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Full-Text Articles in Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics

An Hsus Report: Welfare Issues With The Use Of Hormones And Antibiotics In Animal Agriculture, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2016

An Hsus Report: Welfare Issues With The Use Of Hormones And Antibiotics In Animal Agriculture, The Humane Society Of The United States

AGRIBUSINESS

No abstract provided.


Turning Science Into Policy: The Case Of Farm Animal Welfare In Canada, David Fraser Jul 2015

Turning Science Into Policy: The Case Of Farm Animal Welfare In Canada, David Fraser

Farm Animal Welfare

Implications

  • Development of farm animal welfare standards in Canada has evolved significantly over 35 yr in terms of process, leadership, and the role of science.
  • Key elements of the current process include: 1) influential producers and producer organizations that see the benefit of having science-informed standards, 2) a credible coordinating body to ensure that a well-defined process is followed in developing standards, and 3) trusted scientists who are engaged in relevant research and willing to participate.
  • The process benefits from having a distinct and defined role for the scientists, specifically to analyze relevant science and identify conclusions that are scientifically ...


The Foie Gras Journey, Katie Lindsay Jan 2015

The Foie Gras Journey, Katie Lindsay

HSU STUDENT THESES AND CAPSTONE PROJECTS

The ultimate goal of farming is not the growing of crops, but the cultivation and perfection of human beings (Fukuoka 2009). In recent decades many countries have bettered themselves by altering farming practices to include animal welfare standards. By finding a common ground, animal agriculture and animal advocates can work together to improve animal welfare. This case study will review California Senate Bill 1520 Force-Fed Birds to examine how the stakeholders in an active legislative battle are working through the controversy to find a place where all parties can thrive. This legislation was brought to the California legislature by Senator ...


Attitudes Of Canadian Pig Producers Toward Animal Welfare, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser Aug 2014

Attitudes Of Canadian Pig Producers Toward Animal Welfare, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser

Farm Animal Welfare

As part of a larger study eliciting Canadian producer and non-producer views about animal welfare, open-ended, semi-structured interviews were used to explore opinions about animal welfare of 20 Canadian pig producers, most of whom were involved in confinement-based systems. With the exception of the one organic producer, who emphasized the importance of a ‘‘natural’’ life, participants attached overriding importance to biological health and functioning. They saw their efforts as providing pigs with dry, thermally regulated, indoor environments where animals received abundant feed, careful monitoring and where prospective disease outbreaks could be minimized and controlled. Emphasis was also placed on low-stress ...


Attitudes Of Canadian Citizens Toward Farm Animal Welfare: A Qualitative Study, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser May 2014

Attitudes Of Canadian Citizens Toward Farm Animal Welfare: A Qualitative Study, Jeffrey M. Spooner, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser

Farm Animal Welfare

As part of a larger project to determine if there are animal-welfare-related values shared by some commercial food–animal producers and non-producers in Canada, open-ended, semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit opinions about animal welfare among 24 urban and rural residents not involved in commercial animal production. All participants possessed a self-described interest in food animal well-being and were therefore assumed to represent the views of Canadian non-producers most apt to engage in efforts to shape the animal welfare policies of governments and businesses. Participants described animal welfare in moral or ethical terms, expressed virtually unanimous support for animals having ...


101 Puppy Mills: A Sampling Of Problem Puppy Mills In The United States, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2014

101 Puppy Mills: A Sampling Of Problem Puppy Mills In The United States, The Humane Society Of The United States

PUPPY MILL INFORMATION

The goal of the report is to inform consumers about widespread problems with puppy mills before they make an uninformed purchase that could potentially support animal cruelty. The report includes puppy mills from 22 states, but because most of the dealers sell online or to pet stores, their puppies could be available to unwary consumers in all 50 states and beyond.

The breeders and sellers on this list represent common issues with puppy mills and puppy mill brokers. This report is not a complete list of all puppy mills, nor a list of all problematic facilities. For more information on ...


