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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in African American Studies

The Beautiful Struggle Of Black Feminism: Changes In Representations Of Black Womanhood Examined Through The Artwork Of Elizabeth Catlett And Mickalene Thomas, Juana Williams Jan 2017

The Beautiful Struggle Of Black Feminism: Changes In Representations Of Black Womanhood Examined Through The Artwork Of Elizabeth Catlett And Mickalene Thomas, Juana Williams

Wayne State University Theses

The visual representation of black womanhood is important in understanding black women’s journey toward liberation and empowerment. The use of representations of black womanhood as tools of empowerment is evident through the artwork of Elizabeth Catlett and Mickalene Thomas. Catlett was one of the most prominent black female artists during the 1960s – 1970s, as her artwork and activism expressed the Black Nationalist theories of the Black Arts Movement. Thomas’s artwork and artistic beliefs are in line with many theories regarding post-blackness, such as a reinterpreting of the definition of blackness. Discussing the work of these artists offers a ...


Variations In The Marital Attitudes And Marital Status Of Black And White Americans: An Intersectional Approach, Stacey Ellen Coleman Jan 2017

Variations In The Marital Attitudes And Marital Status Of Black And White Americans: An Intersectional Approach, Stacey Ellen Coleman

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to assess the unique socio-demographic positions of Black and White Americans related to variations in marital attitudes and marital status and differences in sex. The study was guided by two research aims: 1.) to assess whether socio-demographic factors were related to racial variations in marital attitudes of Blacks and Whites and if the relationships differ by race and sex and 2.) to assess whether socio-demographic factors were differentially associated with marital status of Black and White Americans and if they varied by race and sex. The study drew on individual-level, nationally representative, cross-sectional, 2010 ...


Rituals Reproducing Race: African American Women's Feminine Hygiene Practices, Shared Experiences, And Power, Angela K. Guy-Lee Jan 2017

Rituals Reproducing Race: African American Women's Feminine Hygiene Practices, Shared Experiences, And Power, Angela K. Guy-Lee

Wayne State University Dissertations

This dissertation is an exploration of the role African American women’s feminine hygiene practices, namely vaginal douching, plays in the creation and reproduction of race. Compared to their white and Latina counterparts, African American women are the most likely to engage in this practice. Vaginal douching is associated with myriad reproductive and sexual health problems. These problems include but are not limited to recurrent yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, disrupting healthy vaginal microbiomes, and spontaneous preterm birth; of which African American women experience disproportionately. Although racial differences in vaginal douching are well documented, little is known about the impetus for ...


Black Male Genocide: Sanctioned Segregation In American Policy, Alton Maxel James Jan 2017

Black Male Genocide: Sanctioned Segregation In American Policy, Alton Maxel James

Wayne State University Dissertations

College degree attainment for Black Americans has significantly fallen their majority counterparts. While educational attainment for this minority demographic has been less than average, a secondary trend emerges. Despite the rises in graduation rates, Black males consistently earn a smaller percentage of the degrees garnered by Black students. Furthermore, policies throughout sectors of American society produce segregation that manifests as genocidal realities in the lives of Black men—including college graduation. Thus, the purpose of this research was to determine the effect of neighborhood segregation on Black men and women’s 4 and 6-year graduation probability and determine if Black ...


Colorism Bias In Hiring Decisions: Disentangling The Effects Of Hair Type And Skin Tone, Niambi Maia Childress Powell Jan 2017

Colorism Bias In Hiring Decisions: Disentangling The Effects Of Hair Type And Skin Tone, Niambi Maia Childress Powell

Wayne State University Dissertations

Studies on colorism bias are prevalent, but there exists a gap in the literature regarding how this construct operates within organizational contexts (Marira & Mitra, 2013). The current research explores colorism bias in organizational hiring decisions, considering both hair type and skin tone as physical markers which influence the enactment of colorism biases; as well as investigating the mediating effect of racial identity strength and attractiveness of the applicant, and moderating effects of job type. In a quasi-experimental design, participants viewed a Black female job applicant being considered for either a blue or white collar job, with varying degrees of Afrocentricity of skin tone and hair type. Conditional analyses suggest that the relationship between both skin tone and hair type with selection decisions is fully mediated by the perceived attractiveness ...


