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Full-Text Articles in Business Law, Public Responsibility, and Ethics

Client Size, Auditor Specialization And Fraudulent Financial Reporting, Joseph Carcello, Albert Nagy Dec 2015

Client Size, Auditor Specialization And Fraudulent Financial Reporting, Joseph Carcello, Albert Nagy

Albert Nagy

This study examines the effect that client size has on the relation between industry-specialist auditors and fraudulent financial reporting. Most of the major accounting firms have organized their audit practices along industry lines, reflecting a belief that industry specialization leads to higher quality audits. Furthermore, regulatory bodies and extant research suggests that larger clients have greater bargaining power and are more likely to be able to convince the auditor to acquiesce to aggressive accounting. Also, it may be more difficult for an auditor to possess industry expertise for larger clients who are likely to be more complex and operate in ...


Audit Firm Tenure And Fraudulent Financial Reporting, Joseph Carcello, Albert Nagy Dec 2015

Audit Firm Tenure And Fraudulent Financial Reporting, Joseph Carcello, Albert Nagy

Albert Nagy

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002) required the U.S. Comptroller General to study the potential effects of requiring mandatory audit firm rotation. The General Accounting Office (GAO) concludes in its recently released study of mandatory audit firm rotation that “mandatory audit firm rotation may not be the most efficient way to strengthen auditor independence” (GAO 2003, Highlights). However, the GAO also suggests that mandatory audit firm rotation could be necessary if the Sarbanes-Oxley Act's requirements do not lead to improved audit quality (GAO 2003, 5).We examine the relation between audit firm tenure and fraudulent financial reporting. Comparing firms cited ...


Segment Disclosures Under Sfas No. 131: Has Business Segment Reporting Improved?, Donna Street, Nancy Nichols, Sidney Gray Oct 2015

Segment Disclosures Under Sfas No. 131: Has Business Segment Reporting Improved?, Donna Street, Nancy Nichols, Sidney Gray

Donna L. Street

In response to user concerns regarding segment reporting, the FASB issued SFAS No. 131, Reporting Disaggregated Information about a Business Enterprise, in 1997. SFAS No. 131 became effective for fiscal years beginning on or after January 1, 1998. This research examines the segment disclosures of U.S. Global 1000 companies for both 1997 and 1998 to ascertain the impact and effectiveness of SFAS No. 131 in practice. Specifically, this research considers whether the new requirements have resulted in:

  • A greater number of line‐of‐business (LOB) segments for some enterprises, particularly those who claimed to operate in one LOB under ...


Compliance With Disclosure Requirements At Germany's New Market: Ias Versus Us Gaap, Martin Glaum, Donna Street Oct 2015

Compliance With Disclosure Requirements At Germany's New Market: Ias Versus Us Gaap, Martin Glaum, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

This research examines compliance with both International Accounting Standards (IAS) and United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP) for companies listed on Germany's New Market. Based on a sample of 100 firms that apply IAS and 100 that apply US GAAP, we investigate the extent to which companies comply with IAS and US GAAP disclosure requirements in their year–2000 financial statements. Compliance levels range from 100% to 41.6%, with an average of 83.7%. The average compliance level is significantly lower for companies that apply IAS as compared to companies applying US GAAP. This study provides ...


Factors Affecting Md&A Disclosures By Sec Registrants: Views Of Practitioners, Ann Tarca, Donna Street, Walter Aerts Oct 2015

Factors Affecting Md&A Disclosures By Sec Registrants: Views Of Practitioners, Ann Tarca, Donna Street, Walter Aerts

Donna L. Street

This study identifies factors influencing the preparation, scope and content of management discussion and analysis (MD&A) reports provided by SEC registrants. We interviewed U.S., Canadian, U.K., and Australian financial executives during the period December 2009 to May 2010 to better understand how the reporting environment affects managers’ ability to provide useful disclosures. Interviewees agree MD&A should be "through the eyes of management"; however, many describe a tension between statutory requirements and providing relevant information for investors. Some believe MD&A is useful for analysts and investors as a summary of the past year and by functioning as a benchmark. Interviewees frequently view other media as more timely and having a different disclosure tone. The backward-looking nature of MD&A is perceived as a weakness. Other limitations on MD&A usefulness arise from limits on non-GAAP measures, lack of forward-looking information (i.e. legal liability issues) and ...


Ifrs Teaching Resources: Available And Rapidly Growing, Robert Larson, Donna Street Oct 2015

Ifrs Teaching Resources: Available And Rapidly Growing, Robert Larson, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

With the rapid adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) around the world, accounting practitioners, educators, and students are in great need of IFRS instructional materials. This article provides a compilation and review of IFRS teaching resources based primarily on presentations made at a series of IFRS Teaching Workshops sponsored by the IFRS Foundation Teaching Initiative and the International Association for Accounting Education and Research (IAAER). With the purpose of helping those teaching IFRS, especially those with limited prior IFRS teaching experience, we provide detailed information so educators can easily access and use these resources. Several different IFRS teaching strategies ...


Besser Pharma: International Accounting For Pensions, K. Geary, Donna Street Oct 2015

Besser Pharma: International Accounting For Pensions, K. Geary, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

The purpose of the Besser Pharma case is to bring an international perspective to the coverage of pension accounting. Students are required to read U.S. and international pension accounting standards, complete financial statement research on the pension plans of Besser's competitors, and answer, in a memo to Besser Pharma's CFO, a series of questions about alternative accounting approaches permitted by International Accounting Standard No. 19, Employee Benefits.


The Predictive Ability Of Geographic Segment Disclosures By U.S. Companies: Sfas No. 131 Vs. Sfas No. 14, Bruce Behn, Nancy Nichols, Donna Street Oct 2015

The Predictive Ability Of Geographic Segment Disclosures By U.S. Companies: Sfas No. 131 Vs. Sfas No. 14, Bruce Behn, Nancy Nichols, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

This research considers whether recent modifications to segment reporting adequately address analysts' concerns regarding the usefulness of geographic data. Forecast errors for models utilizing SFAS No. 131 geographic sales data are compared to forecast errors for models utilizing SFAS No. 14 geographic sales data. The results indicate a significant improvement in the predictive accuracy of geographic sales disclosures provided under SFAS No. 131. Additional analysis suggests this enhanced predictability may be associated with the revised requirements that companies report sales for the country of domicile and for each individually material country. Overall, our findings appear to support the FASB's ...


Have ‘European’ And Us Gaap Measures Of Income And Equity Converged Under Ifrs? Evidence From European Companies Listed In The Us, Sidney Gray, Cheryl Linthicum, Donna Street Oct 2015

Have ‘European’ And Us Gaap Measures Of Income And Equity Converged Under Ifrs? Evidence From European Companies Listed In The Us, Sidney Gray, Cheryl Linthicum, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

The EU's adoption of IFRS, combined with the SEC's removal of the US GAAP reconciliation requirement for non‐US registrants reporting under IFRS, signifies a major shift toward the acceptance of global standards. Based on 20‐F reconciliations provided by the population of US-listed European companies filing IFRS‐based statements with the SEC in 2005, we examine whether "European" and US GAAP measures of income and equity converged under IFRS. We find that during the period immediately preceding IFRS, for our sample companies, European and US GAAP measures are generally comparable in respect of income and equity. However ...


The Relationship Between Competition And Business Segment Reporting Decisions Under The Management Approach Of Ias 14 Revised, Nancy Nichols, Donna Street Oct 2015

The Relationship Between Competition And Business Segment Reporting Decisions Under The Management Approach Of Ias 14 Revised, Nancy Nichols, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

This research addresses the relationship between industry competition and managers’ choice regarding whether to separately disclose a business segment following the adoption of International Accounting Standard 14 Revised (IAS 14R) and the management approach to segment determination. Logistic regression reveals a significant negative relationship between disclosure and company returns in excess of the industry average.

