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Sacred Heart University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 58

Full-Text Articles in Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics

Climate Change: A Call To Action, Kathy K. Dhanda Jan 2019

Climate Change: A Call To Action, Kathy K. Dhanda

WCOB Faculty Publications

On Dec 15, 2018, in the town of Katowice, Poland, diplomats from 200 countries adopted a detailed set of rules to uphold and implement the Paris Agreement, the international treaty drafted by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This deal will require every country to track its emissions and climate policies by following a uniform set of standards. Furthermore, countries are to cut their emissions ahead of the next round of talks in 2020. Climate change is a complicated problem, one that will not be solved by national governments alone. A lot of ...


Water System Unreliability And Diarrhea Incidence Among Children In Guatemala, Jennifer Trudeau, Anna-Maria Aksan, Wiliam F. Vásquez Mar 2018

Water System Unreliability And Diarrhea Incidence Among Children In Guatemala, Jennifer Trudeau, Anna-Maria Aksan, Wiliam F. Vásquez

WCOB Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES:

This article examines the effect of water system unreliability on diarrhea incidence among children aged 0-5 in Guatemala.

METHODS:

We use secondary data from a nationally representative sample of 7579 children to estimate the effects of uninterrupted and interrupted water services on diarrhea incidence. The national scope of this study imposes some methodological challenges due to unobserved geographical heterogeneity. To address this issue, we estimate mixed-effects logit models that control for unobserved heterogeneity by estimating random effects of selected covariates that can vary across geographical areas (i.e. water system reliability).

RESULTS:

Compared to children without access to piped ...


Why We Should Have Seen That Coming: Comments On Microsoft’S Tay “Experiment,” And Wider Implications, K. W. Miller, Marty J. Wolf, Frances S. Grodzinsky Oct 2017

Why We Should Have Seen That Coming: Comments On Microsoft’S Tay “Experiment,” And Wider Implications, K. W. Miller, Marty J. Wolf, Frances S. Grodzinsky

School of Computer Science & Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper we examine the case of Tay, the Microsoft AI chatbot that was launched in March, 2016. After less than 24 hours, Microsoft shut down the experiment because the chatbot was generating tweets that were judged to be inappropriate since they included racist, sexist, and anti-Semitic language. We contend that the case of Tay illustrates a problem with the very nature of learning software (LS is a term that describes any software that changes its program in response to its interactions) that interacts directly with the public, and the developer’s role and responsibility associated with it. We ...


Restatement Vs Revision: A Case Study, Benoit N. Boyer, Danny A. Pannese, Alan L. Delfavero Jan 2017

Restatement Vs Revision: A Case Study, Benoit N. Boyer, Danny A. Pannese, Alan L. Delfavero

WCOB Faculty Publications

There had been many recent cases of restatements of financial statements by US Corporations. Recently an article in the Wall Street Journal mentioned restatements by Bank of America, Nike and Alphabet among the 663 companies that filed financial revisions or restatements last year. Interestingly the frequency of these errors has more than doubled since 2002, when the Sarbanes-Oxley corporate governance law was enacted, partly to increase managerial accountability. We will also examine what are the differences between restatements and revisions. We will examine what are the most common mistakes. Over half of last year's corrections involved debt and equity ...


An Integrated Model Of Employee Adoption, Nelson Pizarro Jan 2016

An Integrated Model Of Employee Adoption, Nelson Pizarro

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship

Proactive firms recognize that environmental and social issues are sources of competitive advantages, but whatever the motivation, organizations face challenges when implementing sustainable practices. For small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), sustainable practices have stemmed from multinational corporations (MNC), but SMEs cannot adopt sustainable practices from the knowledge and experiences of large corporations because the two entities differ critically. This study introduces an integrated model of employee adoption of sustainable practices in SMEs. It is based on five behaviors to select practical areas to which SMEs can make internal changes to achieve sustainable practices and the benefits gained from them. The ...


Era Of Big Data: Danger Of Descrimination, Andra Gumbus, Frances Grodzinsky Sep 2015

Era Of Big Data: Danger Of Descrimination, Andra Gumbus, Frances Grodzinsky

WCOB Faculty Publications

We live in a world of data collection where organizations and marketers know our income, our credit rating and history, our love life, race, ethnicity, religion, interests, travel history and plans, hobbies, health concerns, spending habits and millions of other data points about our private lives. This data, mined for our behaviors, habits, likes and dislikes, is referred to as the “creep factor” of big data [1]. It is estimated that data generated worldwide will be 1.3 zettabytes (ZB) by 2016. The rise of computational power plus cheaper and faster devices to capture, collect, store and process data, translates ...


