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Articles 1 - 30 of 1726

Full-Text Articles in Latin American History

Evo Es Pueblo: Indigeneity And Socialism In The Foreign Policy Of Bolivian President Evo Morales, Joseph A. Flores Jan 2023

Evo Es Pueblo: Indigeneity And Socialism In The Foreign Policy Of Bolivian President Evo Morales, Joseph A. Flores

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Evo Morales, an Aymara man, was the first Indigenous President of Bolivia, a majority-Indigenous country, from 2005-2019. He and his political party, Movimento al Socialismo (MAS), promised to center Indigenous concerns in Bolivia’s foreign policy by championing pro-environmental policies, nationalizing natural resources, and breaking ties with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank. This essay examines the role of socialism and indigeneity in Morales’ foreign policy using his speeches at international venues such as the United Nations, tweets (@evoespueblo), op-eds in American news outlets, and interviews. Morales foregrounded his foreign policy …


The Kissinger Of Death: Henry Kissinger And The Letelier-Moffitt Assassination, Anna Considine Jan 2023

The Kissinger Of Death: Henry Kissinger And The Letelier-Moffitt Assassination, Anna Considine

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

On September 21st, 1976, Orlando Letelier was assassinated in the streets of Washington, DC. The murky story of the assassination has slowly emerged in the decades since, revealing the key roles of Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet and Operation Condor. However, with the level of intelligence available to the United States about the Chilean dictatorship, how was the assassination able to take place at all? Was the United States complicit? This paper illuminates the role of the US Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, in the Letelier-Moffitt assassination by investigating declassified documents from US National Security Archive from the months leading up …


The Ongoing Search For Democracy: A Comparative Analysis Of Racial Equality In Cuba And The United States, Michael T. Siderio Jr. Dec 2022

The Ongoing Search For Democracy: A Comparative Analysis Of Racial Equality In Cuba And The United States, Michael T. Siderio Jr.

Honors Student Research

This Capstone Project is structured as a comparative analysis of the fight for racial equality for Afro-Cubans in Cuba and how it compares to racial equality for African Americans in the United States, specifically focusing on contemporary issues relating to employment and economic opportunities, as well as police brutality. Historical background will be given on each topic within the scope of racial equality, and a comparative analysis on how they are similar and how they differ will also be provided. The overarching goal of the research on historical background and doing the comparative analysis is to synthesize both respective movements …


Bàalam Ajaw, Ismael Briceño Mukul Dec 2022

Bàalam Ajaw, Ismael Briceño Mukul

Maya America: Journal of Essays, Commentary, and Analysis

Bàalam Ajaw es un poema original de Ismael Briceño Mukul in his Yucatec Maya language. Se presentó en español y en inglés en otro lugar de esta revista bajo el título Príncipe Jaguar y Prince Jaguar.


“An Exercise In International Extortion”: Operation “Intercept” And Nixon’S 1969 War On Drugs, