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Full-Text Articles in Business

Why Didn’T Experts Pick M4-Competition Winner?, J. Scott Armstrong, Kesten C. Green Feb 2019

Why Didn’T Experts Pick M4-Competition Winner?, J. Scott Armstrong, Kesten C. Green

Marketing Papers

Purpose: Commentary on M4-Competition and findings to assess the contribution of data models—such as from machine learning methods—to improving forecast accuracy.

Methods: (1) Use prior knowledge on the relative accuracy of forecasts from validated forecasting methods to assess the M4 findings. (2) Use prior knowledge on forecasting principles and the scientific method to assess whether data models can be expected to improve accuracy relative to forecasts from previously validated methods under any conditions.

Findings: Prior knowledge from experimental research is supported by the M4 findings that simple validated methods provided forecasts that are: (1) typically more accurate than ...


Creating Connection Between Individuals And Teams: Understanding Human Biology And Psychology For High Performance, Nicole Kett Dec 2018

Creating Connection Between Individuals And Teams: Understanding Human Biology And Psychology For High Performance, Nicole Kett

Master of Philosophy in Organizational Dynamics Theses

This capstone is a result of four questions formulated around a central theme focused on understanding what it is that makes teams and environments high performing today, and additionally, how leaders connect with others in order to set high performing environments. In the first question (Chapter 2), exploration of our human biology shows our genetics are wired for connection and collaboration although this may be in contradiction with many aspects of American society today. The second question (Chapter 3) explored human motivation. Instead of understanding the individual, we have to look further to understand how the cues from the environment ...


Matching Fintech Advice To Participant Needs: Lessons And Challenges, Stephen L. Deschenes, P Brett Hammond Dec 2018

Matching Fintech Advice To Participant Needs: Lessons And Challenges, Stephen L. Deschenes, P Brett Hammond

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

The financial services industry is changing rapidly with the arrival of new economies of scale and networking effects attributable to FinTech, particularly via online or ‘robo’ advice. This chapter reviews the ‘robo-experience:’ how does it differ, if at all, from more traditional advice, and what is likely to happen next? After reviewing the goals and objectives of robo-advice, evolving advice models, who uses robo-advice, and investor behavior, we conclude that first adopters tend to be more affluent Millennial investors, as well as others seeking fast, mobile, and easy access to their finances. Nevertheless, though robo-advice has promised much, evidence is ...


Political Belief Bias And Empathy For Pain, Lin Yang Nov 2018

Political Belief Bias And Empathy For Pain, Lin Yang

Summer Program for Undergraduate Research (SPUR)

Empathy is defined as the ability to understand and share others emotions (Batson, 1991). It is key in social relationships. Empathic concerns increase if the perceiver and target share common membership in a social category (Horstein,1978). Past literature has shown that people value others’ pain similar to how they value their own pain, to the extent that they empathize with the other person. The neural circuits activated in response to another’s pain is in the self’s ACC neural responses, an unconscious affect response, are weakened by race-defined intergroup relationships (Xu et al, 2009). In this study, we ...


Fdi And Gender Equality: Tnc Responsibilities To Address Gender Vulnerabilities In Developing Countries, Amleset Girmay Sep 2018

Fdi And Gender Equality: Tnc Responsibilities To Address Gender Vulnerabilities In Developing Countries, Amleset Girmay

Summer Program for Undergraduate Research (SPUR)

This paper argues that foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows can often lead to increases in gender disparities in more gender unequal developing countries, and that transnational corporations (TNCs) have a responsibility to supplement their normal FDI activities with additional policies and investments to ensure that women are not being made worse off. This paper begins by building a philosophical context in global gender justice, then considers empirical evidence that shows the morally problematic areas of the relationship between FDI and gender equality. It then moves on to consider why gender vulnerability to FDI needs to be addressed, drawing again on ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Land Tenure Reform In Present-Day South Africa, Noah Katcher Sep 2018

Evaluating The Impact Of Land Tenure Reform In Present-Day South Africa, Noah Katcher

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

Since the end of apartheid in South Africa, land tenure reform has been discussed ceaselessly as a critical action to restore lasting inequities from the nation’s segregated history. In recent months, South African President Cyril Ramaphosa has introduced a proposal for a constitutional amendment supporting expropriation without compensation, stirring controversy and revolt throughout the country and across the globe. As questions continue to rise regarding the value of land reform and best practices for implementation, this paper identifies the relevant stakeholders in the debate over land reform and details the potential impacts of a redistributive mandate. Broadly speaking, this ...