Sustainability, Stakeholder Perspective And Corporate Success: A Paradigm Shift, Eunsup Daniel Shim Oct 2014

Sustainability, Stakeholder Perspective And Corporate Success: A Paradigm Shift, Eunsup Daniel Shim

WCOB Faculty Publications

In this paper, I argue that the corporation can ‘do well by doing good’ in the long run if they take the stakeholder perspective. Corporations narrowly focused on short-term profits, can make business decisions that could be detrimental to long-run sustainability. For example, firms might not be making enough investments in Research and Development, producing potentially harmful products, and might not pay enough attention to their corporate image. The stakeholder perspective promotes ethical business decision-making and focuses on long-run sustainability by emphasizing a stable customer base, employee well-being, a better corporate image, and corporate social responsibility. Ethical decision-making includes a ...


Trust, Betrayal, And Whistle-Blowing: Reflections On The Edward Snowden Case, Herman T. Tavani, Frances Grodzinsky Sep 2014

Trust, Betrayal, And Whistle-Blowing: Reflections On The Edward Snowden Case, Herman T. Tavani, Frances Grodzinsky

School of Computer Science & Engineering Faculty Publications

Is every act of whistle blowing, by definition, a betrayal of trust on the part of the whistle-blower? If so, are employees who blow the whistle, by implication, untrustworthy employees? Assuming that they are, would employees who blow the whistle (presumably on the grounds of moral obligation) also be willing to concede that they are not trustworthy employees, by virtue of carrying out their whistle-blowing act(s)? In answering these questions, we first propose some working definitions of whistle-blowing, trust, and trustworthiness. We then ask whether some instances of whistle-blowing are morally permissible (and perhaps also morally required), even if ...


Teaching The Catholic Intellectual Tradition Through An Experiential Learning Program, Susan T. Dinnocenti, Maria Lizano-Dimare, Khawaja Mamun, Rupendra Paliwal Jan 2014

Teaching The Catholic Intellectual Tradition Through An Experiential Learning Program, Susan T. Dinnocenti, Maria Lizano-Dimare, Khawaja Mamun, Rupendra Paliwal

WCOB Working Papers

A Catholic University has a specific mission of preserving, transmitting and developing the Catholic Intellectual Tradition. This paper proposes an experiential learning program to support this mission of the catholic universities. This program aims to provide integrated and practical learning of fundamental moral values of catholic intellectual tradition and issues related to social justice while developing the critical and analytical thinking through exposure to real world problems, their possible solutions and a personal reflection. In this paper, we use a microfinance program in an underdeveloped country as the premise for the experiential learning program specifically for business students. Moreover, the ...


Is Neuromarketing Ethical? Consumers Say Yes. Consumers Say No, Jason Flores, Arne Baruca, Robert Saldivar Jan 2014

Is Neuromarketing Ethical? Consumers Say Yes. Consumers Say No, Jason Flores, Arne Baruca, Robert Saldivar

WCOB Faculty Publications

Advancements in the development of neuroscience have created the capacity for neuroscientific methods to be applied to marketing science and ultimately marketing practice. As a relatively nascent subfield in marketing, neuromarketing applies neuroscientific methods to study consumer reactions to specific marketing related stimuli. This study analyzes the use of neuromarketing by for-profit and non-profit organizations from an ethical perspective based on consumers’ point of view. The implications of consumers’ ethical judgments are also explored.

The empirical evidence indicates that consumers perceive the use of neuromarketing-based marketing tactics by for-profit organizations to be unethical, yet the same tactics are considered ethical ...


Value-Enhancing Capabilities Of Csr: A Brief Review Of Contemporary Literature, Mahfuja Malik Jan 2014

Value-Enhancing Capabilities Of Csr: A Brief Review Of Contemporary Literature, Mahfuja Malik

WCOB Faculty Publications

This study reviews and synthesizes the contemporary business literature that focuses on the role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to enhance firm value. The main objective of this review is to proffer a precise understanding of what has already been investigated and the findings of those investigations regarding the value-enhancing capabilities of CSR for public firms. In addition, this review identifies gaps in the existing literature, evaluates inconsistent findings, discusses possible data sources for empirical researchers, and provides direction for exploring other promising avenues in future studies. The thrust of the CSR literature largely acknowledges the value-enhancing capabilities of firms ...


