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Articles 1 - 30 of 95

Full-Text Articles in Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics

Fdi And Gender Equality: Tnc Responsibilities To Address Gender Vulnerabilities In Developing Countries, Amleset Girmay Sep 2018

Fdi And Gender Equality: Tnc Responsibilities To Address Gender Vulnerabilities In Developing Countries, Amleset Girmay

Summer Program for Undergraduate Research (SPUR)

This paper argues that foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows can often lead to increases in gender disparities in more gender unequal developing countries, and that transnational corporations (TNCs) have a responsibility to supplement their normal FDI activities with additional policies and investments to ensure that women are not being made worse off. This paper begins by building a philosophical context in global gender justice, then considers empirical evidence that shows the morally problematic areas of the relationship between FDI and gender equality. It then moves on to consider why gender vulnerability to FDI needs to be addressed, drawing again on ...


House Bill 2 & The Backlash: A Story Of Frames, Kerry Schellenberger Mar 2018

House Bill 2 & The Backlash: A Story Of Frames, Kerry Schellenberger

Honors Theses (PPE)

While over 20 states considered so-called bathroom bills between 2013-2016, only one state, North Carolina, passed one - in the form of House Bill 2. House Bill 2 modified North Carolina’s non-discrimination legislation, as well as restricting access to multi-user restrooms on the basis of sex designated on one’s birth certificate, which would require some transgender men to use the women’s restroom. The debate between those for and against HB2 raged in the press, the legal system, and finally at the ballot box. An analysis of the first two months of coverage indicates how frames were used by ...


The Other Side Of A Merger: Labor Market Power, Wage Suppression, And Finding Recourse In Antitrust Law, Ioana Marinescu Mar 2018

The Other Side Of A Merger: Labor Market Power, Wage Suppression, And Finding Recourse In Antitrust Law, Ioana Marinescu

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Labor market concentration can worsen after a merger takes place, and this heightened concentration can negatively affect wages. The focus of antitrust analysis, however, has been on the prices of consumer products, not the wages of laborers. New research indicates that, on average, labor markets are highly concentrated, and that higher concentration is associated with significantly lower posted wages for new jobs. This brief uses existing economic tools to develop a model for evaluating labor market concentration and its effects, to determine if a merger will run the risk of anticompetitively suppressing wages, employment, and output. Regulators can use this ...


The Policy Barriers To Marijuana Banking, Peter Conti-Brown Feb 2018

The Policy Barriers To Marijuana Banking, Peter Conti-Brown

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Although cannabis-related businesses have thrived in the localities that have legalized marijuana as a consumer product, the industry has suffered from crippling uncertainty, in the form of limited access to the banking system. The cannabis industry thus has been forced to operate in a cash-intensive “gray market,” which is a problem. An entire industry conducting all of its business in cash cannot be fairly taxed or regulated and, historically, has been associated with lawlessness—everything from security concerns, transportation and currency problems, money laundering, and cash hoarding. This brief reviews and analyzes the issues that surround marijuana banking and offers ...


An Investigation Into Best Practices And Lessons Learnt With Respect To China's Crackdown On Corruption, Dominic Kwok Jan 2018

An Investigation Into Best Practices And Lessons Learnt With Respect To China's Crackdown On Corruption, Dominic Kwok

Joseph Wharton Scholars

Corruption is a well-documented problem in China, as well as many other developed and undeveloped countries across the world. The problem is particularly pronounced in countries that have undergone rapid economic transformation, allowing large amounts of wealth to fall into the hands of a select few individuals. Although corruption has been researched extensively, what is less covered are potential solutions that the country, and others looking to carry out similar reform, could use to combat corruption most effectively. As China has transitioned from a planned economy to a market economy, and the economy has become more powerful than ever, corruption ...


The Challenges Of Conscience In A World Of Compromise, Amy J. Sepinwall Jan 2018

The Challenges Of Conscience In A World Of Compromise, Amy J. Sepinwall

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

The process of crafting and passing legislation might be thought to be the locus of compromise par excellence.1 Yet, where the law that results impinges upon moral or religious belief or practice, the issue of compromise arises anew, in both senses of the word: Individuals who oppose the law on moral or religious grounds believe that their political obedeience will compromise them in a fundamental way. Their plea for an exemption from the objectionable legal requirement is, then, a bid for further compromise.2 Compromise in the first sense concerns an undercutting of the self, while compromise in the ...