Prior research indicated a significant relationship between disclosure and abnormal returns under the industry approach to segmentation. Our results provide evidence that this flexibility persists as managers maintain their ability to aggregate segments to protect excess returns under IAS 14R and the management approach. Our ...


The G4'S Role In The Evolution Of The International Accounting Standard Setting Process And Partnership With The Iasb, Donna Street Oct 2015

The G4'S Role In The Evolution Of The International Accounting Standard Setting Process And Partnership With The Iasb, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

Between 1992 and 2001, representatives of the G4 national accounting standard setting bodies and the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) participated in a working group known as the G4+1. Immediately following the formation of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), the G4 announced that the working group would no longer meet. Alternatively, the G4 national standard setters would form a partnership with the IASB via liaison representatives.

This paper focuses on the objectives and mission of the G4+1, the G4's relationship with the IASC, the impact of the G4 on the restructuring of the IASC to establish ...


Large Firms Envision Worldwide Convergence Of Standards, Donna Street Oct 2015

Large Firms Envision Worldwide Convergence Of Standards, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

Currently, the largest accounting firms1 are working diligently in conjunction with their partners in the International Forum on Accountancy Development (IFAD) to achieve their vision of raising national accounting and auditing standards worldwide to meet or exceed internationally recognized benchmarks. An awareness of the ongoing activities of the firms and their IFAD partners to improve financial reporting, accountability, and transparency worldwide is crucial if other members of the accounting community, including educators, are to support and, more importantly, actively participate in these efforts. IFAD was formed in 1999 on “the premise that the expertise of the accounting profession and the ...


Convergence With Ifrs In An Expanding Europe: Progress And Obstacles Identified By Large Accounting Firm's Survey, Robert Larson, Donna Street Oct 2015

Convergence With Ifrs In An Expanding Europe: Progress And Obstacles Identified By Large Accounting Firm's Survey, Robert Larson, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) acquired greater legitimacy and stature when the European Union (EU) decided to require all listed companies to prepare consolidated accounts based on International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) beginning in 2005. This study examines the progress and perceived impediments to convergence in 17 European countries directly affected by the EU's decision. These include: (1) the 10 new EU member countries, (2) EU candidate countries, (3) European Economic Area (EEA) countries, and (4) Switzerland. We utilize data collected by the six largest international accounting firms during their 2002 convergence survey. Additionally, we analyze subsequent events ...


Disclosure Level And Compliance With Iass: A Comparison Of Companies With And Without U.S. Listings And Filings, Donna Street, Stephanie Bryant Oct 2015

Disclosure Level And Compliance With Iass: A Comparison Of Companies With And Without U.S. Listings And Filings, Donna Street, Stephanie Bryant

Donna L. Street

This research investigates the extent to which the disclosure requirements of the IASC are complied with or exceeded for companies claiming to use International Accounting Standards (IASs). Additionally, the research seeks to identify significant differences between those companies with U.S. listings, U.S. filings, and those with no U.S. listings or filings with regard to (1) compliance with IASC-required disclosures, and (2) level of disclosure (including both mandatory and voluntary items). The findings reveal the overall level of disclosure is greater for companies with U.S. listings. Additionally, greater disclosure is associated with an accounting policies footnote that ...


Framework-Based Teaching Of Ifrs Judgements, Christopher Hodgdon, Susan Hughes, Donna Street Oct 2015

Framework-Based Teaching Of Ifrs Judgements, Christopher Hodgdon, Susan Hughes, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are principles-based accounting standards that provide less prescriptive, interpretive and implementation guidance than do some national standards. Thus, considerable judgement in the application of IFRS is often required. We suggest a three-step approach to teaching IFRS judgments (concepts, to principles/rules, to the judgments required in the application of those rules), and provide accounting educators with guidance and resources that will help them create and enhance students' awareness of the importance of making professional judgments in the application of IFRS. We consider pervasive issues, such as the going concern assumption, materiality and related disclosures, and ...


Lob And Geographic Segment Disclosures: An Analysis Of The Impact Of Ias 14 Revised, Donna Street, Nancy Nichols Oct 2015

Lob And Geographic Segment Disclosures: An Analysis Of The Impact Of Ias 14 Revised, Donna Street, Nancy Nichols

Donna L. Street

To better satisfy important information needs of users of financial statements, as set forth in the IASC Framework, the IASC issued IAS 14 revised (IAS 14R), Segment Reporting, in 1997. IAS 14R became effective for fiscal years beginning on or after July 1, 1998. This research examines the pre-IAS 14R and post-IAS 14R line of business (LOB) and geographic disclosures of a global sample of companies that refer to IAS to ascertain the impact and effectiveness of IAS 14R in practice. Specifically, this research considers whether the new requirements resulted in (1) a greater number of LOB segments for some ...


The Impact Of Segment Reporting Under The Ifrs 8 And Sfas 131 Management Approach: A Research Review, Nancy Nichols, Donna Street, Ann Tarca Oct 2015

The Impact Of Segment Reporting Under The Ifrs 8 And Sfas 131 Management Approach: A Research Review, Nancy Nichols, Donna Street, Ann Tarca

Donna L. Street

This paper evaluates the impact of adopting the management approach for segment reporting. We review studies of the effect of the application of SFAS 131 and IFRS 8 on the number of reported operating segments and items of disclosure, segment reporting gaps and reconciliations, entitywide geographic disclosures, and competitive harm and decision usefulness of segment information. We report on the advantages and disadvantages of the management approach and explore whether the concerns of critics of adopting the management approach in IFRS 8 have been realized. We also identify opportunities for important and policy-relevant research in the area of segment reporting ...


The Impact In The United States Of Global Adoption Of Ifrs, Donna Street Oct 2015

The Impact In The United States Of Global Adoption Of Ifrs, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

This paper presents the pros and cons of the use of IFRS by US companies. The quest for one set of high-quality accounting standards recognised globally is clearly the ideal goal. However, before making a decision on the use of IFRS in the United States (US), the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) should develop a blueprint to ensure that prerequisites for achieving a true global standard are satisfied and that convergence will continue. An ‘improve and then adopt’ approach appears to represent the best way forward for the US.


An Interview With Sir David Tweedie, Chair, International Accounting Standards Board, Donna Street Oct 2015

An Interview With Sir David Tweedie, Chair, International Accounting Standards Board, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

At their first meeting in June 2000, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) Trustees selected Sir David Tweedie to serve as chairman of the newly restructured IASB. Tweedie held several significant positions prior to assuming the Chairmanship of the IASB. Tweedie was appointed Technical Director of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland in 1978 and moved from there in 1982 to the position of national Technical Partner of the then Thomson McLintock & Co. In 1987, his firm merged with Peat Marwick Mitchell & Co. at which time he was appointed national Technical Partner of KPMG Peat Marwick McLintock. Tweedie was ...


Factors Influencing The Extent Of Corporate Compliance With International Accounting Standards: Summary Of A Research Monograph, Donna Street, Sidney Gray Oct 2015

Factors Influencing The Extent Of Corporate Compliance With International Accounting Standards: Summary Of A Research Monograph, Donna Street, Sidney Gray

Donna L. Street

This report provides a summary of a research monograph sponsored by the ACCA (2001). The objective of the research is to examine the financial statements and footnotes of a worldwide sample of companies referring to the use of International Accounting Standards (IAS) to assess the extent of compliance and most importantly to provide evidence of the factors associated with compliance. The major findings are that there is a significant extent of non-compliance with IAS, especially in the case of IAS disclosure requirements. Further, as regards factors associated with compliance with IAS disclosure requirements, there is a significant positive association with ...