Estimate Of Usda Licensed Breeders 2014, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2014

Estimate Of Usda Licensed Breeders 2014, The Humane Society Of The United States

PUPPY MILL REPORTS

A state-by-state breakdown in map format showing the number of licenses for: Class A Commercial Breeders Facilities that breed companion animals, primarily dogs, for resale into the pet trade; and Class B Brokers / Dealers Middlemen who obtain animals from breeders and then resell them.


The Welfare Of Animals In The Chicken Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States Dec 2013

The Welfare Of Animals In The Chicken Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

More than 8.5 billion chickens are slaughtered for meat production in the United States every year. Raised in industrial production systems, these animals experience crowded indoor confinement, unnatural lighting regimes, poor air quality, stressful handling and transportation, and inadequate stunning and slaughter procedures. Because they are selectively bred for rapid growth, broiler chickens are prone to a variety of severe skeletal and metabolic disorders that can cause suffering, pain, and even death. Broiler breeders, the parent birds of chickens raised for meat, are subjected to severe feed restriction, and males may undergo painful toe and beak amputations, performed without ...


Nonhuman Animal Rights, Alternative Food Systems, And The Non-Profit Industrial Complex, Corey Lee Wrenn Oct 2013

Nonhuman Animal Rights, Alternative Food Systems, And The Non-Profit Industrial Complex, Corey Lee Wrenn

Farm Animal Welfare

No abstract provided.


General Principles For The Welfare Of Animals In Production Systems: The Underlying Science And Its Application, David Fraser, Ian J.H. Duncan, Sandra A. Edwards, Temple Grandin, Neville G. Gregory, Vincent Guyonnet, Paul H. Hemsworth, Stella M. Huertas, Juliana M. Huzzey, David J. Mellor, Joy A. Mench, Marek Špinka, H. Rebecca Whay Oct 2013

General Principles For The Welfare Of Animals In Production Systems: The Underlying Science And Its Application, David Fraser, Ian J.H. Duncan, Sandra A. Edwards, Temple Grandin, Neville G. Gregory, Vincent Guyonnet, Paul H. Hemsworth, Stella M. Huertas, Juliana M. Huzzey, David J. Mellor, Joy A. Mench, Marek Špinka, H. Rebecca Whay

Farm Animal Welfare

In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 ‘General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems’ to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature ...


The Correlation Of Qualitative Behavior Assessments With Welfare Quality® Protocol Outcomes In On-Farm Welfare Assessment Of Dairy Cattle, S. N. Andreasen, F. Wemelsfelder, P. Sandøe, B. Forkman Jan 2013

The Correlation Of Qualitative Behavior Assessments With Welfare Quality® Protocol Outcomes In On-Farm Welfare Assessment Of Dairy Cattle, S. N. Andreasen, F. Wemelsfelder, P. Sandøe, B. Forkman

SENTIENCE

The effort to develop methods for assessing animal welfare at farm level has grown dramatically since the end of the 1990s, culminating in the protocols developed by the European-wide project Welfare Quality® (WQ). However, these protocols are time consuming and lack transparency in how scores are aggregated into welfare outcomes. The current study investigates the potential of Qualitative Behavior Assessment (QBA), a much less time-consuming approach, to be used as a stand-alone integrative screening tool for identifying farms with compromised welfare before applying the full WQ protocol. QBA is a ‘whole-animal’ approach asking human observers to summarize animals’ expressive demeanor ...


Texas Puppy Seller Investigation, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2013

Texas Puppy Seller Investigation, The Humane Society Of The United States

PUPPY MILL INFORMATION

Over a five-month period in 2013, HSUS staff visited 16 pet stores and three flea markets across the state with hidden cameras to find out where they get their puppies and to check on the puppies’ conditions. HSUS staff also studied hundreds of shipping documents representing more than 1,400 puppies shipped into Texas between May 2012 and August 2013 from out of state, representing just a sampling of the thousands of puppies shipped into Texas every year for resale. Between the document research and in-person visits, investigators studied a total of 34 pet stores and flea markets. HSUS investigators ...