An Exploration Of The Factors That Contribute To The Success Of African American Professionals In Stem-Related Careers, Yolande Kristine Alexander Nealy Jan 2017

An Exploration Of The Factors That Contribute To The Success Of African American Professionals In Stem-Related Careers, Yolande Kristine Alexander Nealy

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

AN EXPLORATION OF THE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE SUCCESS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN PROFESSIONALS IN STEM-RELATED CAREERS

by

YOLANDE KRISTINE ALEXANDER NEALY

May 2017

Advisor: Maria M. Ferreira

Major: Curriculum and Instruction; Science Education

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

This study examined factors that contribute to the success of African American professionals in STEM careers. Data were collected through a survey from 40 participants and in-depth interviews with eight of them. The survey was used to explore the participants’ educational experiences from elementary school through college and on their STEM-related careers, whereas the individual interviews were used to gain insights ...


Weird Propaganda: Texts Of The Black Power And Women’S Liberation Movements, Marie Buck Jan 2017

Weird Propaganda: Texts Of The Black Power And Women’S Liberation Movements, Marie Buck

Wayne State University Dissertations

“Weird Propaganda: Texts of the Black Power and Women’s Liberation Movements” examines texts of the Black Power and Women’s Liberation Movements: the early Black Arts Movement anthology For Malcolm; the now-canonical texts Our Bodies, Ourselves; The Black Woman; and Sisterhood Is Powerful; a number of pamphlets and other small press works; and the Black Panthers’ newspaper. This project argues that writers and activists used senses of the uncanny, along with elements of science fiction and fantasy, to negotiate the day-to-day uncertainties of political organizing and, more broadly, political hope. The texts examined here convey particular political views in ...


The City Is Black, Black Is The City: Exploring The Intersections Of Race And Stratification Beliefs On Policy Preferences, Randall Rashad Wyatt Jan 2016

The City Is Black, Black Is The City: Exploring The Intersections Of Race And Stratification Beliefs On Policy Preferences, Randall Rashad Wyatt

Wayne State University Theses

This paper examines the association between race blame attitudes with support for policies aimed at improving the nation’s large cities among White and Black Americans. Although legislative safeguards protect the constitutional rights of all Americans, Blacks trail Whites on nearly all quality of life indicators. By extension, the quality of life within cities with disproportionate and segregated Black populations is decidedly worse than in other cities. That said, the current study largely finds that black and white Americans maintain different motivations for supporting increased or decreased funding for large urban American cities, which often serves as a code word ...


Conversations On Controversy: An Examination Of Internet Discussions On High-Profile Incidents Of Recorded Police Brutality, Brittany Nicole Jefferson Jan 2016

Conversations On Controversy: An Examination Of Internet Discussions On High-Profile Incidents Of Recorded Police Brutality, Brittany Nicole Jefferson

Wayne State University Theses

The purpose of this study is to examine the conversations that Internet user have when discussing publicized, recorded incidents of police brutality. This study examined the deaths of Tamir Rice, Eric Garner and Walter Scott and the subsequent discussions about the incidents on YouTube.com, MSNBC.com and NYTimes.com. This was accomplished by using an exploratory content analysis to establish what are the general topics of these discussions. This analysis found that there are 2 major themes that are discussed by Internet users when they comment; the content of the video and the social context of the incident itself ...


African Americans And The Communication Of Religious Exit, William P. Cooper Jan 2016

African Americans And The Communication Of Religious Exit, William P. Cooper

Wayne State University Theses

This exploratory study investigates Christian disaffiliation, or deconversion, in a sample of African American ex-Christians living in the metro-Detroit area. The data obtained from 15 interviews were used to address the following research questions: (1) How do participants recall the religious socialization process? (2) What are some catalysts for African Americans disaffiliating from their former Christian denominations? (3) How does the Christian disaffiliation process unfold communicatively for African-Americans? Specifically, did participants utilize any strategies of SMC in their communication of exit? Jablin’s (2001) Model of Organizational Exit and Meisenbach’s (2010) Stigma Management Communication Strategy Typology were used as ...