The Interaction Between Learning Styles, Ethics Education, And Ethical Climate, Leanna Lawter, Tuvana Rua, Chun (Grace) Guo Jan 2014

The Interaction Between Learning Styles, Ethics Education, And Ethical Climate, Leanna Lawter, Tuvana Rua, Chun (Grace) Guo

WCOB Faculty Publications

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how learning styles and learning spaces interact to stimulate deep learning. Specifically the paper investigated the interaction of learning styles with ethics education and the ethical climate to influence the likelihood of engaging in ethical behavior.


The Alien Tort Statute Of 1789 And International Human Rights Violations: Kiobel V. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., Paula Alexander Becker Jan 2014

The Alien Tort Statute Of 1789 And International Human Rights Violations: Kiobel V. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., Paula Alexander Becker

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship

Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. involves an action under the Alien Tort Statute (ATS). The case was brought in the United States, Southern District of New York, by the widow of Dr. Barinem Kiobel, a Nigerian activist and member of the Ogoni tribe, and others for human rights violations committed in the Niger River Delta. Defendants include Royal Dutch Petroleum, Shell Transport and Trading Co., and Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria. Although the human rights violations including murder and torture were allegedly committed by the Nigerian military government, it is claimed that the Royal Dutch Petroleum defendants aided ...


Ethical Implications Of Friendly Takeovers: A Financial Manager’S Story, Barbara Tarasovich Oct 2013

Ethical Implications Of Friendly Takeovers: A Financial Manager’S Story, Barbara Tarasovich

WCOB Faculty Publications

Case study in which Bernadette was heading the corporate acquisitions team. It was important for Bernadette to be certain that there was no unethical behavior on the part of the project and management team responsible for the acquisition and integration of these companies. The pressures to achieve synergies can often result in people problems, cultural value, and ethical differences that impede the smooth integration of companies. For each acquisition, Bernadette needed to ensure that the newly acquired assets were secure. In addition, she had to ensure that the acquired companies were not employing inappropriate accounting practices in order to inflate ...


Introducing A Writing Skills Intervention Into An Undergraduate Financial Accounting Course, Barbara M. Tarasovich, Benoit Boyer Apr 2013

Introducing A Writing Skills Intervention Into An Undergraduate Financial Accounting Course, Barbara M. Tarasovich, Benoit Boyer

WCOB Faculty Publications

This paper describes how integrating a research project into an undergraduate business school core accounting course provides opportunities to develop critical writing skills while reinforcing ethics as part of the business school curriculum. The paper discusses an end-to-end process from the overall goals and details of the assignment to assess student skills. After researching an ethical topic in business, students are challenged to complete a research paper examining the issue and stating and supporting their opinion and views of the issue. While writing courses or assignments are not unusual in business program, the unique approach described in this paper includes ...


Sustainability: A Paradigmatic Shift In Entrepreneurship Education, Frances M. Amatucci, Nelson Pizarro, Jay Friedlander Jan 2013

Sustainability: A Paradigmatic Shift In Entrepreneurship Education, Frances M. Amatucci, Nelson Pizarro, Jay Friedlander

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship

This article proposes that sustainability represents a paradigmatic shift from traditional perspectives in entrepreneurship education. This “call to action” argues that it is imperative for entrepreneurship scholars and practitioners to add sustainability to academic curricula and consulting support activities. The evolutionary development of entrepreneurship from the traditional profit-oriented perspective to sustainable entrepreneurship is described. A case study of an academic institution, which has successfully incorporated sustainability principles into its curriculum, is provided.This article is among the first that details the importance of a paradigmatic shift because “business as usual” is no longer effective in the twenty-first century.


Moral Responsibility For Computing Artifacts: "The Rules" And Issues Of Trust, Frances Grodzinsky, Keith Miller, Marty J. Wolf Dec 2012

Moral Responsibility For Computing Artifacts: "The Rules" And Issues Of Trust, Frances Grodzinsky, Keith Miller, Marty J. Wolf

School of Computer Science & Engineering Faculty Publications

“The Rules” are found in a collaborative document (started in March 2010) that states principles for responsibility when a computer artifact is designed, developed and deployed into a sociotechnical system. At this writing, over 50 people from nine countries have signed onto The Rules (Ad Hoc Committee, 2010). Unlike codes of ethics, The Rules are not tied to any organization, and computer users as well as computing professionals are invited to sign onto The Rules. The emphasis in The Rules is that both users and professionals have responsibilities in the production and use of computing artifacts. In this paper, we ...