Hedge Fund Activism And Esg: Examining The Role Of Activist Hedge Funds As Protagonists In Capital Markets, Karl Valentini Jan 2018

Hedge Fund Activism And Esg: Examining The Role Of Activist Hedge Funds As Protagonists In Capital Markets, Karl Valentini

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

ESG investing is a recent trend that has been gaining major traction in the investment community. Within that community, activist hedge funds have been powerful agents in shaping the corporate landscape and in creating value at the companies they target. Research has been conducted on both hedge fund activism and ESG investing, but fails to examine the intersection between the two investment strategies. To fill that gap, this paper aims to examine whether the increased popularity of ESG investing is affecting how activist investors pursue value creation at the companies they target. The findings show that the most common ESG ...


The Prevalence Of Implicit And Explicit Bias In Financial Companies In India, Ashley Shah, Nina Strohminger, Sachika Shah Jan 2018

The Prevalence Of Implicit And Explicit Bias In Financial Companies In India, Ashley Shah, Nina Strohminger, Sachika Shah

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

The nature of implicit bias is such that it is more difficult to eradicate. Therefore, it is also difficult to test for implicit bias as it is not something that can be found through direct surveys. This study determines whether companies in India display implicit biases in their hiring practices through indirect methods of soliciting data. By submitting resumes with names that correlate with certain genders of religions, the normal hiring process was observed. Due to the smaller sample size, significant results were not found to corroborate implicit bias. The paper also addresses current legislation in India regarding discrimination and ...


Why Taxing Carbon May Not Make The World More Green, Serguei Netessine, Sam Aflaki Dec 2017

Why Taxing Carbon May Not Make The World More Green, Serguei Netessine, Sam Aflaki

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Although taxing carbon is an idea that enjoys significant support among policymakers and business leaders, new research indicates that carbon taxation can actually cause energy investments to gravitate away from the cleanest energy technologies. This counterintuitive finding reflects two key characteristics of energy markets: the worldwide increase in renewable energy sources whose output is intermittent and variable; and greater market liberalization, which has made the spot driving of electricity more volatile. The intermittency of renewable energy sources requires backup generation, typically from generators using fossil fuels. The dynamics of market liberalization amplify this negative effect of intermittency. Policymakers need to ...


Awakening The Potential Of Positive Computing: A Transversal, Heliotropic Design Paradigm For Human Flourishing, Ryan Wynia Dec 2017

Awakening The Potential Of Positive Computing: A Transversal, Heliotropic Design Paradigm For Human Flourishing, Ryan Wynia

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive Computing literature does not consider the complex implications stemming from the evidence of computing technologies’ harmful effects. Moreover, present approaches to integrating well-being science into the design of interactive systems are built on deficit-oriented models. In response, a transversal, social constructionist paradigm of Positive Computing sensitive to the social complex and views technology as a part ofcivilization as a living, human construction is explored as a means of advancing the Positive Computing domain. The work argues the well-being of civilization needs to be routinely re-secured through the development of a metacognitive, affirmative competency that recognizessocial systems as capable of ...


Addressing Personal-Income-Tax Manipulation With Tools From Psychology, Alex Rees-Jones Oct 2017

Addressing Personal-Income-Tax Manipulation With Tools From Psychology, Alex Rees-Jones

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

In order to better understand the tax manipulation decision-making process—both legal uses of tax deductions and illegal tax evasion—this brief looks at the impact of gain/loss framing. Analysis of tax data confirms that tax decisions are influenced by “loss aversion.” For instance, taxpayers are more likely to pursue tax reduction activities when they make a loss smaller, as compared to when they make a gain larger. The brief looks at tools that policymakers have at their disposal for both deterring tax evasion and making exiting tax incentives maximally effective. The brief discusses instances when such gain/loss ...