Saving Innocents: Tracing The Human Monster Hunter’S Hetero-Normative Agenda From The 1970s To Today, Adam Kem Yerima Jan 2016

Saving Innocents: Tracing The Human Monster Hunter’S Hetero-Normative Agenda From The 1970s To Today, Adam Kem Yerima

Wayne State University Dissertations

In supernatural-themed American television programs that focus on hunting or exposing monsters and the monstrous, the human monster hunter’s representation and actions promote a conservative subtext. While horror scholarship prefers to examine the genre’s monsters and women, and regulate the hunter as simply being an expert, an exploration into the historical development of the figure reveals that there is a lot more to this character. The human monster hunter’s televisual depictions from the 1970s to today reveal a complex illustration that reifies the “American dream.” Time and time again, through the loss of an ideal middle-class experience ...


Origins Of An Unmarked Georgia Cemetery Using Ancient Dna Analysis, Andrew T. Ozga, Raúl Y. Tito, Brian M. Kemp, Hugh Matternes, Alexandra Obregon-Tito, Leslie Neal, Cecil M. Lewis, Jr. Jun 2015

Origins Of An Unmarked Georgia Cemetery Using Ancient Dna Analysis, Andrew T. Ozga, Raúl Y. Tito, Brian M. Kemp, Hugh Matternes, Alexandra Obregon-Tito, Leslie Neal, Cecil M. Lewis, Jr.

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Determining the origins of those buried within undocumented cemeteries is of incredible importance to historical archaeologists and in many cases, the nearby communities. In the case of Avondale Burial Place, a cemetery in Bibb County, Georgia, in use from 1820 to 1950, all written documentation of those interred within it has been lost. Osteological and archaeological evidence alone could not describe, with confidence, the ancestral origins of the 101 individuals buried there. In the present study, we utilize ancient DNA extraction methods to investigate the origins of Avondale Burial Place through the use of well-preserved skeletal fragments from 20 individuals ...


The Impact Of Voter Suppression Laws On African American Participation In Florida And North Carolina From 1988 To 2012, Anthony Lewis Daniels Jan 2015

The Impact Of Voter Suppression Laws On African American Participation In Florida And North Carolina From 1988 To 2012, Anthony Lewis Daniels

Wayne State University Dissertations

A rich body of research presents conflicting accounts describing how contemporary voter suppression laws impact political participation. This study process traces the political development of North Carolina and Florida from 1988 to 2012 to assess four competing explanations of this process. This study compares three measures of participation that strongly support the discouraging voter hypothesis, which finds that voter suppression laws depress black participation.

This study finds that state officials in Florida adopted a much stricter voter suppression regime than those in North Carolina for the period under study. As a result, the two states developed differing levels of democratization ...


The Experiences Of Black American Older Adults Managing Pain: A Nursing Ethnography, Sheria Grice Robinson Jan 2015

The Experiences Of Black American Older Adults Managing Pain: A Nursing Ethnography, Sheria Grice Robinson

Wayne State University Dissertations

Introduction: Pain can negatively affect quality of life for Black elders. They are less likely to report pain concerns and have voiced pain needs adequately met. To better understand the pain management experiences and concerns of Black elders, an ethnographic study was completed within an urban, low-income, elder housing facility. Methods: 106 participants completed a questionnaire comprised of a demographic tool, the PROMIS Global Health Scale (PROMIS), the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and the Psychological Stress Measure (PSM-9). Additionally, participant observation, informal interviews, and 20 formal recorded interviews with individuals identified as having pain were completed. Qualitative and frequency analysis ...


An Evaluation Of The Factor Structure, Reliability And Construct Validity Of The Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised For African American/Black Men, Wilfred Michael Allen Jan 2015

An Evaluation Of The Factor Structure, Reliability And Construct Validity Of The Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised For African American/Black Men, Wilfred Michael Allen

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background: In the United States, on average, men die nearly five years younger than women. Among men, the life expectancy for African American/Blacks is 72.1 years compared to 76.6 years for White/European Americans. African-American/Black men experience an earlier onset and more severe disease with higher rates of complications than White/European American men. Masculinity ideology has been identified by researchers as having an influence on health behaviors and ultimately health outcomes. Based on prior research literature, higher levels of masculinity ideology have been associated with fewer health promoting behaviors. As such, there is a need ...