A Theory Of Vertical Political Interaction In Cigarette Taxation, Khawaja Mamun Aug 2012

A Theory Of Vertical Political Interaction In Cigarette Taxation, Khawaja Mamun

WCOB Faculty Publications

This paper examines the political interdependence of federal and state cigarette tax rates. We develop a lobby group model where a state’s endogenous reaction to a federal cigarette tax hike depends crucially on the political responses of the cigarette producer and anti-smoking lobby groups.


The Dilemma Between Ethics, Contemporary Political-Economy And Society's Common Good: Reengaging The Stewards Of The Common Good, Kwamie Dunbar Jan 2012

The Dilemma Between Ethics, Contemporary Political-Economy And Society's Common Good: Reengaging The Stewards Of The Common Good, Kwamie Dunbar

Presidential Seminar on the Catholic Intellectual Tradition

The paper focuses on the rising gap between ethics and modern day business practices and employs recent Catholic Social Teaching and moral anthropology in order to assess the types of (value) ascriptions that can (normativelv) best define business ethics in an era of positive economics, rising levels of individualism and a shrinking “common good."


Artificial Agents, Cloud Computing, And Quantum Computing: Applying Floridi’S Method Of Levels Of Abstraction, Marty J. Wolf, Frances Grodzinsky, Keith W. Miller Jan 2012

Artificial Agents, Cloud Computing, And Quantum Computing: Applying Floridi’S Method Of Levels Of Abstraction, Marty J. Wolf, Frances Grodzinsky, Keith W. Miller

School of Computer Science & Engineering Faculty Publications

In his paper “On the Intrinsic Value of Information Objects and the Infosphere,” Luciano Floridi asserts that the goal of Information Ethics (IE) “is to fill an ‘ethical vacuum’ brought to light by the ICT revolution, to paraphrase Moor” (1985). He claims “IE will prove its value only if its applications bear fruit. This is the work that needs to be done in the near future” (Floridi 2002). Our chapter proposes to do part of that work. Initially we focus on Floridi’s Method of Levels of Abstraction (LoA). We begin by examining his methodology as it was first developed ...


The Sarbanes Oxley Act's Contribution To Curtailing Corporate Bribery, Karen Cascini, Alan Delfavero, Mario Mililli Jan 2012

The Sarbanes Oxley Act's Contribution To Curtailing Corporate Bribery, Karen Cascini, Alan Delfavero, Mario Mililli

WCOB Faculty Publications

In the wake of corporate scandals occurring in the early 2000s, a need for stricter regulation was deemed necessary by the investors of U.S. public companies. In 2002, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SoX) was created. Accordingly, under the rules of SoX, U.S. corporations were faced with increased oversight and also needed to substantially improve their internal controls. As companies began to scrutinize their internal affairs more closely, some businesses detected other forms of criminal activity occurring internally, such as bribery. Those companies and individuals found to have committed bribery have violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (FCPA ...


The Never Ending Attraction Of The Ponzi Scheme, Pearl Jacobs, Linda Schain Jan 2011

The Never Ending Attraction Of The Ponzi Scheme, Pearl Jacobs, Linda Schain

CJ Faculty Publications

In the 1920’s, Charles Ponzi engaged in a notorious money making scheme. This scheme had been tried before but no one prior to Charles Ponzi had managed to swindle millions of dollars out of unsuspecting people. Thus, the scheme bears his name. In December 2008, Bernard Madoff, a major Ponzi schemer, was exposed. He managed to con investors out of over $65 billion over a thirty year period. Madoff was a highly respected financial expert. The investors were mostly well educated and supposedly financially savvy. How did this happen? This paper will examine some theories which may help explain ...


Should Individual Investors Use Technical Trading Rules To Attempt To Beat The Market?, Thomas S. Coe, Kittipong Laosethakul Jan 2010

Should Individual Investors Use Technical Trading Rules To Attempt To Beat The Market?, Thomas S. Coe, Kittipong Laosethakul

WCOB Faculty Publications

Problem statement: Despite widespread academic acceptance of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis, some stock traders still use technical trading rules in an attempt to beat the market. Approach: This study looked at four trading rules, namely, the arithmetic moving average, the relative strength index, a stochastic oscillator and its moving average. These trading rules compare the relationship of current prices to past price patterns to generate a signal when to buy and sell stocks. The trading rules were tested over the years 2000-2009, a period of time that exhibited bull and bear markets, to determine if traders could actively trade a ...


