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Race and Ethnicity

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in African American Studies

Colorism: The Unspoken Preference To Skin Tone And Its Effect On African American Individuals In The 21st Century, Carolyn D. Powell Dec 2013

Colorism: The Unspoken Preference To Skin Tone And Its Effect On African American Individuals In The 21st Century, Carolyn D. Powell

Theses & Dissertations

This qualitative study explored the perception of colorism among Black American individuals born between the years of 1952 and 1972 of the pre-Civil Rights Movement and post-Civil Rights Movement generations. Colorism has been defined as the privileging of light skin tone over dark skin tone. The stigma of colorism continues to produce discord, distrust, discrimination, and cultural disconnects between Black and White individuals as well as within the Black American family and community. The aim of the study was to explore the consciousness of colorism in the 21st century and its effect on Black Americans. Racial Identity Development was utilized ...


'Dred Scott V. Sandford' Analysis, Sarah E. Roessler Nov 2013

'Dred Scott V. Sandford' Analysis, Sarah E. Roessler

Student Publications

The Scott v. Sandford decision will forever be known as a dark moment in America's history. The Supreme Court chose to rule on a controversial issue, and they made the wrong decision. Scott v. Sandford is an example of what can happen when the Court chooses to side with personal opinion instead of what is right.


Overheard At Gettysburg, Rashida Aluko-Roberts, Zakiya A. Brown, Monae S. Evans Oct 2013

Overheard At Gettysburg, Rashida Aluko-Roberts, Zakiya A. Brown, Monae S. Evans

SURGE

Monday. In Old TKE. A student of color is called in the hallway to hear the “funniest thing ever.” (giggling) “Night night little nigglet.”

Tuesday. In an AFS class. “I’m pretty sure the majority of black students in my private school were there because of sports.”

Wednesday. In Musselman. Woman: “I can’t believe Trayvon Martin got shot because someone thought skittles was a weapon.” Man: “To be honest, he did look suspicious because he was black.” [excerpt]


Fearless: Emily Cranfill, Emily J. Cranfill Oct 2013

Fearless: Emily Cranfill, Emily J. Cranfill

SURGE

Emily Cranfill ’15 has been getting a lot of attention recently, but not necessarily for all of the volunteering, organizations, and groups with which she’s normally involved. Since first hearing last week about the Ku Klux Klan’s (KKK) plans to come protest in the town of Gettysburg, Emily has been inspired to take action by organizing a Rally for Unity Against Hate on campus this Saturday afternoon while the KKK will be protesting. And the responses to her fearless ideas, enthusiasm, and initiative have been staggering. [excerpt]


Red Drops For A Rainbow, Zakiya A. Brown Oct 2013

Red Drops For A Rainbow, Zakiya A. Brown

SURGE

Splashes of pool water licked my ankles, scenting my coffee-colored toes with chlorine. Bareback guardians, robed in red, hovered high as flocks of fleshy tangible innocence skipped jubilantly across the pool deck and disappeared into a wet square pocket of sapphire. [excerpt of poem]


The Shortcomings Of A "Diverse" College Campus, Chelsea E. Broe Aug 2013

The Shortcomings Of A "Diverse" College Campus, Chelsea E. Broe

SURGE

“What is the diversity like at Gettysburg College?” As a tour guide, I get asked this question a lot. It’s a tricky question to answer: On one hand, I know that this is probably the family’s way of inquiring about race on campus without having to use such a taboo word, but on the other, my Diversity Peer Educator training chimes in and I want to challenge my questioner’s assumptions about what diversity even means. [excerpt]


Introduction: Lynching, Incarceration’S Cousin: From Till To Trayvon, Barbara Lewis Jul 2013

Introduction: Lynching, Incarceration’S Cousin: From Till To Trayvon, Barbara Lewis

Trotter Review

The wholesale criminalizing of the black male has been much in the news, put there by the Trayvon Martin case and the Florida verdict. (Incidentally, even though we don’t often think of it, Florida was where the first African slaves were installed in America, back in the 1500s in the city of St. Augustine.) As an academic, which, loosely translated means that I often bury my head between the covers of a book trying to figure out one thing or another, I am thought of as someone who is cautious and circumspect in what I think and write, but ...


