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Full-Text Articles in Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics

The Velocity Of Risk, Sridhar Ramamoorti, James H. Wanserski, Richard Stover Apr 2019

The Velocity Of Risk, Sridhar Ramamoorti, James H. Wanserski, Richard Stover

Accounting Faculty Publications

Only a few decades ago, the onset of problematic risk events often was slow, and organizations handled the corresponding aftermath over a manageable time frame. Organizations armed with extensive public relations resources responded to most postevent crises after planning and analyzing thoughtful responses. Additionally, organizations carefully calculated their transparency with stakeholders regarding the event to manage its impact on the organization. Fast forward to today, and the pace of information is almost instantaneous. For example, when a popular U.S. fast food restaurant chain experienced an outbreak of E. coli-infected lettuce, its stock price decreased 44 percent within 90 days ...


Risk Consumption, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Rick Stover Apr 2018

Risk Consumption, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Rick Stover

Accounting Faculty Publications

Understanding the difference between risk appetite and risk tolerance can deter organizations from digesting too much risk.

The concepts of risk appetite and risk tolerance were introduced in 2004 in The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission’s (COSO’s) Enterprise Risk Management–Integrated Framework. Specifically, COSO defines risk appetite as “the amount of risk — on a broad level — that an entity is willing to accept in pursuit of value.” Naturally, organizations will have different risk appetites depending on their industry, management philosophy, operating style, culture, and objectives. Therefore, a range of appetites potentially exist for distinct risks ...


Materiality Defined: Differing Concepts Of Materiality Can Cause Confusion Among Stakeholders, Michael P. Fabrizius, Sridhar Ramamoorti Oct 2017

Materiality Defined: Differing Concepts Of Materiality Can Cause Confusion Among Stakeholders, Michael P. Fabrizius, Sridhar Ramamoorti

Accounting Faculty Publications

Because the term materiality arose within the context of financial reporting and statement assurance, internal auditors have been challenged in adapting or creating a definition that is relevant for themselves and their stakeholders. In the context of financial reporting, materiality is relevant to three stakeholder groups: 1) preparers of financial statements, 2) auditors, and 3) users of financial statements. Although materiality decisions are made by only two of these three groups--preparers and auditors--most internal auditors' conception of materiality likely has a user orientation. The auditor might ask, "How would a reasonably prudent investor react to the magnitude of misstatement (under- ...


A Strategy For Teaching Critical Thinking: The Sellmore Case, Joseph F. Castellano, Susan Lightle, Bud Baker Apr 2017

A Strategy For Teaching Critical Thinking: The Sellmore Case, Joseph F. Castellano, Susan Lightle, Bud Baker

Accounting Faculty Publications

The importance of teaching and applying critical thinking skills is apparently matched by its difficulty in doing so. Sara Rimer, writing for the January 18, 2011, edition of The Hechinger Report, discussed a study by Richard Arum that followed several thousand undergraduates from when they entered college in fall 2005 to when they graduated in spring 2009. Arum’s research, published in his book Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses, found that large numbers of students did not learn critical thinking, complex reasoning, and written communication skills. Arum used testing data and student surveys from 24 colleges and universities ...


Auditing Organizational Governance: Internal Audit Has An Integral Role To Play In Improving The Organization's Strategic Performance, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Alan N. Siegfried, P. Alan White Feb 2017

Auditing Organizational Governance: Internal Audit Has An Integral Role To Play In Improving The Organization's Strategic Performance, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Alan N. Siegfried, P. Alan White

Accounting Faculty Publications

Organizational governance is a broad concept that ensures superior strategy formulation, development, and execution in ways that balance performance, conformance, and accountability. It includes systems, controls, and associated processes that promote ethics and values, performance and accountability, and risk communication and coordination among the board, external and internal auditors, and management in meeting and exceeding stakeholder expectations. Internal audit’s role in organizational governance has always been recognized and valued, but it has become increasingly important in the wake of governance failures in financial and public sectors throughout the world. As a result, more and more boards as well as ...


Why Audit Teams Need The Confidence To Speak Up, Susan Lightle, Joseph F. Castellano, Bud Baker Jan 2017

Why Audit Teams Need The Confidence To Speak Up, Susan Lightle, Joseph F. Castellano, Bud Baker

Accounting Faculty Publications

A climate of psychological safety is an important prerequisite for effective interpersonal relationships among audit team members and for audit teams to properly meet their fiduciary responsibilities. Audit processes can be more effective and the quality of audits can be improved if auditors understand the concept of psychological safety and its application for audit teams. The failure to create a climate of psychological safety among audit team members can have harmful effects on audit quality, but fortunately CPA firms can take steps to enhance psychological safety and enable more effective audit processes and audit work.