Growing 'Homeplace' In Critical Service-Learning: An Urban Womanist Pedagogy, Vanessa Lynn Marr Jan 2014

Growing 'Homeplace' In Critical Service-Learning: An Urban Womanist Pedagogy, Vanessa Lynn Marr

Wayne State University Dissertations

This dissertation explores the role of critical service-learning from the perspective of urban community members. Specifically, it examines the counternarratives produced by Black women community gardeners who engage in academic service-learning with postsecondary faculty. The study focuses on this particular group because of the women's deep involvement with grassroots organizing that reflects their sense of self and other community members, as well as their personal and political relationships to Detroit, Michigan. Given the city's economic disparities rooted in racial segregation, structural violence and gender oppression, Detroit is a site of critical learning within a postindustrial/postcolonial context. This ...


Deliver Me From The Days Of Old: Rock And Roll, Youth Culture, And The Civil Rights Movement, Beth Nicole Fowler Jan 2014

Deliver Me From The Days Of Old: Rock And Roll, Youth Culture, And The Civil Rights Movement, Beth Nicole Fowler

Wayne State University Dissertations

The U.S. civil rights movement is almost always presented as an undisputed success in mainstream culture and educational curricula, but scholars continue to question whether the widespread protests against racial segregation and inequality that swept the nation in the 1950s and 1960s led to meaningful economic, or social change. These criticisms extend to shifts in popular culture and the emergence of rock and roll music, which, as many contemporary critics noted, were areas where racial integration had already occurred. Since rock and roll emerged from both African-American and European-American cultural traditions, it introduced both black

and white listeners to ...


Understanding Racial Differences In Aspiration Realization: Middle Income, Middle Class, And College-Going Behaviors, Omari Jackson Jan 2013

Understanding Racial Differences In Aspiration Realization: Middle Income, Middle Class, And College-Going Behaviors, Omari Jackson

Wayne State University Dissertations

It is well documented that African Americans attend college at a lower rate than whites. However, African Americans' rate of aspiring to attend college is not lower than whites; rather their aspirations are higher than those of whites. Because there is such disparity between African American's educational aspirations and attainment, further investigation into this paradox is necessary. Literature shows that membership in the middle class generally equips one with greater resources that prepare them for college. If such research is accurate, middle class African American students should possess college preparatory resources and attend college. Because this is not the ...


Sleep Homeodynamics And Wellbeing In Asymptomatic Hiv-Seropositive African American Women, Tabetha Lynn Gayton Jan 2013

Sleep Homeodynamics And Wellbeing In Asymptomatic Hiv-Seropositive African American Women, Tabetha Lynn Gayton

Wayne State University Dissertations

SLEEP HOMEODYNAMICS AND WELLBEING IN ASYMPTOMATIC HIV–SEROPOSITIVE AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

by

TABETHA LYNN GAYTON

December 2013

Advisor: Hossein N. Yarandi, PhD

Major: Nursing (Urban Health)

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

BACKGROUND: HIV–related sleep disruption is a common complaint of persons with HIV infection. With the demographical shifts, African American women have now emerged as one of the fastest growing HIV populations today, yet they remain a vulnerable and underrepresented population in the sleep literature.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the dynamics of HIV–related sleep disruption and wellbeing in asymptomatic HIV–seropositive AA women ...


A Phenomenological Study To Engage African-American Youth Voice In Deliberations Regarding Their Response To Schooling, Donna Michelle Coulter Jan 2013

A Phenomenological Study To Engage African-American Youth Voice In Deliberations Regarding Their Response To Schooling, Donna Michelle Coulter

Wayne State University Dissertations

To examine disparities in education, the researcher utilized a naturalistic approach to uncover how youth think, talk, and feel about their response to schooling. Findings are based on in-depth conversations with 12 inner city African-American kids enrolled in Urban, USA middle and high schools, rarely heard from in the scholarly literature. Students conveyed a belief system that schooling was the route to upward mobility, however, their responses to academic exercises seem to suggest an indifference. Primary findings suggest that students' (a) sense of safety and family tradition were key factors of student school selection; (b) understanding of how levels of ...