An Interview With Sir David Tweedie: Reflections On Ten Years As The Iasb’S First Chair, Donna Street Oct 2015

An Interview With Sir David Tweedie: Reflections On Ten Years As The Iasb’S First Chair, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

In a prior paper published in the Journal of International Financial Management and Accounting, Donna Street (2002) focused on a March 28, 2001 interview where Sir David Tweedie reflected on his outlook for the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and his forthcoming role as the Board’s first Chair. During a May 21, 2013 inter- view, Sir David and I met again. This time, Sir David looked back on his ten years as the IASB’s first Chair. The interview, summarized in this paper, began with a discussion of the Board’s greatest achievements and Sir David’s biggest regrets ...


Adoption Of Ias 19r By Europe's Premier Listed Companies: Corridor Approach Versus Full Recognition: Summary Of An Acca Research Monograph, Jan Fasshauer, Martin Glaum, Donna Street Oct 2015

Adoption Of Ias 19r By Europe's Premier Listed Companies: Corridor Approach Versus Full Recognition: Summary Of An Acca Research Monograph, Jan Fasshauer, Martin Glaum, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

This report provides a summary of a research monograph sponsored by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) [Fasshauer, J., Glaum, M., & Street, D. L. (2008). Adoption of IAS 19R by Europe's premier listed companies: Corridor approach versus full recognition. An ACCA research report, London] and is based on our in-depth analysis of the defined benefit pension plan disclosures provided in the year 2005 by companies constituting the premier segments of 20 European exchanges. Most importantly, the study identifies the method these companies selected under International Accounting Standard (IAS) 19 for the recognition of actuarial gains/losses, provides insight ...


Assessing The Acceptability Of International Accounting Standards In The Us: An Empirical Study Of The Materiality Of Us Gaap Reconciliations By Non-Us Companies Complying With Iasc Standards., Donna Street, Nancy Nichols, Sidney Gray Oct 2015

Assessing The Acceptability Of International Accounting Standards In The Us: An Empirical Study Of The Materiality Of Us Gaap Reconciliations By Non-Us Companies Complying With Iasc Standards., Donna Street, Nancy Nichols, Sidney Gray

Donna L. Street

With the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) reaching the completion of its core standards program, the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) is considering its response to the IASC's application for endorsement of International Accounting Standards (IASs). A critical aspect of IOSCO's acceptance of IASs is likely to be the extent to which such standards are compatible with US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP). This issue is explored by an empirical study of US GAAP reconciliations by non-US companies complying with IASC standards. The results indicate that the impact of accounting differences between IASs and US GAAP ...


Ifrs In The United States: If, When And How, Donna Street Oct 2015

Ifrs In The United States: If, When And How, Donna Street

Donna L. Street

This paper provides an overview of the convergence efforts of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board. It begins with their 2002 Memorandum of Understanding and traces developments up to the December 2011 announcement by the IASB Chair that convergence has come to a close, and it is now time to incorporate IFRS into the US financial reporting system. The paper then assesses approaches being considered by the SEC for incorporating IFRS into the US financial reporting model. The conclusion calls on the SEC to ‘make a decision’ and set a date for US adoption ...


An Analysis Of The Impact Of Adopting Ifrs 8 On The Segment Disclosures Of European Blue Chip Companies, Nancy Nichols, Donna Street, Sandra Cereola Oct 2015

An Analysis Of The Impact Of Adopting Ifrs 8 On The Segment Disclosures Of European Blue Chip Companies, Nancy Nichols, Donna Street, Sandra Cereola

Donna L. Street

Amidst the IASB's post-implementation review of IFRS 8, we examine how the standard's adoption changed the reporting of segments by European blue chips (i.e. companies comprising the top tier index of 14 European stock exchanges). We focus on anticipated benefits articulated in the IASB's Basis for Conclusions and concerns expressed by IFRS 8 opponents.

In addition to convergence with U.S. GAAP, IFRS 8 results in the reporting of significantly more operating segments on average. However, most companies report the same number or fewer segments. Refuting claims regarding the loss of geographic data at the entity-wide ...