Be More: Buffering Against Gender Stereotypes By Building Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Erica Mohr Sep 2018

Be More: Buffering Against Gender Stereotypes By Building Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Erica Mohr

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Research shows that organizations perform better when women are represented on senior leadership teams. Yet women are not rising to the highest ranks of leadership at equivalent rates as men. Gender stereotypes negatively influence women’s self-efficacy, the internal beliefs of what they are capable of. Women hold themselves back when they respond to these low self-efficacy beliefs, by not aspiring, not applying, not asking, and not acting. This paper explores current leadership gap data and the consequences of the disparity between men and women in leadership roles. Next, the paper describes how stereotypes can create the underlying problem: limiting ...


Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski Aug 2018

Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The concept of mattering is an underdeveloped, yet important component of an employee’s success in the workplace, and personal well-being. Deficit-based leadership strategies employed by many organizations can break-down the ability for an employee to feel that they and their work matter, however, the focus by leaders on mattering can lead employees to feel: my leader is invested in my success, I am noticed, I am cared about, I am depended upon, I would be missed if I were not here, my leader is interested in what I say and do, I am appreciated, and I am noticed for ...


The Spiritual Business: Breathing Life Into The Body, Mind, And Spirit Of Organizations, Henry C. Richardson Aug 2018

The Spiritual Business: Breathing Life Into The Body, Mind, And Spirit Of Organizations, Henry C. Richardson

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Spirituality and business are generally thought to be in opposition. Spirituality is considered private, sacred, unbounded, and religious in nature. Business, on the other hand, is thought to be practical, contained, and at times cut-throat. However, spiritual practices like yoga and meditation have shown positive benefits for employees and organizations. In this paper, I will be defining “the spiritual business” and utilizing the definition of spirituality to give insight into how businesses may overlap management and leadership training with spiritual principles. Spirituality, coming from the Latin word spiritus, is defined as that which breathes life into living systems. In this ...


Positive Design: A Positive Psychology Workout For Design Thinkers, Kathryn S. Wessling Aug 2018

Positive Design: A Positive Psychology Workout For Design Thinkers, Kathryn S. Wessling

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Design Thinking is a creative process of innovation which is motivated by the empathic understanding of the person for whom the innovation is it intended to serve (i.e., the user). While the intention is to enhance the wellbeing of the user, it is likely that the process improves the wellbeing of those doing the innovating (i.e., the designer). While empirical research has yet to statistically test this hypothesis, evidence from positive psychology, the science of human thriving, provides insights into how this is possible. With the primary emphasis on the designer’s wellbeing, greater flourishing occurs within the ...


Living Your Calling In The Social Sector: A Theory About How To Thrive And Have A Lasting Impact In The World., Ilaina Rabbat Aug 2018

Living Your Calling In The Social Sector: A Theory About How To Thrive And Have A Lasting Impact In The World., Ilaina Rabbat

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

An important and overlooked group in the topic of calling is that comprising individuals who work in the social sector, defined as individuals devoted to advancing human dignity and social justice through advocacy, service, policy research, and/or impact investing at a local, national, and global level (Tirmizi & Vogelsang, 2016). Among this group, it is possible to distinguish between those that are experiencing mainly positive outcomes because of their calling—called calling thrivers—and those who are experiencing a combination of negative and positive outcomes, called calling survivors. The aim of the study is to understand the main differences between ...


Creative Problem Solving As A Positive Intervention And Approach To Career Development, Laura Delprato Aug 2018

Creative Problem Solving As A Positive Intervention And Approach To Career Development, Laura Delprato

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Every year, over 19 million college students in the United States face big decisions like choosing a major, securing an internship, and deciding their next steps after graduation (National Center for Education Statistics, 2018). With rapid advancements in the world of work, there are many emerging environmental factors that make these decisions complex and challenging (Callanan, Perri, & Tomkowicz, 2017). This paper explores how positive psychology and creative problem solving research can support students as they make career-related decisions and design their lives. Advancements in positive psychology build a foundation of research that supports work as a pathway to flourishing. Accordingly ...


You Only Live Twice: Midlife As A Creative Transition Into Our 'Second Act', Erik Otto Driessen Aug 2018

You Only Live Twice: Midlife As A Creative Transition Into Our 'Second Act', Erik Otto Driessen

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Our rising life expectancy mandates a re-design of our life span and redefines ‘midlife’ both technically and conceptually. Lagging behind other life stages in its scientific study, midlife is often connoted with a ‘crisis’ of sorts. Yet historically, midlife represented an apex in life; moreover, conclusive ‘crisis’ evidence has yet to emerge. Some manage to thrive in midlife by maintaining an attitude rooted in The Good Life, a concept tracing back to Aristotelian ethics. Positive psychology, the science of what makes life worth living, has studied The Good Life in modern times and contributed to understanding midlife in well-being terms ...


Differences In Recruitment Preparation Between Business Fraternities And Social Greek Organizations, David Pang Aug 2018

Differences In Recruitment Preparation Between Business Fraternities And Social Greek Organizations, David Pang

Joseph Wharton Scholars

Recruitment preparation is the process of getting ready to pursue employment and the associated feeling and actual level of readiness to do well in the job search. This study explores the recruitment preparation differences between professional business fraternities and social Greek organizations through a survey and expert interviews. The results show that business fraternities are significantly better at recruitment preparation, particularly when it comes to technical question preparation, resumes/cover letters, and industry mentoring, but not when it comes to networking or fit question preparation. The recruitment preparation in both groups were shown to be differentiated from other activities in ...


Comparing Public And Private Real Estate Through Repeat-Sales Indexes And Unlevered Reit Returns, Griffin Amdur May 2018

Comparing Public And Private Real Estate Through Repeat-Sales Indexes And Unlevered Reit Returns, Griffin Amdur

Wharton Research Scholars

This paper constructs repeat-sales indexes using Real Capital Analytics (RCA) transaction data from central business districts (CBD) in Chicago, New York City (Manhattan), Philadelphia, Washington D.C., Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Boston. The indexes can be used to measure the historical returns of offices in these markets. This paper brings insight on whether public and private real estate should be treated as the same asset class. It was found that exposure to private real estate has a positive liquidity premium compared to public REITs. This was found by comparing RCA’s Manhattan Office Repeat-Sales Index to SL Green’s ...


Performance In The Civil Service Incentive Structure: A Case Study Of Tunisia, Loujeine Boutar May 2018

Performance In The Civil Service Incentive Structure: A Case Study Of Tunisia, Loujeine Boutar

Wharton Research Scholars

This paper attempts to answer the question: does the current employment management system of civil service in Tunisia incentivize performance? This paper is a case study that provides background information on the Tunisian civil service employment, and offers analysis based on existing legislation and reports, as well as expert interviews. The paper’s findings are: First, it does not have an evaluation system that separates high performers from low performers. Second, the current compensation structure and promotion mechanisms do not reward high performers.

Based on the Tunisian context and other different case studies, this paper makes suggestions regarding approach to ...


Measuring The Bias Of Technological Change, Ulrich Doraszelski, Jordi Jaumandreu May 2018

Measuring The Bias Of Technological Change, Ulrich Doraszelski, Jordi Jaumandreu

Marketing Papers

Technological change can increase the productivity of the various factors of production in equal terms, or it can be biased toward a specific factor. We directly address the bias of technological change by measuring, at the level of the individual firm, how much of it is labor augmenting and how much is factor neutral. To do so, we develop a framework for estimating production functions when productivity is multidimensional. Using panel data from Spain, we find that technological change is biased, with both its labor-augmenting and its factor-neutral components causing output to grow by about 1.5 percent per year.


A Recency-Only Pareto/Nbd, Rohan Rajagopalan May 2018

A Recency-Only Pareto/Nbd, Rohan Rajagopalan

Joseph Wharton Scholars

This paper will examine an extension to the Pareto/NBD model commonly used in customer base analysis. The paper will demonstrate and estimate a "recency-only" version of the Pareto/NBD. The model will be fit to both real-world and simulated data and will be compared to the "recency/frequency" model. The paper finds that the model can adequately recover parameters in a variety of settings, but in some cases may predict poorly.


House Bill 2 & The Backlash: A Story Of Frames, Kerry Schellenberger Mar 2018

House Bill 2 & The Backlash: A Story Of Frames, Kerry Schellenberger

Honors Theses (PPE)

While over 20 states considered so-called bathroom bills between 2013-2016, only one state, North Carolina, passed one - in the form of House Bill 2. House Bill 2 modified North Carolina’s non-discrimination legislation, as well as restricting access to multi-user restrooms on the basis of sex designated on one’s birth certificate, which would require some transgender men to use the women’s restroom. The debate between those for and against HB2 raged in the press, the legal system, and finally at the ballot box. An analysis of the first two months of coverage indicates how frames were used by ...