A Horrible Hundred 2013: Problem Puppy Mills In The United States, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2013

A Horrible Hundred 2013: Problem Puppy Mills In The United States, The Humane Society Of The United States

PUPPY MILL INFORMATION

This report is a list of some of the nation’s dog breeding kennels that are of high concern to The HSUS due to repeated problems with animal health or animal care. It is not a list of all puppy mills, nor a list of all problematic facilities. The list does not include other problematic puppy mill dealers, such as brokers and pet stores, unless the operators are also breeding dogs.


Welfare Issues With Tail Docking Of Cows In The Dairy Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States Oct 2012

Welfare Issues With Tail Docking Of Cows In The Dairy Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

Banned in several European countries, as well as three US states, and opposed and criticized by the American Veterinary Medical Association, Canadian Veterinary Medical Association, experts, scientists, and representatives of industry, tail docking of cows in the dairy industry—the partial amputation of up to two-thirds of the tail, typically performed without anesthetic—is still permitted in most of the United States. Scientific studies have shown the practice to cause serious welfare problems for animals, including distress, pain, and increased fly attacks.


Attitudes Of Canadian Beef Producers Toward Animal Welfare, J. M. Spooner, C. A. Schuppli, D. Fraser May 2012

Attitudes Of Canadian Beef Producers Toward Animal Welfare, J. M. Spooner, C. A. Schuppli, D. Fraser

Farm Animal Welfare

Commercial beef production in western Canada involves raising cows and calves on large tracts of grassland, plus grain-based ‘finishing’ of animals in outdoor feedlots. This study used open-ended, semi-structured interviews to explore views on animal welfare of 23 commercial beef producers in this system. Although wary of the term ‘animal welfare’, participants understood the concept to encompass three well-known elements: (i) basic animal health and body condition; (ii) affective states (comfort, contentment, freedom from hunger or thirst); and (iii) the ability to live a ‘natural’ life. Participants attached importance to protecting animals from natural hardships (extreme weather, predators), yet many ...


The Welfare Of Animals In The Foie Gras Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States Mar 2012

The Welfare Of Animals In The Foie Gras Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

The production of pâté de foie gras involves force-feeding ducks and geese by placing a long tube down the birds’ esophagi and pumping an unnatural quantity of food directly into their stomachs. Force-feeding induces hepatic lipidosis and causes the birds’ livers to become diseased and enlarged. Substantial scientific evidence suggests that force-feeding can cause pain and injury from feeding tube insertion, fear and stress during capture and handling, gait abnormality due to distended livers, pathologies in liver function, and increased mortality. Force-feeding birds to produce foie gras is detrimental to their welfare.


The American Kennel Club: No Longer “The Dog's Champion?”, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2012

The American Kennel Club: No Longer “The Dog's Champion?”, The Humane Society Of The United States

PUPPY MILL INFORMATION

The AKC has historically billed itself as “The Dog’s Champion,” the gold standard registry for purebred puppies. The AKC's mission includes advocating for advances in “canine health and well- being” and working “to promote responsible dog ownership.”*1 Yet with all its emphasis on proper dog and puppy care, in recent years the AKC has opposed the majority of initiatives designed to prevent cruelty at large-scale breeding facilities known as puppy mills. In contrast to its vague public statements condemning substandard kennels, over the past 5 years the AKC has opposed more than 80 different bills and ordinances ...


The Problem Of Unlicensed Puppy Mills, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2012

The Problem Of Unlicensed Puppy Mills, The Humane Society Of The United States

PUPPY MILL REPORTS

Currently the United States Department of Agriculture does not license or inspect large-scale puppy producers who sell puppies over the Internet or directly to the public. Many of these unlicensed facilities sell puppies sight-unseen to unsuspecting buyers who assume they are purchasing from a small family breeder. Hundreds of these “direct” sellers have taken advantage of the pre-Internet language of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) regulations (otherwise known as the “retail pet stores loophole”) to operate without any federal oversight or inspections. As a result, an increasing number of large-scale unlicensed breeders are not monitored for their animals’ overall health ...