Compliance With Ifrs 3 And Ias 36 Required Disclosures Across 17 European Countries: Company-Level And Country-Level Determinants, Martin Glaum, Peter Schmidt, Donna Street, Silvia Vogel Oct 2015

Compliance With Ifrs 3 And Ias 36 Required Disclosures Across 17 European Countries: Company-Level And Country-Level Determinants, Martin Glaum, Peter Schmidt, Donna Street, Silvia Vogel

Donna L. Street

In this study, we analyse compliance for a large sample of European companies mandatorily applying International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Focusing on disclosures required by IFRS 3 Business Combinations and International Accounting Standard 36 Impairment of Assets, we find substantial non-compliance. Compliance levels are determined jointly by company- and country-level variables, indicating that accounting traditions and other country-specific factors continue to play a role despite the use of common reporting standards under IFRS. At the company level, we identify the importance of goodwill positions, prior experience with IFRS, type of auditor, the existence of audit committees, the issuance of equity ...


Some Simpler Methods Of Accounting For The Effects Of Changing Prices, Surendra Agrawal, Kenneth Rosenzweig Jun 2015

Some Simpler Methods Of Accounting For The Effects Of Changing Prices, Surendra Agrawal, Kenneth Rosenzweig

Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig

The complexities of accounting for the effects of changing prices on financial statements could be lessened with the use of simpler accounting methods. Because of existing complexities, even industrialized countries require only their larger business entities to provide inflation-adjusted information. Such information is prepared by making numerous adjustments to the traditional, historical cost-based data. For example, in the United Kingdom, inflation-adjusted income is calculated in two stages: operating profit and profit attributable to shareholders. These calculations are based on the concept of value to the business and require complicated adjustments with respect to cost of goods sold, depreciation, monetary working ...


A Nondisclosed Cpa Examination: Implications For Education And The Accounting Profession, Kenneth Rosenzweig, K. Geary Jun 2015

A Nondisclosed Cpa Examination: Implications For Education And The Accounting Profession, Kenneth Rosenzweig, K. Geary

Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig

The Board of Examiners of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has proposed that the Uniform CPA Examination change from a disclosed to a nondisclosed examination in the Year 1996. A disclosed examination is available to candidates and others after its administration, whereas a nondisclosed examination is kept secret. In this article, we develop the case that nondisclosure is undesirable. Consideration is given to the impact of nondisclosure on question quality, examination security, public confidence in the examination, accounting instruction in universities, and the costs of examination administration.


An Exploratory Field Study Of The Relationships Between The Controller’S Department And Overall Organizational Characteristics, Kenneth Rosenzweig Jun 2015

An Exploratory Field Study Of The Relationships Between The Controller’S Department And Overall Organizational Characteristics, Kenneth Rosenzweig

Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig

This paper describes an exploratory field study which applies organizational research perspectives to the study of the relationship between the controller's department and characteristics of the overall organizations of a sample of 18 manufacturing companies. Correlation analysis is used to assess the extent of association between a wide variety of controller's department and overall organization variables. The findings point to a number of significant relationships between the nature of the controller's department and characteristics of the overall organization.


Is Managing Earnings Ethically Acceptable? Surveys Show Age And Seniority Affect Attitudes On Earnings Management, Kenneth Rosenzweig, Marilyn Fischer Jun 2015

Is Managing Earnings Ethically Acceptable? Surveys Show Age And Seniority Affect Attitudes On Earnings Management, Kenneth Rosenzweig, Marilyn Fischer

Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig

Is managing earnings through accounting methods ethically acceptable? That's the question we recently asked a sample group of management accountants. The response to the survey was enlightening. Our survey was designed as a follow-up and extension of the research done by Bruns and Merchant and published in Management Accounting in August 1990. They found that managers disagreed considerably on whether earnings management is ethically acceptable. They also found that in general the respondents thought manipulating earnings via operating decisions was more ethically acceptable than manipulation by accounting methods. Bruns and Merchant were disturbed by these findings. They were concerned ...