What Matters Most? An Examination Of Breastfeeding Support For African American Mothers, Kanika Littleton Jan 2013

What Matters Most? An Examination Of Breastfeeding Support For African American Mothers, Kanika Littleton

Wayne State University Theses

Breastfeeding offers numerous health benefits to the mother, infant, and society. In the United States breastfeeding initiation rates have increased, but continue to fall short of objectives set forth by the CDC in the Healthy People 2020 initiative, regarding duration and exclusivity. African Americans have lower rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States (USDHHS, 2012).

The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding experiences of a diverse group of African American women, in order to better understand what social networks encouraged or discouraged breastfeeding initiation, continuation, and ...


"I Can't Just Turn Over My Daughter And Let It Be": Black Mothers And The Racial Socialization Of Their Daughters Attending White Schools, Chasity Bailey-Fakhoury Jan 2013

"I Can't Just Turn Over My Daughter And Let It Be": Black Mothers And The Racial Socialization Of Their Daughters Attending White Schools, Chasity Bailey-Fakhoury

Wayne State University Dissertations

"I CAN'T JUST TURN OVER MY DAUGHTER AND LET IT BE":

BLACK MOTHERS AND THE RACIAL SOCIALIZATION OF THEIR DAUGHTERS ATTENDING WHITE SCHOOLS

by

CHASITY YASHICA BAILEY-FAKHOURY

August 2013

Advisor: Dr. Heather E. Dillaway

Major: Sociology

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Studies of parental racial socialization and racial identity development have tended to focus on urban, lower-income African American parents and their adolescent or early adulthood children. Findings emanating from these studies are then extrapolated to all African Americans. Disregarding within group differences produces gaps in our knowledge. This mixed-methods study pushes the research further by investigating the approaches suburban ...


"Still Here, Trying To Find My Way": Understanding The Experiences Of Hiv Disruption And Reorganization Among Older African Americans In Detroit, Andrea Nevedal Jan 2012

"Still Here, Trying To Find My Way": Understanding The Experiences Of Hiv Disruption And Reorganization Among Older African Americans In Detroit, Andrea Nevedal

Wayne State University Dissertations

Adults aged fifty and older are the fastest growing age group with HIV/AIDS. Research on older adults with HIV has focused primarily on health status and physiological changes that occur as people age with HIV. However, little is known about the socio-cultural consequences that occur when older adults are diagnosed with HIV and as they age with HIV. Drawing from an anthropological approach to the life course and Becker's (1997) framework of life disruption, this dissertation research explored to what extent people experienced disruption from living with HIV and reorganized their lives after experiencing disruption.

The specific aims ...


Preterm Birth And The Perception Of Risk Among African Americans, Gwendolyn Simpson Norman Jan 2012

Preterm Birth And The Perception Of Risk Among African Americans, Gwendolyn Simpson Norman

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background: African American women deliver preterm at a rate that is two to three times that of their white counterparts, and after decades of research, this disparity in birth outcomes still remains unexplained. While factors including income, education, neighborhood conditions, infection and stress have all been associated with prematurity, no combination of these factors has explained why the disparity persists. Recently, however, racism-specific stress has emerged as a possible factor contributing to this disparity. This study was designed to learn how preterm birth was explained by African Americans directly impacted by prematurity. Methods: Interviews were conducted with African American women ...


Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children To Academic Achievement, Deborah L. Winston Jan 2011

Cultural Enrichment: Connecting African American Elementary Children To Academic Achievement, Deborah L. Winston

Wayne State University Dissertations

A large, growing number of mis-educated American citizens are being produced by America's public schools. Many of these students are being funneled into the penal system shortly after dropping out of high school. This phenomenon is especially prevalent among African American male students, many of whom have withdrawn academically years prior to permanently dropping out of school. Additionally, to further underscore the importance of successfully educating African American students are the debilitating effects brought about after incarceration. About 4 million people in the United States, including 1.4 million Black men (13 percent of the adult male Black population ...