The Other Side Of A Merger: Labor Market Power, Wage Suppression, And Finding Recourse In Antitrust Law, Ioana Marinescu Mar 2018

The Other Side Of A Merger: Labor Market Power, Wage Suppression, And Finding Recourse In Antitrust Law, Ioana Marinescu

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Labor market concentration can worsen after a merger takes place, and this heightened concentration can negatively affect wages. The focus of antitrust analysis, however, has been on the prices of consumer products, not the wages of laborers. New research indicates that, on average, labor markets are highly concentrated, and that higher concentration is associated with significantly lower posted wages for new jobs. This brief uses existing economic tools to develop a model for evaluating labor market concentration and its effects, to determine if a merger will run the risk of anticompetitively suppressing wages, employment, and output. Regulators can use this ...


Does Ease Mediate The Ease-Of-Retrieval Effect? A Meta-Analysis, Evan Weingarten, J. W. Hutchinson Mar 2018

Does Ease Mediate The Ease-Of-Retrieval Effect? A Meta-Analysis, Evan Weingarten, J. W. Hutchinson

Marketing Papers

A wealth of literature suggests individuals use feelings in addition to facts as sources of information for judgment. This paper focuses on a manipulation in which participants list either a few or many examples of a given type, and then make a judgment. Instead of using the number of arguments or evidence strength, participants are hypothesized to use the subjective ease of generating examples as the primary input to judgment. This result is commonly called the ease-of-retrieval effect, and the feeling of ease is typically assumed to mediate the effect. We use meta-analytic methods across 142 papers, 263 studies, and ...


A Model Of Product Design And Information Disclosure Investments, Panos M. Markopoulos, Kartik Hosanagar Feb 2018

A Model Of Product Design And Information Disclosure Investments, Panos M. Markopoulos, Kartik Hosanagar

Marketing Papers

New technologies such as product simulators and virtual reality now allow firms to provide realistic product usage experiences and reduce buyer uncertainty about product quality. We argue that today’s firms should view product design and investments to reduce buyer uncertainty as an integrated process, which is in turn influenced by how much information buyers can obtain from third-party infomediaries. We introduce a game-theoretic model of a competitive market where both quality production and quality disclosure are endogenous decisions, affected by information made available by third parties. We show that quality investment under uncertainty never exceeds the level of quality ...


The Policy Barriers To Marijuana Banking, Peter Conti-Brown Feb 2018

The Policy Barriers To Marijuana Banking, Peter Conti-Brown

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

Although cannabis-related businesses have thrived in the localities that have legalized marijuana as a consumer product, the industry has suffered from crippling uncertainty, in the form of limited access to the banking system. The cannabis industry thus has been forced to operate in a cash-intensive “gray market,” which is a problem. An entire industry conducting all of its business in cash cannot be fairly taxed or regulated and, historically, has been associated with lawlessness—everything from security concerns, transportation and currency problems, money laundering, and cash hoarding. This brief reviews and analyzes the issues that surround marijuana banking and offers ...


Order In The Court: How Firm Status And Reputation Shape The Outcomes Of Employment Discrimination Suits, Mary-Hunter Mcdonnell, Brayden G. King Feb 2018

Order In The Court: How Firm Status And Reputation Shape The Outcomes Of Employment Discrimination Suits, Mary-Hunter Mcdonnell, Brayden G. King

Management Papers

This article explores the mechanisms by which corporate prestige produces distorted legal outcomes. Drawing on social psychological theories of status, we suggest that prestige influences audience evaluations by shaping expectations, and that its effect will differ depending on whether a firm’s blameworthiness has been firmly established. We empirically analyze a unique database of more than 500 employment discrimination suits brought between 1998 and 2008. We find that prestige is associated with a decreased likelihood of being found liable (suggesting a halo effect in assessments of blameworthiness), but with more severe punishments among organizations that are found liable (suggesting a ...