Inside/Outside: A Model For Social Support And Rehabilitation Of Young Black Men, Harold Adams, Castellano Turner Jul 2013

Inside/Outside: A Model For Social Support And Rehabilitation Of Young Black Men, Harold Adams, Castellano Turner

Trotter Review

This paper first identifies some of the most important problems facing incarcerated young black males. Next, we present an historical analysis that pinpoints the War on Drugs as the primary origin of mass incarceration of that group. Then we describe the major consequences for prisoners as well as collateral problems for their families, friends, and communities. We then outline the types of programs created to address these problems. We summarize research that shows the key to solving high recidivism rates is social support during incarceration and after release. We describe in particular a Boston-based organization, the Committee of Friends and ...


Studies On Religion And Recidivism: Focus On Roxbury, Dorchester, And Mattapan, George Walters-Sleyon Jul 2013

Studies On Religion And Recidivism: Focus On Roxbury, Dorchester, And Mattapan, George Walters-Sleyon

Trotter Review

This research article raises the question of whether religion can be considered a viable partner in the reduction of the high rate of recidivism associated with the increasing mass incarceration in the United States. Can sustainable transformation in the life of a prisoner or former prisoner as a result of religious conversion be subjected to evidenced-based practices to derive impartial conclusions about the value of religion in their lives? With a particular focus on three neighborhoods of Boston—Roxbury, Dorchester, and Mattapan—this study examines the relevance of religion and faith-based organizations in lowering the high rate of recidivism associated ...


Gray Matters Behind Bars, Howard Manly Jul 2013

Gray Matters Behind Bars, Howard Manly

Trotter Review

Forty years ago, the nation got tough on crime. It is now paying the price as the skyrocketing cost of incarcerating aging inmates is haunting state and federal prison budgets.


The Personal And Family Challenges Of Reentry: Interview With Helen Credle, Kenneth J. Cooper Jul 2013

The Personal And Family Challenges Of Reentry: Interview With Helen Credle, Kenneth J. Cooper

Trotter Review

For 40 years, Helen Credle has worked with prison inmates and exoffenders in Massachusetts, from inside or outside the state corrections system. The Boston native, who grew up in Roxbury, did not set out to become an advocate for prisoners and their families. Oddly, it was music that first took her inside prison walls and into that role. As director of community services for the New England Conservatory of Music, Credle organized concerts by bluesman B.B. King and balladeer Bobby Womack in state prisons. Her involvement grew deeper when the conservatory’s administrators and faculty members decided to teach ...


Life After Prison: A Different Kind Of Sentence?, A Forum At The Boston Center For The Arts, Andrea J. Cabral, Daniel Cordon, Lyn Levy, Gary Little, Janet Rodriguez Jul 2013

Life After Prison: A Different Kind Of Sentence?, A Forum At The Boston Center For The Arts, Andrea J. Cabral, Daniel Cordon, Lyn Levy, Gary Little, Janet Rodriguez

Trotter Review

In September 2012, the Boston Center for the Arts (BCA) hosted a forum on life after prison as part of its series, Dialogue: Social Issues Examined Through the Playwright’s Pen. The forum coincided with performances at the Boston Center for the Arts of The MotherF**ker with the Hat, a play by Stephen Andy Guirgis about prisoner reentry.

Andrea J. Cabral, then sheriff of Suffolk County and secretary of public safety in Massachusetts, moderated the forum in BCA’s Calderwood Pavilion, the same theater where SpeakEasy Stage Company was putting on the play. The four panelists work for nonprofit ...


Stop And Frisk: From Slave-Catchers To Nypd, A Legal Commentary, Gloria J. Browne-Marshall Jul 2013

Stop And Frisk: From Slave-Catchers To Nypd, A Legal Commentary, Gloria J. Browne-Marshall

Trotter Review

Today’s “stop and frisk” practices stem from centuries of legal control of Africans in America. Colonial laws were drafted specifically to control Africans, enslaved and free. Slave catchers culled the woods in search of those Africans who dared escape. After slavery ended, “Black Codes” or criminal laws were enacted to ensnare African Americans, including the sinister convict-lease system that existed well into the twentieth century. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled to extend police authority to stop and frisk during the Civil Rights Movement.