Before International Tax Reform, We Need To Understand Why Firms Invert, Michael Knoll Sep 2017

Before International Tax Reform, We Need To Understand Why Firms Invert, Michael Knoll

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

A wave of corporate inversions by U.S. firms over the past two decades has generated substantial debate in academic, business, and policy circles. The core of the debate hinges on a couple of key economic questions: Do U.S. tax laws disadvantage U.S.-domiciled companies relative to their foreign competitors? And, if so, do inversions improve the competitiveness of U.S. multinational firms both abroad and at home? This brief, summarizes both old and new research that views these questions through the lens of corporations’ global effective tax rates (ETRs), and finds that the stronger case seems to ...


Back To Work: The Effects Of Goal Conflict On Working Mothers, Lauren Ogle Sep 2017

Back To Work: The Effects Of Goal Conflict On Working Mothers, Lauren Ogle

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Why is the rate of depression for women two times that of men? In the “we can do it all” generation, becoming a mother can be one of the most frustrating and rewarding experiences in one’s lifetime. Fulfilling career goals in addition to the demands motherhood can cause psychological distress. In this paper I present literature reviews on mothering, careers, goal conflict and how positive psychology tools can help alleviate depression in women. Based on research, I outlined four topics to build a workshop that will help working mothers bounce back from adversity, develop their signature strengths, avoid negative ...


Regulating Robo Advisors: Old Policy Goals, New Challenges, Tom Baker, Benedict Dellaert Jul 2017

Regulating Robo Advisors: Old Policy Goals, New Challenges, Tom Baker, Benedict Dellaert

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Financial “robo advice”—an automated service that ranks or matches consumers to financial products—has gained significant attention in the investment industry and on the Hill, but there has not yet been a consensus on how to regulate these new services. Robo advisors often are on par with and can exceed the standards of human advices, but they don’t fit into the category of fiduciary, and therefore won’t be held to the same regulatory standard that humans advisors are. Nonetheless, they are subject to systemic risks and the potential for abuses that can hurt consumers. Professors Tom Baker ...


The Possibility Of Preemptive Forgiving, Nicolas Cornell Apr 2017

The Possibility Of Preemptive Forgiving, Nicolas Cornell

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

This essay defends the possibility of preemptive forgiving, that is, forgiving before the offending action has taken place. This essay argues that our moral practices and emotions admit such a possibility, and it attempts to offer examples to illustrate this phenomenon. There are two main reasons why someone might doubt the possibility of preemptive forgiving. First, one might think that preemptive forgiving would amount to granting permission. Second, one might think that forgiving requires emotional content that is not available prior to wrongdoing. If, however, preemptively forgiving is genuinely possible—as this essay hopes to illustrate—then this fact has ...


The Presidency, Congressional Republicans, And The Future Of Financial Reform, Peter Conti-Brown Feb 2017

The Presidency, Congressional Republicans, And The Future Of Financial Reform, Peter Conti-Brown

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

This brief examines the tension between the Republican ideological commitment to curbing executive power and the opportunity Republicans now have for Trump to dominate the direction of financial regulatory reform. The discussion will focus on three key policy outcomes that Republicans have sought during the last six years: reforming the Federal Reserve, overhauling the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, and changing the way in which the nation’s largest financial institutions are designated and regulated.


Conscientious Objection, Complicity, And Accommodation, Amy J. Sepinwall Jan 2017

Conscientious Objection, Complicity, And Accommodation, Amy J. Sepinwall

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc.1 inaugurated an unprecedented deference to religious challenges to secular laws,2 which Zubik v. Burwell neither retrenched nor replace.3 On the Court's highly deferential stance, complicity claims seem to know no bounds: just so long as the objector thinks himself complicit in an act his religion opposes, the Court will conclude that the challenged legal requirement substantially burdens his religious exercise.4 The result is a set of exemptions of Court-imposed negotiations based on assertions of complicity that many courts and commentators find far-fetched, and perhaps even fantastical.5


Conclusion: The Moral Responsibility Of Firms: Past, Present, And Future, Eric W. Orts Jan 2017

Conclusion: The Moral Responsibility Of Firms: Past, Present, And Future, Eric W. Orts

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

In 2009, my family bought a new Volkswagen Jetta diesel relying on high scores this model received for its environmental characteristics. I don't recall the rating service we used, but the top-rated passenger car along this dimension was the Toyota Prius, and the VW Jetta came in a close second. We preferred the performance and "pick up" in driving the Jetta. In 2015, however, we learned along with millions of other owners of VW automobiles one reason for the difference in performance: VW had lied. Our Jetta did not deserve the high ratings it received for its environmental characteristics ...


