacy, and community engagement; n = 16) met over a four-day period to define and assess these interventions, using an adaptation of the domain-based assessment model. The interventions were considered within 14 contexts: C1Weaning; C2 Diet; C3 Housing; C4 Foundation training; C5 Ill-health ...


Ranking Of Production Animal Welfare And Ethics Issues In Australia And New Zealand By Veterinary Students, Amelia Cornish, Andrew D. Fisher, Teresa Collins, Chris Degeling, Rafael Freire, Susan J. Hazel, Jennifer Hood, Jennifer K.F. Lloyd, Clive J.C. Phillips, Kevin J. Stafford, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul Mcgreevy Jul 2019

Ranking Of Production Animal Welfare And Ethics Issues In Australia And New Zealand By Veterinary Students, Amelia Cornish, Andrew D. Fisher, Teresa Collins, Chris Degeling, Rafael Freire, Susan J. Hazel, Jennifer Hood, Jennifer K.F. Lloyd, Clive J.C. Phillips, Kevin J. Stafford, Vicky Tzioumis, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, PhD

The importance of animal welfare and ethics (AWE) within the veterinary education should reflect community concerns and expectations about AWE, and the professional demands of veterinary accreditation on the first day of practice (or ‘Day One’ competences). Currently, much interest and debate surrounds the treatment of production animals, particularly around live export. To explore the attitudes to AWE of veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand, a survey was undertaken to (i) understand what students consider important AWE topics for initial production animal competence; and (ii) ascertain how these priorities correlated with gender, area of intended practice and stage-of-study. The ...


Do Environmental Responsibility Views Influence Investors’ Use Of Environmental Performance And Assurance Information?, William N. Dilla, Diane J. Janvrin, Jon D. Perkins, Robyn Raschke Jul 2019

Do Environmental Responsibility Views Influence Investors’ Use Of Environmental Performance And Assurance Information?, William N. Dilla, Diane J. Janvrin, Jon D. Perkins, Robyn Raschke

Diane J. Janvrin

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate whether investor views regarding the benefits of corporate environmental responsibility moderate the influence of environmental performance and assurance information on their judgments. Specifically, the authors examine the effects of two broad views: environmental responsibility is more important than financial performance, regardless of investment returns (i.e. environmental responsibility importance) and positive environmental performance will increase investment returns (i.e. environmental performance return).

Design/methodology/approach – Nonprofessional investors completed an online study where environmental performance (high or low) and assurance on environmental performance information (present or absent) were varied. Participants’ corporate environmental ...


Towards Quantifiable Metrics Warranting Industry-Wide Corporate Death Penalties, Joshua M. Pearce Mar 2019

Towards Quantifiable Metrics Warranting Industry-Wide Corporate Death Penalties, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

In the singular search for profits, some corporations inadvertently kill humans. If this routinely occurs throughout an industry, it may no longer serve a net positive social purpose for society and should be eliminated. This article provides a path to an objective quantifiable metric for determining when an entire industry warrants the corporate death penalty. First, a theoretical foundation is developed with minimum assumptions necessary to provide evidence for corporate public purposes. This is formed into an objective quantifiable metric with publicly-available data and applied to two case studies in the U.S.: the tobacco and coal mining industries. The ...


Tackling Undeclared Work In The Agricultural Sector, With A Focus Upon Seasonal Workers And Horticulture: Background Paper For The European Platform On Tackling Undeclared Work Seminar, Colin C. Williams Jan 2019

Tackling Undeclared Work In The Agricultural Sector, With A Focus Upon Seasonal Workers And Horticulture: Background Paper For The European Platform On Tackling Undeclared Work Seminar, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This background paper briefly sets out the prevalence of undeclared work in the agricultural sector in the European Union and the approaches and tools available for tackling such work, with a focus upon horticulture and undeclared seasonal workers. The intention is to stimulate the thoughts of participants attending the European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work seminar on “Tackling undeclared work in the agricultural sector: with a focus upon seasonal workers and horticulture” (to be held in Brussels on January 24th 2019) on potential policy which could be adopted to transform undeclared work into declared work in the agricultural sector, especially with ...


Social Enterprise, Stuart C. Mendel Dec 2018

Social Enterprise, Stuart C. Mendel

Stuart C Mendel

Interest in concepts that cross the boundaries of nonprofit, business, and government institution forms has been associated with the nonprofit leadership and management literature since the 1980s and early 1990s.  From the standpoint of nonprofit sector processes, the earliest scholarly writing recognized what we now call social innovation as contributing to the conditions for social change and issues advocacy. Thinking on social enterprise centered on-cause related marketing involving collaborative relationships between nonprofits and businesses.  The scrutiny for social entrepreneurism led to discourse on revenue producing earned income activities and the resulting income obligations for unrelated business income tax (UBIT), with ...