The Welfare Of Calves In The Beef Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2012

The Welfare Of Calves In The Beef Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

Calves raised for beef often begin life unconfined, on rangeland where they are free to express their natural behavior. However, the welfare of calves can be compromised by certain specific management practices, typical on many ranching operations. These include castration of male calves, dehorning, and branding, all of which are usually performed without anesthesia or analgesia, pain relief of any kind. Welfare is also a concern during weaning, handling, auction, and transport, common stressful events that occur before calves are moved to feedlots. Techniques to minimize pain and distress should be used or further developed in order to address the ...


Transgenesis In Animal Agriculture: Addressing Animal Health And Welfare Concerns, Michael Greger Oct 2011

Transgenesis In Animal Agriculture: Addressing Animal Health And Welfare Concerns, Michael Greger

TRANSGENESIS

The US Food and Drug Administration’s final Guidance for Industry on the regulation of transgenesis in animal agriculture has paved the way for the commercialization of genetically engineered (GE) farm animals. The production-related diseases associated with extant breeding technologies are reviewed, as well as the predictable welfare consequences of continued emphasis on prolificacy at the potential expense of physical fitness. Areas in which biotechnology could be used to improve the welfare of animals while maintaining profitability are explored along with regulatory schema to improve agency integration in GE animal oversight.


Update Report: Missouri’S Dirty Dozen, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2011

Update Report: Missouri’S Dirty Dozen, The Humane Society Of The United States

PUPPY MILL INFORMATION

Late last year, researchers at The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) spent weeks poring over state and federal inspection reports, investigators’ photographs, and enforcement records to compile a list of some of the worst puppy mills in Missouri, known as “Missouri’s Dirty Dozen.” The report included direct quotes detailing horrific care violations documented in the facilities’ federal and/or state kennel inspection reports. The violations included thin-coated breeds like Italian greyhounds found shivering in the cold in temperatures as low as 9 degrees, dogs with open, oozing or bleeding sores, underweight dogs with their entire skeletal structures ...


Missouri’S Dirty Dozen: A Report On Some Of The Worst Puppy Mills In Missouri, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2010

Missouri’S Dirty Dozen: A Report On Some Of The Worst Puppy Mills In Missouri, The Humane Society Of The United States

PUPPY MILL INFORMATION

The purpose of the report is to demonstrate current problems that could be addressed by the passage of Proposition B, which Missouri citizens will vote on in November. Under Proposition B, the Puppy Mill Cruelty Prevention Act, many of these dealers’ horrific violations would be backed by stronger enforcement opportunities.

All of the puppy mills on the Dirty Dozen list are licensed by the USDA, the state, or both, according to the most recently available records reviewed by HSUS researchers. Some sell puppies to pet stores and others over the Internet. One thing they have in common is atrocious violations ...


The Welfare Of Animals In The Pig Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2010

The Welfare Of Animals In The Pig Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

The discordance between the behavioral needs of pigs and the life afforded to those raised commercially for the meat industry has created many animal welfare problems. Methods of pig production have changed substantially over the last several decades, and industrialized confinement operations have largely overtaken small, diversified farms. Overcrowded in indoor, barren environments, pigs in commercial production facilities are offered little opportunity to display their full range of complex social, foraging, and exploratory behavior. Behavioral abnormalities, such as tail-biting and aggression, arise due to environmental and social deficiencies. Poor air quality and intensive confinement may lead to health problems, and ...


The Welfare Of Piglets In The Pig Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2010

The Welfare Of Piglets In The Pig Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

Pig production has changed dramatically over the last several decades, and most piglets are now raised on industrialized commercial operations that confine thousands of animals on one site. In these facilities, piglets are born and reared under conditions that dramatically contrast with the natural environment they are biologically adapted to fit. In nature, a mother sow builds a nest of twigs and leaves for the birth of her litter, and, after several days, the piglets gradually begin to leave the nest, explore their environment by rooting and nibbling, and slowly integrate into a larger family group. Piglets on commercial production ...