Police abuse of stop and frisk has led to tens of millions of people detained ...


Toward A Deeper Understanding Of The Meaning Of Marriage Among Black Men, Tera R. Hurt Jul 2013

Toward A Deeper Understanding Of The Meaning Of Marriage Among Black Men, Tera R. Hurt

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

Black men benefit from healthy, satisfying marriages in domains of physical, psychological, and financial well-being. Yet marriage among Black men has declined and remains elusive for many. One gap in the research concerns the positive meaning that Black men find in their marriages. Prior research has failed to collect in-depth accounts of Black men’s experiences of marriage. The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore the meaning of marriage among 52 Black men, using interview data. Findings highlight four themes in the meaning of marriage—secure emotional support, lifelong commitment, enhanced life success, and secure attachment. Two themes ...


Take My People To The Top, Nadejiah Z. Towns Jun 2013

Take My People To The Top, Nadejiah Z. Towns

SURGE

“…but what I really want to do is help the black people, especially the young black girls…” Did she just say that? Wait, can she say that? Is she wrong for feeling that way? I wonder how other people would feel it they knew she felt this way? So many questions began to run through my mind, but my reaction? I just sat there, nodding. Her body language told me even she knew there was something controversial about what she was saying. Not to mention that she whispered it, you know, the old hand over the mouth gesture. [excerpt]


The Race For Honors, Hannah M. Frantz May 2013

The Race For Honors, Hannah M. Frantz

SURGE

Over graduation weekend, it was pretty common to see people weighed down by massive numbers of honor cords hanging around their necks. This is a mark of respect at Gettysburg College, so students wear them proudly. I had the privilege to attend Spring Honors Day and watch many of my friends receive achievement awards. As we started winding down to the end of the ceremony, something hit me:

The recipients were overwhelmingly white. [excerpt]


"Listen To The Wild Discord": Jazz In The Chicago Defender And The Louisiana Weekly, 1925-1929, Sarah A. Waits May 2013

"Listen To The Wild Discord": Jazz In The Chicago Defender And The Louisiana Weekly, 1925-1929, Sarah A. Waits

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This essay will use the views of two African American newspaper columnists, E. Belfield Spriggins of the Louisiana Weekly and Dave Peyton of the Chicago Defender, to argue that though New Orleans and Chicago both occupied a primary place in the history of jazz, in many ways jazz was initially met with ambivalence and suspicion. The struggle between the desire to highlight black achievement in music and the effort to adhere to tenets of middle class respectability play out in their columns. Despite historiographical writings to the contrary, these issues of the influence of jazz music on society were not ...


Black Teachers, White Schools: A Qualitative Multiple Case Study On Their Experiences Of Racial Tokenism And Development Of Professional Black Identities, Abigail Kathleen Hasberry May 2013

Black Teachers, White Schools: A Qualitative Multiple Case Study On Their Experiences Of Racial Tokenism And Development Of Professional Black Identities, Abigail Kathleen Hasberry

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An emerging body of research shows that retention of minority independent school teachers creates a positive multicultural climate and increases the likelihood that minority families will enroll their children in the schools as well as preparing all students for a pluralistic society (Brosnan 2001b, AIMS 2010, Katz & Wishine 2001). However, retaining minority teachers in predominantly White and affluent independent schools has proved challenging (Brosnan 2001, 2001b, 2009). This qualitative multiple case study extends the current literature on Black private school teachers by not only examining the experiences, but also the coping strategies and professional identity development processes of nine Black teachers working in predominantly White, independent schools.