Glossary Of Terms: European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Nov 2018

Glossary Of Terms: European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This glossary is intended to provide a common understanding of the terminology that is used in the European Platform tackling undeclared work web pages, documents and publications. It does not provide official Platform definitions of the terms listed therein. Where possible, references are provided to the source of the understandings provided.
To facilitate understanding, the terms in the glossary are grouped together rather than presented as an A-Z list.

In the first section, the common understandings about undeclared work and its various sub-types are provided, followed by other related concepts and terms often used for activities related to undeclared work ...


Explaining And Tackling Under-Declared Employment In Fyr Macedonia: The Employers Perspective, Colin C. Williams, Slavko Bezeredi Oct 2018

Explaining And Tackling Under-Declared Employment In Fyr Macedonia: The Employers Perspective, Colin C. Williams, Slavko Bezeredi

Colin C Williams

The aim of this paper is to evaluate how employers who illegally under-report their employees’ salaries to
evade paying the full tax and social contributions owed can be explained and tackled. These employers have
been conventionally explained as rational economic actors doing so when the benefits outweigh the costs,
and thus the solution is to increase the sanctions and/or probability of detection. An alternative social actor
approach, however, explains employers as under-reporting salaries because of their lack of both vertical trust
(i.e., their beliefs are not in symmetry with the laws and regulations) and horizontal trust (i.e ...


Crime Futures Market, Adam White Jul 2018

Crime Futures Market, Adam White

Adam White

Responding to the legally guilty is typically presented as a choice between incarceration and rehabilitation.  This paper suggests a third option: preemptive rehabilitation.  The argument presents an innovative institutional approach and a unique moral justification.  The vision is a crime futures market that transfers the risk of potential crime away from undeserving victims and into the portfolios of willing investors.  Instead of taxpayers paying exclusively for prisons, the proposal would allow young adults to sign contracts to not get involved in crime, but pay the award only upon their future success.  Because the contracts represent a future payment they are ...


Taxing Under The Influence? : Corruption And U.S. State Beer Taxes, Per G. Fredriksson, Stephan Gohmann, Khawaja Mamun Mar 2018

Taxing Under The Influence? : Corruption And U.S. State Beer Taxes, Per G. Fredriksson, Stephan Gohmann, Khawaja Mamun

Per Fredriksson

This article examines the effect of state level corruption on state beer taxes in the United States. Our lobby group model predicts that corruption reduces the beer tax, but this effect is conditional on the level of alcohol-related vehicle deaths. Using a panel of state level data from 1982 to 2001, we find that increased corruption is associated with lower state beer tax rates. The magnitude of the effect, however, declines with increases in alcohol-related traffic deaths. Our findings suggest that future empirical work estimating the effect of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related traffic fatalities should treat alcohol taxes as endogenous.


Turning Science Into Policy: The Case Of Farm Animal Welfare In Canada, David Fraser Feb 2018

Turning Science Into Policy: The Case Of Farm Animal Welfare In Canada, David Fraser

David Fraser, PhD

Implications

  • Development of farm animal welfare standards in Canada has evolved significantly over 35 yr in terms of process, leadership, and the role of science.
  • Key elements of the current process include: 1) influential producers and producer organizations that see the benefit of having science-informed standards, 2) a credible coordinating body to ensure that a well-defined process is followed in developing standards, and 3) trusted scientists who are engaged in relevant research and willing to participate.
  • The process benefits from having a distinct and defined role for the scientists, specifically to analyze relevant science and identify conclusions that are scientifically ...


Do Deterrents Prevent Undeclared Work? An Evaluation Of The Rational Economic Actor Approach, Ioana Horodnic, Colin C. Williams Jan 2018

Do Deterrents Prevent Undeclared Work? An Evaluation Of The Rational Economic Actor Approach, Ioana Horodnic, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Across the member states of the European Union and beyond, paid transactions occur that are not declared to the state for tax, social security and/or labour law purposes when they should be declared. This is not a minority practice. The undeclared economy is estimated to be equivalent to 17.9 per cent of the EU28 GDP in 2016. Similarly, it is estimated that 9.3 per cent of total labour input in the private sector in the EU28 is undeclared and that undeclared work constitutes on average 14.3 per cent of gross value added in the private sector ...