Public Corruption: Causes, Consequences & Countermeasures, Victor Hartman, Sridhar Ramamoorti Mar 2016

Public Corruption: Causes, Consequences & Countermeasures, Victor Hartman, Sridhar Ramamoorti

Accounting Faculty Publications

The article discusses the cause and consequences of public corruption in the U.S. It mentions several countermeasures against public corruption which include strengtening the organizational commitment, behaviour, and emphasizing code of ethics. The article also mentions the conflict of interests, challenges on law enforcement, and asset misappropriation.


Promoting And Supporting Effective Organizational Governance, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Alan N. Siegfried Jan 2016

Promoting And Supporting Effective Organizational Governance, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Alan N. Siegfried

Accounting Faculty Publications

Internal audit’s role in organizational governance has become increasingly important in the wake of the recent global financial crisis and the continuing spate of governance failures in both financial and public sectors throughout the world. Informed observers and commentators have asked initially, “Where were the external auditors?” then “Where was the audit committee?” and finally, “Where was internal audit in all this?” This report draws on survey responses from internal auditors in 166 countries to take stock of the current role of internal audit in the governance process and learn how internal audit can better position itself to contribute ...


Lost Opportunities: The Underuse Of Tax Whistleblowers, Sarah J. Webber, Karie Davis-Nozemack Jan 2015

Lost Opportunities: The Underuse Of Tax Whistleblowers, Sarah J. Webber, Karie Davis-Nozemack

Accounting Faculty Publications

Legal literature on whistleblower programs often assumes an agency’s ability to effectively use a whistleblower tip. This article challenges that assumption in the context of tax enforcement by exposing the Internal Revenue Service’s dismal performance. The article uses Fourth Amendment jurisprudence, taxpayer privacy law, as well as whistleblower and tax enforcement literature to propose a new approach to using information from tax whistleblowers.


Should Religious Organizations Worry About Irs Audits?, Sarah J. Webber, Janet S. Greenlee Sep 2013

Should Religious Organizations Worry About Irs Audits?, Sarah J. Webber, Janet S. Greenlee

Accounting Faculty Publications

A great deal of media attention has focused on recent perceived financial abuses of churches and religious organizations. Cases of fraud within religious organizations have fueled the public perception that churches require some form of monitoring to prevent financial abuse. However, the IRS has limited authority to audit religious organizations under section 7611, and the results of such audits are generally unavailable to the public.

Through a Freedom of Information Act request, we obtained the outcomes of all section 7611 IRS audits of religious organizations conducted between 2001 and 2010. We found that although the number of both churches and ...


Standard Costing Variances: Potential Red Flags Of Fraud?, Cecily A. Raiborn, Janet B. Butler, Lucian Zelazny May 2013

Standard Costing Variances: Potential Red Flags Of Fraud?, Cecily A. Raiborn, Janet B. Butler, Lucian Zelazny

Accounting Faculty Publications

This article focuses on how standard cost variances can be used in detecting potential fraudulent activities. Each primary type of variance (material, labor, and overhead) is addressed with a discussion of possible inappropriate causal factors. Additionally, internal controls, graphic techniques, and other methods that can be implemented to combat fraud are provided.


Nol Poison Pills: Using Corporate Law For Tax Purposes, Sarah J. Webber, Karie Davis-Nozemack Dec 2012

Nol Poison Pills: Using Corporate Law For Tax Purposes, Sarah J. Webber, Karie Davis-Nozemack

Accounting Faculty Publications

Hundreds of thousands of corporations report net operating loss (NOL) carryovers every year.1 Corporations, with the benefit of NOL rules, may turn disappointing losses into favorable tax results. During economic recovery, corporations are in better position to fully utilize the benefits of NOLs generated in prior years. NOL usage is not without peril, however. Corporations should carefully monitor corporate ownership changes to ensure that NOLs are not lost to the NOL trafficking rules. Under the NOL trafficking rules, excessive shareholder turnover triggers substantial NOL limitations. Unfortunately, corporations are not in control of their shareholder turnover, and therefore not in ...


