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Full-Text Articles in African American Studies

Acknowledgements, Kevin Bowen, David Hunt Mar 1993

Acknowledgements, Kevin Bowen, David Hunt

Trotter Review

All of us at the William Joiner Center for the Study of War and Social Consequences are extremely grateful to our friends at the Trotter Institute for the opportunity to collaborate on this issue of the Trotter Review. It seems especially appropriate that this issue is being published at the time of the tenth anniversary of the founding of the center, named after William Joiner, Jr., an African-American veteran of the Vietnam War and the university's first director of Veterans' Affairs who died of cancer in 1981.


Introduction, William King Mar 1993

Introduction, William King

Trotter Review

Bloods. Brothers. The Griot. Vietnam Blues. Black Bitches Dancing With Charlie. These titles, and numerous articles, essays, poems, government reports, films, and related items, describe and detail various aspects of the black experience of the American war in Vietnam, the situation on the homefront during that conflict, and some of the things that happened to black veterans upon their return to the "world" in the postwar years. That only selected aspects of that experience are covered arises from the fact that blacks were not nearly as prolific inrecapitulating their tours of duty, forcing us to get at that information indirectly ...


Fragments From A Work In Progress, Elizabeth Allen Mar 1993

Fragments From A Work In Progress, Elizabeth Allen

Trotter Review

A long time ago in a place far away, a place called Vietnam, I had to come to grips with the monkey. The monkey was not war. As a colored woman born in the forties, the monkey was life. Vietnam just forced me to look at it. Maybe it allowed me the opportunity. Who knows. Looking back at it has been almost impossible. You see, growing up my grandmother would always say when I wanted to explain something, "Baby-darling, will talking about something that has already happened change it?" Of course it wouldn't change anything. Any fool knows that ...


Tough Eloquence, Yusef Komunyakaa Mar 1993

Tough Eloquence, Yusef Komunyakaa

Trotter Review

I began reading Etheridge Knight's poetry in the early 1970s, and what immediately caught my attention was his ability to balance an eloquence and toughness, exhibiting a complex man behind the words. His technique and content were one—the profane alongside the sacred—accomplished without disturbing the poem's tonal congruity and imagistic exactitude. Here was a streetwise poet who loved and revered language. Gwendolyn Brooks, Sterling Brown, and Langston Hughes seem to have been his mentors, but Knight appeared to have sprung into the literary world almost fully formed. He had so much control and authority; he was ...


Black Veterans: Organizing And Strategizing For Community Development, Ron E. Armstead Mar 1993

Black Veterans: Organizing And Strategizing For Community Development, Ron E. Armstead

Trotter Review

The following article summarizes the findings and conclusions of a case study that was undertaken as part of the author's master's thesis at MIT. Ford Foundation Professor Frank Jones served as advisor. The study is part of an overall strategy to develop a National Black Veterans Network in conjunction with the Veterans Benefits Clearinghouse, Inc., and the Congressional Black Caucus Veterans Braintrust. It is hoped that the study will provide a planning, research, and educational tool to enhance organizing and affordable housing development efforts on behalf of black veterans across the country. Future research is being proposed on ...


"Low-Intensity Warfare" In The Inner City: Veterans' Self-Control Strategies May Ameliorate Community Violence Among Youth, Erwin Randolph Parson Mar 1993

"Low-Intensity Warfare" In The Inner City: Veterans' Self-Control Strategies May Ameliorate Community Violence Among Youth, Erwin Randolph Parson

Trotter Review

The use of weapons in various inner-city communities in America is comparable to Nicaraguan "low-intensity warfare" whose objective was the mass terrorization of civilians by the Contras. Low-intensity warfare theory is defined as "total war at the grassroots level" (Summerfield and Tosser 1991, 85). Violence in the inner cities has been defined in similar ways by many authorities and observers. Although urban violence may not damage the infrastructure of communities to the same extent that lowintensity warfare does, its immediate and long-term impact is nonetheless devastating to human life and to a sense of security. In essence, it is a ...


African Americans And The Persian Gulf Crisis, Jacquelin Howard-Matthews Mar 1993

African Americans And The Persian Gulf Crisis, Jacquelin Howard-Matthews

Trotter Review

This article addresses two issues: the African-American response to United States involvement in the 1990-91 Persian Gulf war and interrelated factors explaining the nature of that response. Despite the historical symbolism associated with African-American participation and disproportionate representation in the military, African Americans composed the most consistently identifiable strata either opposed to or suspicious of the deployment of U.S. troops and military equipment in the Gulf. The pattern of African-American response to the Gulf War is remarkably similar to its underlying reactions to military conflicts taking place in the recent past, including the Vietnam War and Laos invasion of ...


Preface, James Jennings Mar 1993

Preface, James Jennings

Trotter Review

It gives me great pleasure to be part of the publication of this special issue on blacks in the U.S. military. Blacks in America have sacrificed their lives in all of the wars involving the U.S. at the same time that they have struggled for social and racial justice at home. Unfortunately, pervasive myths about the military sacrifices and valor of blacks in this country continue to be held by many Americans. It is also sad that too many blacks find that the military may be the only channel available to them for the realization of social and ...


A Salute To African Americans Who Served In The United States Armed Forces, Harold Horton Mar 1993

A Salute To African Americans Who Served In The United States Armed Forces, Harold Horton

Trotter Review

African Americans have volunteered to participate in every war or conflict in which the United States has been engaged. This is true despite their ancestors having been slaves for 244 years of America's history.

From the Revolutionary War to the Vietnam War, African Americans have demanded the right to serve their country in the armed services and, in several instances, they have made the difference between victory or defeat for American troops. Throughout this history, African Americans were ever cognizant of the dual freedoms—their own personal freedom as well as the nation's—for which they so bravely ...