General Principles For The Welfare Of Animals In Production Systems: The Underlying Science And Its Application, David Fraser, Ian J.H. Duncan, Sandra A. Edwards, Temple Grandin, Neville G. Gregory, Vincent Guyonnet, Paul H. Hemsworth, Stella M. Huertas, Juliana M. Huzzey, David J. Mellor, Joy A. Mench, Marek Špinka, H. Rebecca Whay Nov 2017

General Principles For The Welfare Of Animals In Production Systems: The Underlying Science And Its Application, David Fraser, Ian J.H. Duncan, Sandra A. Edwards, Temple Grandin, Neville G. Gregory, Vincent Guyonnet, Paul H. Hemsworth, Stella M. Huertas, Juliana M. Huzzey, David J. Mellor, Joy A. Mench, Marek Špinka, H. Rebecca Whay

David Fraser, PhD

In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 ‘General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems’ to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature ...


Attitudes Of Canadian Citizens Toward Farm Animal Welfare: A Qualitative Study, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser Nov 2017

Attitudes Of Canadian Citizens Toward Farm Animal Welfare: A Qualitative Study, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser

David Fraser, PhD

As part of a larger project to determine if there are animal-welfare-related values shared by some commercial food–animal producers and non-producers in Canada, open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit opinions about animal welfare among 24 urban and rural residents not involved in commercial animal production. All participants possessed a self-described interest in food animal well-being and were therefore assumed to represent the views of Canadian non-producers most apt to engage in efforts to shape the animal welfare policies of governments and businesses. Participants described animal welfare in moral or ethical terms, expressed virtually unanimous support for animals having ...


Attitudes Of Canadian Beef Producers Toward Animal Welfare, J. M. Spooner, C. A. Schuppli, D. Fraser Nov 2017

Attitudes Of Canadian Beef Producers Toward Animal Welfare, J. M. Spooner, C. A. Schuppli, D. Fraser

David Fraser, PhD

Commercial beef production in western Canada involves raising cows and calves on large tracts of grassland, plus grain-based ‘finishing’ of animals in outdoor feedlots. This study used open-ended, semi-structured interviews to explore views on animal welfare of 23 commercial beef producers in this system. Although wary of the term ‘animal welfare’, participants understood the concept to encompass three well-known elements: (i) basic animal health and body condition; (ii) affective states (comfort, contentment, freedom from hunger or thirst); and (iii) the ability to live a ‘natural’ life. Participants attached importance to protecting animals from natural hardships (extreme weather, predators), yet many ...


Attitudes Of Canadian Pig Producers Toward Animal Welfare, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser Nov 2017

Attitudes Of Canadian Pig Producers Toward Animal Welfare, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser

David Fraser, PhD

As part of a larger study eliciting Canadian producer and non-producer views about animal welfare, open-ended, semi-structured interviews were used to explore opinions about animal welfare of 20 Canadian pig producers, most of whom were involved in confinement-based systems. With the exception of the one organic producer, who emphasized the importance of a ‘‘natural’’ life, participants attached overriding importance to biological health and functioning. They saw their efforts as providing pigs with dry, thermally regulated, indoor environments where animals received abundant feed, careful monitoring and where prospective disease outbreaks could be minimized and controlled. Emphasis was also placed on low-stress ...


Nonhuman Animal Rights, Alternative Food Systems, And The Non-Profit Industrial Complex, Corey Lee Wrenn Jun 2017

Nonhuman Animal Rights, Alternative Food Systems, And The Non-Profit Industrial Complex, Corey Lee Wrenn

Corey Lee Wrenn, PhD

No abstract provided.


Business As Usual: Ethics As Mundane Behavior, And The Case Of Target Corporation, Jon A. Hess Sep 2016

Business As Usual: Ethics As Mundane Behavior, And The Case Of Target Corporation, Jon A. Hess

Jonathan A. Hess

Ethics are in vogue in the 1990s America. Concerns for ethical behavior pervade almost every aspect of our lives and work. This trend has not been unnoticed by the American business community. In fact, many businesses have taken current ethical concerns and tried to put them into action. In some cases, the action has been out of necessity or self-interest, as in the case of companies hurt by an unethical reputation or companies forced to implement ethics programs because of legal indictments. But some companies are taking a proactive stance toward ethics without external pressure.

As these businesses strive to ...


Learn This Lesson: We Really Can't Have It All, Aaron W. Hughey Jul 2016

Learn This Lesson: We Really Can't Have It All, Aaron W. Hughey

Aaron W. Hughey

No abstract provided.


Qualitative Assessment Of Animal Behaviour As An On-Farm Welfare-Monitoring Tool, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Alistair B. Lawrence Jun 2016

Qualitative Assessment Of Animal Behaviour As An On-Farm Welfare-Monitoring Tool, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Alistair B. Lawrence

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

There is a growing need to monitor the health and welfare of farm animals, and to develop methods which do so efficiently and reliably. A crucial problem with current methods is the integration of separate measurements taken during farm visits into accurate judgements of an animal’s overall welfare state. This paper proposes that the qualitative assessment of animal behaviour may serve as an integrative methodology which could guide the interpretation of other, more detailed welfare measurements. Recent research has demonstrated qualitative behaviour assessment to be reliable and repeatable under controlled experimental conditions. The paper concludes with a discussion of ...