Paying The Irs Whistleblower: A Critical Analysis Of Collected Proceeds, Karie Davis-Nozemack, Sarah J. Webber Jan 2012

Paying The Irs Whistleblower: A Critical Analysis Of Collected Proceeds, Karie Davis-Nozemack, Sarah J. Webber

Accounting Faculty Publications

Congressional changes to the IRS Whistleblower Program were intended to induce more participation in the program by allowing larger incentives and greater certainty that whistleblowers would be paid. Since the Program was amended, tax whistleblower tips have increased 76 percent1 and revenue collected due to whistleblowers has increased 79 percent.2 Despite a rise in tips and revenue collected, whistleblower payments have not increased. In fact, the number of tax whistleblower awards paid has decreased 44 percent.3 We hypothesize that this trend is due to the administration of the program but also to the interpretation of “collected proceeds.” Collected ...


The Corporate Ethics Audit: To Prevent And Detect Management Fraud, Internal Auditors Must Have A Sound Understanding Of Human Behavior, Sridhar Ramamoorti, R. Luke Evans Aug 2011

The Corporate Ethics Audit: To Prevent And Detect Management Fraud, Internal Auditors Must Have A Sound Understanding Of Human Behavior, Sridhar Ramamoorti, R. Luke Evans

Accounting Faculty Publications

In theory, management is responsible not only for designing and implementing strong systems of internal control but also confirming their continued effectiveness over time through monitoring activities. Yet, management override of these monitoring activities — -Soften described as the Achilles' heel of internal controls — is a growing trend at the executive level, as indicated by both of The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission's fraud studies of 1998 and 2010. When the “overseer” becomes the perpetrator of fraud, how do shareholders protect themselves? Indeed, as the Roman satiric poet Decimus Juvenal wrote, “But who will guard the guardians ...


Don’T Burst The Bubble: An Analysis Of The First-Time Homebuyer Credit And Its Use As An Economic Policy Tool, Sarah J. Webber Jan 2011

Don’T Burst The Bubble: An Analysis Of The First-Time Homebuyer Credit And Its Use As An Economic Policy Tool, Sarah J. Webber

Accounting Faculty Publications

In 2008, faced with a looming real estate crisis, Congress hastily acted to stabilize the economy by offering a first-time homebuyer credit. This tax credit was trumpeted as a solution to the excess inventory of homes for sale and to stop the free-fall in home values. The credit, however, failed to deliver on its promises. By analyzing the first-time homebuyer credit, its creation, its implementation and its economic impact, this Article concludes that, when compared to alternative policy solutions, Congress erred in using the tax code to implement a first-time homebuyer credit.


The Abcs Of Communicating Results, Deborah S. Archambeault, Morgen Rose Dec 2010

The Abcs Of Communicating Results, Deborah S. Archambeault, Morgen Rose

Accounting Faculty Publications

Communicating results is an integral part of the internal auditor's job, and The IIA's International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing recognizes its importance by specifying in Standard 2420 that communications should be "accurate, objective, clear, concise, constructive, complete, and timely." In its 2009 survey. The Biggest Internal Audit Challenges in the Next Five Years, Protiviti, a global consulting firm, ranked communication with management and the audit committee as one of the biggest challenges facing internal auditing through 2012. Their subsequent 2010 Internal Audit Capabilities and Needs Survey identified presentation skills as the top "need to ...


Carrots And Sticks: By Auditing Executive Compensation And Benefits, Auditors Can Help Their Organization Move From Risk To Rewards Management, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Usha R. Balakrishnan Oct 2010

Carrots And Sticks: By Auditing Executive Compensation And Benefits, Auditors Can Help Their Organization Move From Risk To Rewards Management, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Usha R. Balakrishnan

Accounting Faculty Publications

Although the focus of risk management traditionally has been on downside risk, the time is right to focus this dialogue on upside risk — the management of value-creation opportunities through "rewards management." After all, rewards such as bonuses and stock options are typically greater for those who identify and leverage new value-creation opportunities. For-profit organizations favor those individuals who are well-connected and leverage their relationships to bring in clients and attract customers. Their selling ability, revenue-generating strategies, and overall modus operandi quickly earn them the coveted title of "rainmakers."

Nevertheless, rewards and incentives can encourage undesirable behaviors. Executives quickly learn that ...


Maximized Monitoring, Constance M. Lehmann, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Marcia Weidenmier Watson Jun 2010

Maximized Monitoring, Constance M. Lehmann, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Marcia Weidenmier Watson

Accounting Faculty Publications

During the last few years, global financial companies and investment banks have taken billions of dollars in write-downs owing to exposure in the subprime lending market. Lack of risk function visibility, insufficient communication of risks to top management, and siloed risk approaches have been cited as reasons for these failures. New York University finance professor Nouriel Roubini, one of the few who predicted the crisis, famously observed at the World Economic Forum's 2009 Davos Summit that risk cannot be priced correctly "when the opacity and lack of transparency of financial firms and new instruments lead to unpriceable uncertainty rather ...