Detroit Blues Women, Michael Duggan Murphy Jan 2011

Detroit Blues Women, Michael Duggan Murphy

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

DETROIT BLUES WOMEN

by

Michael Duggan Murphy

August 2011

Advisor: Dr. John J. Bukowczyk

Major: History

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

"Detroit Blues Women" explores how African American "women's blues" survived the twentieth century relatively unscripted by the image-makers of the male-dominated music industry. In the 1920s, African American blues queens laid out a foundation for assertive and rebellious women's blues that the many musical heirs who succeeded them in the twentieth century and into the first decade of the twenty first century sustained, preserved and built upon. The dissertation argues that women's blues, which encouraged women ...


The Relationship Between Functional Health Literacy Of African American Veterans And Nonveterans And Their Ability To Read And Comprehend Medical Information For A Chronic Illness, David Stephen Points Jan 2011

The Relationship Between Functional Health Literacy Of African American Veterans And Nonveterans And Their Ability To Read And Comprehend Medical Information For A Chronic Illness, David Stephen Points

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences between male African Americans who have served in the military and those who are not veterans in their ability to read and comprehend medical information for a chronic illness prevalent among African Americans, such as type 2 diabetes. The participants included 92 African American men of whom 44 were veterans and 48 were nonveterans. The participants were drawn from fraternal organizations and churches in a large metropolitan area located in the Midwestern part of the United States. The Short Test of Health Literacy Assessment (STOFHLA), a knowledge questionnaire ...


The Effects Of Racially-Motivated Emotional Arousal On The Eating Behaviors Of African American Women, Lenwood W. Hayman Jan 2011

The Effects Of Racially-Motivated Emotional Arousal On The Eating Behaviors Of African American Women, Lenwood W. Hayman

Wayne State University Dissertations

Disparities between African Americans and Caucasians remain vast across a wide variety of health indicators. Chronic stress has been identified as a risk factor for a variety of chronic illnesses and poor health outcomes. One type of chronic stress that has been linked to health disparities is the stress associated with experiences of racial discrimination. The stress African Americans encounter as a result of their racist experiences contributes to a chronic elevation of their physiological stress response. In addition to stress, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and diabetes is obesity, which has been established as a major ...


The Social Perceptions And Attitudes Held By African American Males Who Participated In A Self-Contained Special Education Middle School Program For Three Years And Dropped Out Of High School After The Ninth Grade, Sherrell Linnette Hobbs Jan 2010

The Social Perceptions And Attitudes Held By African American Males Who Participated In A Self-Contained Special Education Middle School Program For Three Years And Dropped Out Of High School After The Ninth Grade, Sherrell Linnette Hobbs

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

THE SOCIAL PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES HELD BY AFRICAN AMERICAN MALES WHO PARTICIPATED IN A SELF-CONTAINED SPECIAL EDUCATION MIDDLE SCHOOL PROGRAM FOR THREE YEARS AND DROPPED OUT OF HIGH SCHOOL AFTER THE NINTH GRADE

by

SHERRELL HOBBS

December 2010

Advisor: Dr. Marshall Zumberg

Major: Special Education

Degree: Doctor of philosophy

There are two parts to socialization, informal and formal. In the United States, informal lessons of socialization come from a child's primary caretaker(s). Imagine a child growing up in this informal setting only to see the world from one perspective through that unique experience. Later the child goes ...


An Africentric Reading Protocol: The Speculative Fiction Of Octavia Butler And Tananarive Due, Tonja Lawrence Jan 2010

An Africentric Reading Protocol: The Speculative Fiction Of Octavia Butler And Tananarive Due, Tonja Lawrence

Wayne State University Dissertations

This examination of Africentric speculative fiction (ASF) applies an Africentric reading protocol to selected works of Octavia E. Butler and Tananarive Due. Butler's Parable Series and Due's African Immortals Series are examined using seven elements of Africentric narrative specific to cultural speculative fiction. Finally, I discuss the implications of using an Africentric reading protocol as an example of cultural analysis that can be adapted to the textual analysis of culturally specific works of fiction.