Understanding Mortality Rates Of Laying Hens In Cage-Free Egg Production Systems, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2010

Understanding Mortality Rates Of Laying Hens In Cage-Free Egg Production Systems, The Humane Society Of The United States

AGRIBUSINESS

In cage-free egg production systems, concerns have been raised over hen mortality rates. High mortality is an obvious indicator of poor welfare, and problems should be addressed without delay. It is important to note, however, that mortality can vary substantially between hen flocks, and that some cage-free systems have healthy flocks that do not suffer substantial death losses. These systems can serve as models for the rest of the industry, since mortality is not inherent to any particular system, but a consequence of how well the system is managed.


Health Professionals’ Roles In Animal Agriculture, Climate Change, And Human Health, Aysha Z. Akhtar, Michael Greger, Hope Ferdowsian, Erica Frank Feb 2009

Health Professionals’ Roles In Animal Agriculture, Climate Change, And Human Health, Aysha Z. Akhtar, Michael Greger, Hope Ferdowsian, Erica Frank

HUMAN HEALTH

What we eat is rapidly becoming an issue of global concern. With food shortages, the rise in chronic disease, and global warming, the impact of our dietary choices seems more relevant today than ever. Globally, a transition is taking place toward greater consumption of foods of animal origin, in lieu of plantbased diets. With this transition comes intensification of animal agriculture that in turn is associated with the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases, environmental degradation, and the epidemics of chronic disease and obesity. Health professionals should be aware of these trends and consider them as they promote healthier and more ...


The Welfare Of Cows In The Dairy Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2009

The Welfare Of Cows In The Dairy Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

More than 9 million cows compose the U.S. dairy herd. Repeated reimpregnation, short calving intervals, overproduction of milk, restrictive housing systems, poor nutrition, and physical disorders impair the welfare of the animals in industrial dairy operations. Once their productivity wanes, the cows are often weak as a result of high metabolic output. Typically, these “spent” dairy cows are culled and processed as ground beef. In their fragile end-of-production state, handling, transport, and slaughter raise additional welfare concerns.


The Welfare Of Sows Used For Breeding In The Pig Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2009

The Welfare Of Sows Used For Breeding In The Pig Industry, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

The conditions afforded sows (adult female pigs) used for breeding on industrial pig production operations present a number of welfare problems. Sows are routinely confined in gestation and farrowing crates barely larger than their own bodies, where they are unable to turn around during their pregnancy and lactation periods, often in excess of 128 consecutive days. Behavioral abnormalities such as stereotypic bar-biting and aggression arise due to environmental deficiencies and restricted feeding regimens. Sows in large, industrial operations are also affected by a number of production-related diseases and suffer from higher mortality rates. A reevaluation of current confinement systems and ...


Welfare Issues With Conventional Manual Catching Of Broiler Chickens And Turkeys, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2009

Welfare Issues With Conventional Manual Catching Of Broiler Chickens And Turkeys, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

Approximately 9 billion chickens and 270 million turkeys are raised for meat annually in the United States. When these farmed birds reach market weight, they must be caught and crated for transport from production facilities to slaughter plants. Conventional manual catching results in severely compromised welfare. Birds experience stress and fear, and can be physically harmed, suffering bruises, broken bones, dislocated joints, and other injuries. Alternatives to conventional manual catching practices that improve bird welfare exist, including mechanical harvesters, gentle manual catching, and, for turkeys, herding into specially designed transport crates.


The Welfare Of Animals In The Meat, Egg, And Dairy Industries, The Humane Society Of The United States Jan 2009

The Welfare Of Animals In The Meat, Egg, And Dairy Industries, The Humane Society Of The United States

IMPACTS ON FARM ANIMALS

Each year in the United States, approximately 11 billion animals are raised and killed for meat, eggs, and milk. These farm animals—sentient, complex, and capable of feeling pain and frustration, joy and excitement—are viewed by industrialized agriculture as commodities and suffer myriad assaults to their physical, mental, and emotional well-being, typically denied the ability to engage in their species-specific behavioral needs. Despite the routine abuses they endure, no federal law protects animals from cruelty on the farm, and the majority of states exempt customary agricultural practices—no matter how abusive—from the scope of their animal cruelty statutes ...