The Organisational Climate Of Sustainability: A Survey, Anke Arnaud, Janet K. Tinoco, Dawna L. Rhoades Nov 2015

The Organisational Climate Of Sustainability: A Survey, Anke Arnaud, Janet K. Tinoco, Dawna L. Rhoades

Dr. Anke Arnaud

This study describes three dimensions of the climate of sustainability and the development of a survey for assessing these dimensions. The authors report the results of two studies conducted to measure the climate of sustainability dimensions of sensitivity to sustainability (six items), motivation for sustainability (six items), and responsibility for sustainability (five items). Results support that the climate of sustainability is a reliable instrument and demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of each survey dimension. Furthermore, results show the criterion-related validity of the climate of sustainability with respect to innovation strategy and employee attitudes including satisfaction and turnover intentions. Implications ...


Case Study: Sexism In Advertising And Airlines, Tamilla Curtis, Anke Arnaud Ph.D., Blaise Waguespack Nov 2015

Case Study: Sexism In Advertising And Airlines, Tamilla Curtis, Anke Arnaud Ph.D., Blaise Waguespack

Dr. Anke Arnaud

This case study outlines an ethical dilemma faced by a young female student who is planning to buy airline tickets. Her purchase decision is influenced by cost and advertising strategies. The case discusses advertising ethics, ethical moral philosophies, including teleology and deontology, and sexist advertising with examples from the airline industry. This case will be beneficial for marketing students to discuss the topic of advertising ethics, and for business students to discuss the topic of organizational ethics. Students enrolling in aviation related classes will also benefit from this case. The teaching notes for instructors are available upon request.


Gaming The System: The Exemption Of Professional Sports Teams From The Fair Labor Standards Act, Charlotte S. Alexander, Nathaniel Grow Nov 2015

Gaming The System: The Exemption Of Professional Sports Teams From The Fair Labor Standards Act, Charlotte S. Alexander, Nathaniel Grow

Charlotte S. Alexander

This article examines a little known exemption to the Fair Labor Standards Act relieving seasonal recreational or amusement employers from their obligation to pay the minimum wage and overtime. After evaluating the existing, confused case law surrounding the exemption, we propose a new, simplified framework for applying the provision. We then apply this framework to a recent wave of FLSA lawsuits brought by cheerleaders, minor league baseball players, and stadium workers against professional sports teams. The article concludes by considering the policy implications of exempting this class of employers from the FLSA's wage and hour requirements.


Case Study: Sexism In Advertising And Airlines, Tamilla Curtis, Anke Arnaud Ph.D., Blaise Waguespack Nov 2015

Case Study: Sexism In Advertising And Airlines, Tamilla Curtis, Anke Arnaud Ph.D., Blaise Waguespack

Dr. Tamilla Curtis

This case study outlines an ethical dilemma faced by a young female student who is planning to buy airline tickets. Her purchase decision is influenced by cost and advertising strategies. The case discusses advertising ethics, ethical moral philosophies, including teleology and deontology, and sexist advertising with examples from the airline industry. This case will be beneficial for marketing students to discuss the topic of advertising ethics, and for business students to discuss the topic of organizational ethics. Students enrolling in aviation related classes will also benefit from this case. The teaching notes for instructors are available upon request.


Fish Behaviour And Welfare, Lynne U. Sneddon Aug 2015

Fish Behaviour And Welfare, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, PhD

Fish are farmed intensively in aquaculture which is an economic necessity to provide large quantities for the food industry yet many species’ normal behaviours may be impaired by the nature of intensive aquaculture. Recommendations have suggested that for optimum welfare, animals should be able to express their natural suite of behaviours. Confining large migratory species such as salmonids to relatively small tanks or cages means they are unable to perform the extensive migrations performed by their wild counterparts so are these fish frustrated? When considering why salmonids migrate, their motivation is to find food yet if they are well fed ...


Is Google & People?, Sajjad Khaksari Jul 2015

Is Google & People?, Sajjad Khaksari

SAJJAD KHAKSARI

"Google Advertisement Strategy" strictly dominated the "Searching Ranks Results". On the other hand, 70% of the United State population and 90% of European use to used Google as their "Favorite Search Engine".
People use Google but the Google thanks to its "Famous Google Algorithm" offers them the arrangement of links that is consciously favored before by "Google Ad. Engine". In addition, unfortunately Google has many traps to bind, copy and save almost all the information from the users.