Giving Voice To Values: How To Speak Your Mind When You Know What's Right (Book Review), Andra Gumbus Jan 2010

Giving Voice To Values: How To Speak Your Mind When You Know What's Right (Book Review), Andra Gumbus

WCOB Faculty Publications

Book review by Andra Gumbus.

Gentile, Mary. Giving Voice to Values: How to Speak Your Mind When You Know What's Right. New Haven: Yale University Press, c2010.

ISBN 9780300161182


Backdated Stock Options Ownership Impact On The Corporation, Management, & Shareholders, Karen Cascini, Alan Delfavero Jan 2010

Backdated Stock Options Ownership Impact On The Corporation, Management, & Shareholders, Karen Cascini, Alan Delfavero

WCOB Faculty Publications

In the post-Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOx) world, there has been an unprecedented crackdown on fraudulent activity occurring within corporate America. During recent years, many companies have granted stock options to their executives and employees as part of compensation packages. While the issuance of stock options as a component of compensation is considered to be a legal practice, corruption has taken this corporate resource to unlawful heights. Recently, numerous corporations have been in the news for potentially backdating stock options. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to distinguish between legal and illegal aspects of backdating stock options, and to examine the ...


Giving Voice To Values: How To Speak Your Mind When You Know What's Right (Book Review), Andra Gumbus Jan 2010

Giving Voice To Values: How To Speak Your Mind When You Know What's Right (Book Review), Andra Gumbus

Andra Gumbus

Book review by Andra Gumbus: Gentile, Mary. Giving Voice to Values: How to Speak Your Mind When You Know What's Right. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-6118-2


Faith-Based Entrepreneurship, M. Yaqub Mirza, Miles K. Davis Jan 2010

Faith-Based Entrepreneurship, M. Yaqub Mirza, Miles K. Davis

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship

Interview of M. Yaqub Mirza by Miles K. Davis. Dr. Mirza attributes both his personal and business success to following Islamic principles.This interview outlines the Islamic principles he uses to guide his investment in new ventures and how those same principles shape his management style and attitude toward corporate social responsibility.


Regulation Of The Otc Derivatives Market: A Regulatory Proposal Of Cds, Erik Welin Oct 2009

Regulation Of The Otc Derivatives Market: A Regulatory Proposal Of Cds, Erik Welin

WCOB Student Publications

According to many commentators the credit derivatives and especially CDS have been a leading cause to the development of the current financial crisis. During the last year, policy makers, regulators, and other commentators around the world have therefore focused their attention on how to regulate OTC derivatives and especially CDS.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze some of the proposed regulatory responses to OTC derivatives and especially CDS from an economic point of view. The paper proposes a twofold regulatory response. First it proposes that we return to the old common law rule of "rule against difference contracts ...


Taxing Under The Influence? : Corruption And U.S. State Beer Taxes, Per G. Fredriksson, Stephan Gohmann, Khawaja Mamun May 2009

Taxing Under The Influence? : Corruption And U.S. State Beer Taxes, Per G. Fredriksson, Stephan Gohmann, Khawaja Mamun

WCOB Faculty Publications

This article examines the effect of state level corruption on state beer taxes in the United States. Our lobby group model predicts that corruption reduces the beer tax, but this effect is conditional on the level of alcohol-related vehicle deaths. Using a panel of state level data from 1982 to 2001, we find that increased corruption is associated with lower state beer tax rates. The magnitude of the effect, however, declines with increases in alcohol-related traffic deaths. Our findings suggest that future empirical work estimating the effect of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related traffic fatalities should treat alcohol taxes as endogenous.


The Impact Of Terrorism On Business, Michael D. Larobina, Richard L. Pate Apr 2009

The Impact Of Terrorism On Business, Michael D. Larobina, Richard L. Pate

WCOB Faculty Publications

Terrorism has in one form or another been a part of society throughout history. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York, the world community has been more focused on terrorism than ever before in most recent modern history. Terrorism has impacted multiple levels of society across the world community. One of those levels is the business environment. A specific aim of terrorism is to disrupt and destroy ongoing businesses. Therefore, the ability of governments to disrupt and destroy terrorism is essential to the continued growth and expansion of the world economy. Terrorism will directly impact a country's ...