Gender Diversity In Boardrooms: Trends And Assumptions Along The Path To The Boardroom, Karl Valentini Jan 2017

Gender Diversity In Boardrooms: Trends And Assumptions Along The Path To The Boardroom, Karl Valentini

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

With the increased attention given to corporate governance, there has been more of a focus on the lack of gender diversity in boardrooms. Within the context of corporate governance, this project studies the impacts of gender diversity initiatives for boardrooms. The thesis focuses on the path that women take to the boardroom and on how gender diversity initiatives affect the dimensions of that path. Gender diversity initiatives in both Norway and in the United Kingdom are studied, but the analysis narrows down and focuses on the Norwegian experience and the impacts of the Norwegian board quota. By analysing interviews with ...


Quality Of Csr Reporting In China: A Comparative Analysis Between State- And Privately-Owned Real Estate Companies, Jennifer Qiu Jan 2017

Quality Of Csr Reporting In China: A Comparative Analysis Between State- And Privately-Owned Real Estate Companies, Jennifer Qiu

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

Due to domestic demands, the Chinese government has increased its policy emphasis on sustainable development, prompting both state-owned and privately-owned enterprises to engage in corporate social responsibility. Enterprises dedicate a lot of efforts compiling CSR reports as a reflection of their CSR efforts or as a mere marketing tool. This study aims to evaluate the quality of CSR efforts using the framework outlined by the GRI Reporting Principles for Defining Quality, namely “Accuracy”, “Comparability”, “Balance”, “Reliability”. Emphasis across different categories of the GRI index was also studied. This study finds that there is a lack of a mature and centralized ...


Moral Competence And Brain Connectivity: A Resting-State Fmri Study, Wi Hoon Jung, Kristin Prehn, Zhuo Fang, Marc Korczykowski, Joseph W. Kable, Hengyi Rao, Diana C. Robertson Nov 2016

Moral Competence And Brain Connectivity: A Resting-State Fmri Study, Wi Hoon Jung, Kristin Prehn, Zhuo Fang, Marc Korczykowski, Joseph W. Kable, Hengyi Rao, Diana C. Robertson

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

Moral competence (MC) refers to the ability to apply certain moral orientations in a consistent and differentiated manner when judging moral issues. People greatly differ in terms of MC, however, little is known about how these differences are implemented in the brain. To investigate this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in n = 31 individuals with MC scores in the highest 15% of the population and n = 33 individuals with MC scores in the lowest 15%, selected from a large sample of 730 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Compared to individuals with ...


More Than Just A Game: Ethical Issues In Gamification, Tae Wan Kim, Kevin Werbach Jun 2016

More Than Just A Game: Ethical Issues In Gamification, Tae Wan Kim, Kevin Werbach

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

Gamification is the use of elements and techniques from video game design in non-game contexts. Amid the rapid growth of this practice, normative questions have been under-explored. The primary goal of this article is to develop a normatively sophisticated and descriptively rich account for appropriately addressing major ethical considerations associated with gamification. The framework suggests that practitioners and designers should be precautious about, primarily, but not limited to, whether or not their use of gamification practices: (1) takes unfair advantage of workers (e.g., exploitation); (2) infringes any involved workers’ or customers’ autonomy (e.g., manipulation); (3) intentionally or unintentionally ...


Bearing "Substantial Burdens", Amy J. Sepinwall May 2016

Bearing "Substantial Burdens", Amy J. Sepinwall

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

In Hobby Lobby v. Burwell, the Supreme Court held that religious believers could establish that their free exercise was substantially burdened just so long as they—or the corporation they had formed—believed that it was.

This highly deferential stance paved the way for yet another challenge to the contraceptive mandate. In Zubik, religious organizations (ROs) contend that it is not just subsidization of contraception that can make an employer complicit in contraception use. Instead, even filling out a form registering one’s objection to the mandate can do so. The government has responded by vigorously arguing that filling out ...