Bright Lines: How Regulatory Asset Thresholds Change The Banking Industry, Allison Nicoletti, Michael Iselin, Hailey Ballew Jan 2018

Bright Lines: How Regulatory Asset Thresholds Change The Banking Industry, Allison Nicoletti, Michael Iselin, Hailey Ballew

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

One of the key features of the Dodd-Frank Act is that it imposes specific and costly regulatory requirements on banks that cross the threshold of having more than $10 billion in total assets. Anecdotal accounts have suggested that this threshold has led to increased consolidation in the banking industry. This brief provides new statistical evidence of that phenomenon. Banks that approach the $10 billion threshold are significantly more likely to engage in an acquisition, pay more for that acquisition, and acquire bigger target banks than similar banking institutions did prior to Dodd-Frank. To the extent that policymakers are concerned with ...


To What Extent Would Operational Restructuring Through Connecting Market Participants Streamline The Informal Recycling Industry In Urban India?, Peter W. Hjemdahl, Svanika Balasubramanian Jan 2018

To What Extent Would Operational Restructuring Through Connecting Market Participants Streamline The Informal Recycling Industry In Urban India?, Peter W. Hjemdahl, Svanika Balasubramanian

Joseph Wharton Scholars

As the economies of developing countries grow, the waste production in these nations also increases proportionally. However, local governments are constrained by both the lack of adequate funds and a lack of skilled human capital, and are thus unable to build necessary waste management infrastructure. The majority of waste produced in these urban centres end up untreated in landfills, proving to be a social and environmental danger. A small portion of this refuse is handled by a vibrant informal recycling industry that is unable to scale given myriad inefficiencies. We propose the implementation of a tech-enabled marketplace platform to consolidate ...


Modelling Heterogeneous Effects In Network Contagion: Evidence From The Steam Community, Henrique Laurino Dos Santos Jan 2018

Modelling Heterogeneous Effects In Network Contagion: Evidence From The Steam Community, Henrique Laurino Dos Santos

Wharton Research Scholars

This study considers heterogeneous effects of reviews and social interactions on diffusion or contagion of new products in a networked setting, using a sample of interconnected public user profiles from the Steam Community. Ownership and reviews of two cult hit independent games – The Binding of Isaac: Rebirth, and To the Moon – are analyzed over a period of four years. This data was fit with a Hawkes Process Hazard Regression Model with exponential decay kernels for each game, yielding estimates of scale and duration of incremental heterogeneous actions within the network. This analysis finds strong, short term, additive, and marginally decreasing ...


Multivariate Comparison Of Experts' Versus Users' Reviews Online, Mariana Repsold Jan 2018

Multivariate Comparison Of Experts' Versus Users' Reviews Online, Mariana Repsold

Joseph Wharton Scholars

This study aims to compare and contrast professional critics’ movie reviews with those of general public users’ to understand the differences and similarities between both and its effect. This will allow better informed decisions to be made highlighting when and for what ends the use of each type is more appropriate. This study analyzes length, ease of reading, sentiment analysis, main topics, emotional tones and the effect of time to evaluate the reviews. All the data used in this study pertains to the movie Avatar and was obtained from the IMDb movie database online. The research conducted found that while ...


Advertising Content And Consumer Engagement On Social Media: Evidence From Facebook, Dokyun Lee, Kartik Hosanagar, Harikesh Nair Jan 2018

Advertising Content And Consumer Engagement On Social Media: Evidence From Facebook, Dokyun Lee, Kartik Hosanagar, Harikesh Nair

Marketing Papers

We describe the effect of social media advertising content on customer engagement using data from Facebook. We content-code 106,316 Facebook messages across 782 companies, using a combination of Amazon Mechanical Turk and natural language processing algorithms. We use this data set to study the association of various kinds of social media marketing content with user engagement—defined as Likes, comments, shares, and click-throughs—with the messages. We find that inclusion of widely used content related to brand personality—like humor and emotion—is associated with higher levels of consumer engagement (Likes, comments, shares) with a message. We find that ...


Beyond The Last Touch: Attribution In Online Advertising, Ron Berman Jan 2018

Beyond The Last Touch: Attribution In Online Advertising, Ron Berman

Marketing Papers

Online advertisers often utilize multiple publishers to deliver ads to multi-homing consumers. These ads often generate externalities and their exposure is uncertain, which impacts advertising effectiveness across publishers.

We analytically analyze the inefficiencies created by externalities and uncertainty when information is symmetric between advertisers and publishers, in contrast to most previous research that assumes information asymmetry. Although these inefficiencies cannot be resolved through publisher side actions, attribution methods that measure the campaign uncertainty can serve as an alternative solution to help advertisers adjust their strategies.

Attribution creates a virtual competition between publishers, resulting in a team compensation problem. The equilibrium ...