This study's main research question is: How do Black independent school teachers describe their experiences? Three key ancillary research questions are: What coping strategies do these teachers develop and/or use to navigate the independent school environment? What roles, if any, do/can these teachers' colleagues, administrators, and professional associations play in building a support network for them? How do these teachers develop a professional Black identity as token employees? Based on Kanter's (1993) theory of tokenism, this research explores Black teachers' experiences of racial tokenism in independent schools in an effort to uncover coping strategies and support mechanisms that lead to their retention. Further, the identity development of each teacher will be examined in relationship to Cross and Fhagen-Smith's (2010) modified nigrescence recycling theory.

Triangulation of surveys, interviews (both individual and group), and written responses identified four themes in the research. Theme 1 confirmed the original hypothesis that Black independent school teachers experience tokenism on a daily basis. The second theme revealed that the participants all employ similar coping strategies to counter the negative effects of tokenism; creating a personal mission, over-performing, and developing a support structure. Theme 3 confirmed the second hypothesis that Black independent school teachers develop their professional Black identity following the modified nigrescence recycling model. The final theme revealed that the participants overwhelmingly share formal school backgrounds that were similar in demographics, predominantly White and affluent ...


African American Teachers And State Licensing Examinations In Metropolitan Atlanta: A Case Study, Michael Leroy Taylor May 2013

African American Teachers And State Licensing Examinations In Metropolitan Atlanta: A Case Study, Michael Leroy Taylor

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The 2001 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act legislation has had a profound effect on teacher rolls, especially African-American teachers. More than any other racial or ethnic group, African-American teachers disproportionately fail state teacher licensure examinations. This results in removing them from the classroom, while simultaneously preventing new teachers from entering it. The problem shows no signs of relenting under the current mandates, so as the diversity of the nation's study body continues to increase, the diversity of the teaching staff continues to shrink. This combined, multi-case study addressed the unexplained reduction in the numbers of African-American teachers due ...


Who We Are: Incarcerated Students And The New Prison Literature, 1995-2010, Reilly Hannah N. Lorastein May 2013

Who We Are: Incarcerated Students And The New Prison Literature, 1995-2010, Reilly Hannah N. Lorastein

Honors Projects

This project focuses on American prison writings from the late 1990s to the 2000s. Much has been written about American prison intellectuals such as Malcolm X, George Jackson, Eldridge Cleaver, and Angela Davis, who wrote as active participants in black and brown freedom movements in the United States. However the new prison literature that has emerged over the past two decades through higher education programs within prisons has received little to no attention. This study provides a more nuanced view of the steadily growing silent population in the United States through close readings of Openline, an inter-disciplinary journal featuring poetry ...


I Am Not Your Video Girl, Rashida Aluko-Roberts Apr 2013

I Am Not Your Video Girl, Rashida Aluko-Roberts

SURGE

“We need girls who are willing to be up on stage with us and who are not afraid to go HAM dancing in front of a crowd. I know at least a few of you who have the confidence/jaw-dropping dance moves to pull this off.” [excerpt]


Fearless: Ratco, Center For Public Service Mar 2013

Fearless: Ratco, Center For Public Service

SURGE

If you haven’t noticed yet, we’ve had some really spectacular visitors from the south with us on Gettysburg’s campus the last few days! The Random Acts of Theater Company (RATCo) is a group that emerged from the Freedom Foundation in Denver, Colorado a few years ago. Their initiative involved using theater as a means for self-expression and communication, but RATCo spread because it was so successful and ultimately reached Selma, Alabama. Selma, although a major site for the Civil Rights movement, and also the site for the last battle of the civil war, has changed very little ...


A Christian Understanding Of Aesthetic Agency: A Theological Framework Of Resistance To Cultural Imperialism, Elise Edwards Mar 2013

A Christian Understanding Of Aesthetic Agency: A Theological Framework Of Resistance To Cultural Imperialism, Elise Edwards

LUX: A Journal of Transdisciplinary Writing and Research from Claremont Graduate University

Aesthetic agency refers to conditions, capacities, and states that inform artistic forms of acting and exerting power on social structures. In resistance to the marginalization of women of color, aesthetic agency is exercised through creative acts of culture-making and critique of such practices to challenge domination and representation of the oppressed other. To support this work as a feminist Christian ethicist, I construct a theological framework for aesthetic agency. This paper proposes a theological understanding of transformative aesthetics and then describes the exercise of aesthetic agency for Christian communities by using a television special, Black Girls Rock! as an example.