Divestitures, Emilie R. Feldman, Patia J. Mcgrath May 2016

Divestitures, Emilie R. Feldman, Patia J. Mcgrath

Management Papers

This article provides an introduction to divestitures and the research streams that examine these deals. Divestitures are defined as the removal of one or more of a company’s lines of business via selloff or spinoff. In this article, we describe how research on divestitures has evolved in the finance and strategy literatures, and we explain how to design and conduct empirical research studies on this topic. We also discuss the implications of divestitures for organization design, and outline some directions for future research in this domain.


Gender Quotas For Corporate Boards: A Holistic Analysis, Neeka Choobineh Jan 2016

Gender Quotas For Corporate Boards: A Holistic Analysis, Neeka Choobineh

Joseph Wharton Scholars

Gender quotas for corporate boards have risen in popularity ever since Norway implemented the first quota in 2003. Proponents point to economic arguments (i.e. enhanced return on assets and return on equity) as well as social good rationales (i.e. bolstered corporate social responsibility and reduced fraud) to validate their enactment. Advocates further gloss over a moral justification rooted in a broad notion of equality, although more heavily relying on empirical claims.

This article demonstrates how empirical rationales in support of gender quotas are unconvincing. Economic evidence is ultimately inconclusive, and the social good justifications alone do not serve ...


The Influence Of Culture On Senior Leaders As They Seek To Resolve Ethical Dilemmas At Work, Thomas Christopher Mclaverty Jan 2016

The Influence Of Culture On Senior Leaders As They Seek To Resolve Ethical Dilemmas At Work, Thomas Christopher Mclaverty

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation explores some of the difficulties that arise when using the cognitive development model to explain ethical behaviour in the world of work. An alternative theoretical position is explored, one that was originally developed in anthropology by Richard Shweder and Jonathan Haidt. This position asserts that ethical behaviour is not universal, it is instead highly contextual and may be influenced by both organisational and ethnic/national culture. The influence of culture on ethical behaviour is explored using narrative research techniques. The research is based on thirty in depth interviews with senior executives who frequently faced ethical dilemmas at work ...


Not The Only Game In Town: The Complementary Roles Of Public & Private Environmental Governance, Sarah E. Light Oct 2015

Not The Only Game In Town: The Complementary Roles Of Public & Private Environmental Governance, Sarah E. Light

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

This Brief focuses on ways in which private firms are adopting tools that mirror public law instruments—such as internal carbon fees (similar to a public carbon tax) and private cap-and-trade schemes (like public emissions trading schemes)—to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and address climate change. These private case studies suggest that significant progress in reducing emissions can come from embedding emissions reduction programs into core business strategy. Moreover, these case studies indicate that climate change, as a global issue, requires public regulators to recognize the potential contributions of global multinational firms.


Pharmacy Benefit Management: Are Reporting Requirements Pro- Or Anticompetitive?, Patricia M. Danzon Jun 2015

Pharmacy Benefit Management: Are Reporting Requirements Pro- Or Anticompetitive?, Patricia M. Danzon

Health Care Management Papers

The market-based US health care system relies on pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) to control pharmaceutical costs, in contrast to most other countries that regulate drug prices and access. Optimal strucuturing and regulation of PBM contracts poses significant agency challenges for private and public payers. However, recent reporting requirements for PBMs may be counterproductive and reflect the interests of competitors rather than customers.


Toward A Theory Of Business, Thomas Donaldson, James P. Walsh Jan 2015

Toward A Theory Of Business, Thomas Donaldson, James P. Walsh

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

What is the purpose of business? While most agree that business minimally involves the creation of value, a blurred double image of value haunts our discussion of purpose. The image of what counts as value for a single firm is laid atop an image of what counts as value for business in general. These two images cannot match. Indeed, the resulting conceptual blurriness is a classic example of a composition fallacy. We should never mistake the properties of a part for the properties of the whole. A theory of the firm is ill equipped to handle the many expectations we ...


Crossing The Fault Line In Corporate Criminal Law, Amy J. Sepinwall Jan 2015

Crossing The Fault Line In Corporate Criminal Law, Amy J. Sepinwall

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

Why have there been so few prosecutions in the wake of the financial crisis? Official inquiries have found that rampany mandacity and fraud contributed to the meltdown.2 Yet, if anything, the government has adopted a "gentler" response to financial wrongdoing in the last five years.3 Why is this?