Bringing Freud To Fraud: Understanding The State-Of-Mind Of The C-Level Suite/White Collar Offender Through “A-B-C” Analysis, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Daven Morrison, Joseph W. Koletar Dec 2009

Bringing Freud To Fraud: Understanding The State-Of-Mind Of The C-Level Suite/White Collar Offender Through “A-B-C” Analysis, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Daven Morrison, Joseph W. Koletar

Accounting Faculty Publications

In this paper we use a primarily “behavioral lens” (cf. Ramamoorti, 2008; Ramamoorti & Olsen, 2007) to try to understand the state-of-mind and motivations of the C-level suite/white collar offender before, during, and after the perpetration of management fraud. We offer a useful conceptual approach called “A-B-C Analysis” to understand the incidence of fraud from individual and group perspectives, as well as more macro-oriented, cultural/contextual levels. It is our hypothesis that fraud occurs either because of an individual criminal’s calculated/intentional betrayal of trust, a duo or team of “bad boys” who push ethical envelopes, and/or an ...


Is Something Missing From Your Company's Satisfaction Package?, Deborah S. Archambeault, Richard Burgess, Stan Davis May 2009

Is Something Missing From Your Company's Satisfaction Package?, Deborah S. Archambeault, Richard Burgess, Stan Davis

Accounting Faculty Publications

Conventional wisdom suggests that salary, benefits, and other monetary factors are important aspects of keeping employees satisfied. But which factors have the biggest impact on overall satisfaction? While companies focus on the monetary factors, there are other components of the overall “satisfaction package,” that are just as important, yet often overlooked.

It comes as no surprise that satisfied employees are important to the success of any organization. In short, higher satisfaction increases productivity, improves service levels, and positively impacts a company’s bottom line. While keeping employees satisfied should be an important goal for any organization, a recent job satisfaction ...


Engineering Value Into Enterprise Risk Management; Six Sigma Techniques Can Improve The Quality Of Erm Processes And Enable Organizations To Manage Risks More Successfully, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Marcia Weidenmier Watson, Mark Zabel Oct 2008

Engineering Value Into Enterprise Risk Management; Six Sigma Techniques Can Improve The Quality Of Erm Processes And Enable Organizations To Manage Risks More Successfully, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Marcia Weidenmier Watson, Mark Zabel

Accounting Faculty Publications

Organizations should not only recognize and minimize traditional downside risks, but also embrace upside risks, or opportunities, as a strategy for success. According to a 2005 survey by management consulting firm Booz Allen, 87 percent of the market value lost by large companies with market capitalizations over US $1 billion was the result of strategic and operational blunders. Compliance failure, typically the focus of downside risk, destroyed only 13 percent of market value during the five-year study. Faced with this counter-intuitive finding, companies may wish to pursue a more balanced and positive approach to risk management. Enterprise risk management (ERM ...


The Changing Components Of The Corporate Annual Report: An Update, Deborah S. Archambeault, John G. Fulmer Jr., Richard A. Turpin Mar 2008

The Changing Components Of The Corporate Annual Report: An Update, Deborah S. Archambeault, John G. Fulmer Jr., Richard A. Turpin

Accounting Faculty Publications

Recent regulatory changes affect not only the content of annual reports but also the population of companies that are required to comply with these reporting regulations. Lenders need to stay abreast of the information provided in corporate reporting packages. This article provides an update on regulatory changes and discusses how these changes affect the information that can be found in corporate annual reports.


Auditing Management Assertions: The Impact Of Sas No. 106, Deborah S. Archambeault Dec 2007

Auditing Management Assertions: The Impact Of Sas No. 106, Deborah S. Archambeault

Accounting Faculty Publications

The Auditing Standards Board (ASB) of the AICPA recently issued eight new statements on auditing standards (SASs), which are effective for audits of financial statement periods beginning on or after Dec. 15, 2006. Included within this new set of audit standards is SAS No. 106: Audit Evidence, which provides guidance on the use of management assertions in obtaining audit evidence.


Strengthening The Foundations Of The Accountability Profession, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Sam M. Mccall, Relmond P. Van Daniker Dec 2006

Strengthening The Foundations Of The Accountability Profession, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Sam M. Mccall, Relmond P. Van Daniker

Accounting Faculty Publications

Article discusses the conceptual foundations of the accountability profession in government. The role of the Academy for Government Accountability in strengthening the accountability profession and advancing research and education initiatives in government financial management is described. The author suggests that government accountability needs to be about stewardship, transparency, accountability and citizen-centric government.