Style Watch: Blackface Edition, Rashida Aluko-Roberts Mar 2013

Style Watch: Blackface Edition, Rashida Aluko-Roberts

SURGE

The above quote is from a statement/apology offered by Sebastian Kim, a photographer, whose recent editorial, “African Queen,” which featured a 16-year-old white female made to appear black, was marred with controversy. According to the photographer, dousing a young white female in deep bronze, accessorizing her in elaborate head wraps and heavy jewels (symbols that are often associated with Africa), was in no way an attempt to depict what an “African queen” looks like. Rather, his spread was attempting to showcase “the beauty aesthetic of his shoot” by using a “tanned or golden skin” model. [excerpt]


That Awkward Moment When I Accidentally Internalized Racism, Rashida Aluko-Roberts Mar 2013

That Awkward Moment When I Accidentally Internalized Racism, Rashida Aluko-Roberts

SURGE

I recently attended a conference about the importance of Africana Studies (AFS) and it had a panel of visiting professors that consisted of mostly black men and women. I was beyond impressed by their achievements and found myself engaged and excited by their discussions. My admiration for these scholars only grew exponentially when I learned that one of the female professors was from Sierra Leone, just like me! [excerpt]


How I Met Your Mother & Other Spoiler Alerts, Emily M. Lindholm Feb 2013

How I Met Your Mother & Other Spoiler Alerts, Emily M. Lindholm

SURGE

Ted: She chews loudly. Why do you think we call her Chewbacca?

Marshall: Because she’s loyal, wears shiny belts, and I resemble a young Harrison Ford.

Shortly after this scene in How I Met Your Mother’s “Spoiler Alert” episode, Marshall experiences a sinking realization that his fiancée Lilly “chews loudly,” something Marshall never seemed to notice before. Cue the tacky yet–highly effective–“glass shattering” sound effects and 20 minutes of comedic exploitation of the gang’s annoying quirks, and you get five friends with a hilariously devastating new awareness of each other’s flaws, and one brilliant ...


Ua12/2/33 Black History Month, Wku Association For The Study Of African American Life & History Feb 2013

Ua12/2/33 Black History Month, Wku Association For The Study Of African American Life & History

WKU Archives Records

Poster announcing events scheduled for Black History Month at WKU.


Ua12/2/33 Whips & Chains, Wku Association For The Study Of African American Life & History Feb 2013

Ua12/2/33 Whips & Chains, Wku Association For The Study Of African American Life & History

WKU Archives Records

Invitation to first WKU Association for the Study of African American Life & History event entitled Whips & Chains.


Slaves To Contradictions: 13 Myths That Sustained Slavery, Wilson Huhn Jan 2013

Slaves To Contradictions: 13 Myths That Sustained Slavery, Wilson Huhn

Akron Law Publications

People have a fundamental need to think of themselves as “good people.” To achieve this we tell each other stories – we create myths – about ourselves and our society. These myths may be true or they may be false. The more discordant a myth is with reality, the more difficult it is to convince people to embrace it. In such cases to sustain the illusion of truth it may be necessary to develop an entire mythology – an integrated web of mutually supporting stories. This paper explores the system of myths that sustained the institution of slavery in the antebellum United States.


Ua3/1/2/2 President's Office-Cherry Correspondence - Special, Wku Archives Jan 2013

Ua3/1/2/2 President's Office-Cherry Correspondence - Special, Wku Archives

WKU Archives Collection Inventories

Special correspondence regarding Western Kentucky University. This series runs concurrently with the General Correspondence and there is no indication of what makes it special. Of special note is correspondence regarding the Student Army Training Corps, World War I veterans and construction of Cherry Hall. Incoming letters are mainly addressed to Henry Hardin Cherry. Responses are made by Cherry and occasionally by faculty and staff. The president's secretary Mattie McLean is the author of some of the letters signed by Cherry.