How To Use The Changing Components Of The Corporate Annual Report, Deborah S. Archambeault, John G. Fulmer Jr., Richard A. Turpin May 2006

How To Use The Changing Components Of The Corporate Annual Report, Deborah S. Archambeault, John G. Fulmer Jr., Richard A. Turpin

Accounting Faculty Publications

The amount of information required in a corporate annual report continues to increase. Most recently, additional reporting requirements brought about by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOA), the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) increase the number of component reports that must be included in the annual report package. Lenders need to be familiar with the additional information that these new components provide. Therefore, this article summarizes the required component reports, discusses the information conveyed in each report and gives some examples of the types of significant new information that can be obtained.


Methods And Systems For Valuing A Business Decision, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Peter Freeman, Anurag Agarwal May 2005

Methods And Systems For Valuing A Business Decision, Sridhar Ramamoorti, Peter Freeman, Anurag Agarwal

Accounting Faculty Publications

Methods, systems, and processor instructions to determine a first direct cost associated with at least a partial implementation of a business decision, the first direct cost including at least one of productivity gains and losses, determine a second direct cost based on a non-implementation of the business decision, the second direct cost based on the productivity gains and losses, determine a first risk reduction associated with at least a partial implementation of the business decision, the first risk reduction based on a business relationship risk(s), determine a second risk reduction associated with a non-implementation of the business decision, the ...


How Corporate Culture Impacts Unethical Distortion Of Financial Numbers, Joseph F. Castellano, Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig, Harper A. Roehm Jul 2004

How Corporate Culture Impacts Unethical Distortion Of Financial Numbers, Joseph F. Castellano, Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig, Harper A. Roehm

Accounting Faculty Publications

The recent accounting scandals have highlighted the critical role that investor confidence in the accuracy and lack of distortion of accounting data plays in the health of capital markets and, indeed, the whole economy. The legal and moral culpability of top-level company managers (as well as auditors) is an issue that will be addressed by the nation in the coming months. Whether or not legal sanctions are imposed on managers, it would be well to examine some of the reasons managers may feel compelled to distort accounting numbers as well as engage in other actions that damage the interests of ...


Why Toyota And Honda Topped The 2002 J.D. Power Quality Study, Susan Lightle, Kenneth Yale Rosenzweig, John Talbott Dec 2003

Why Toyota And Honda Topped The 2002 J.D. Power Quality Study, Susan Lightle, Kenneth Yale Rosenzweig, John Talbott

Accounting Faculty Publications

Toyota again topped the annual J. D. Power and Associates quality study released in late May of 2002. Toyota scored the highest mark ever with l 07 defects per l 00 vehicles, while Honda came in second with 113 defects. The study was based on responses of approximately 65,000 new car owners queried during their first 90-days of ownership.

These results do not surprise us, as we have been fortunate to make numerous sojourns to the Toyota plant in Georgetown, Kentucky, and observe the manufacturing processes. These trips were normally facilitated by a former Japanese student of ours, Minako ...


Appearances Are Important: Outsourced Internal Audit Services And The Perception Of Auditor Independence, Marshall A. Geiger, D. Jordan Lowe, Kurt J. Pany Apr 2002

Appearances Are Important: Outsourced Internal Audit Services And The Perception Of Auditor Independence, Marshall A. Geiger, D. Jordan Lowe, Kurt J. Pany

Accounting Faculty Publications

The appearance of independence is an important facet of the regulation of auditor independence. The authors conducted a research study to gauge how some financial statement users—loan officers—view and make decisions based on loan proposals that present various types of relationships between the applicant, the auditor that performs the external audit, and the auditor that performs the internal audit function (whether performed in-house or outsourced to the hypothetical loan applicant's external auditor).

The results are insightful: The closer the relationship between the external auditor and the audit client, the higher the perception of inappropriateness, and the less ...


Audit Committee Effectiveness: A Synthesis Of The Empirical Audit Committee Literature, F. Todd Dezoort, Dana R. Hermanson, Deborah S. Archambeault, Scott A. Reed Jan 2002

Audit Committee Effectiveness: A Synthesis Of The Empirical Audit Committee Literature, F. Todd Dezoort, Dana R. Hermanson, Deborah S. Archambeault, Scott A. Reed

Accounting Faculty Publications

The empirical audit committee literature is both diverse and expansive, with rapid growth in recent years based on increased concerns about corporate governance and the quality of financial reporting. Our objective in this paper is to synthesize empirical literature on audit committee effectiveness to guide future thinking and research on audit committees. To organize our review, we focus on four components that we believe contribute to audit committee effectiveness (ACE) - audit committee composition, authority, resources, and diligence.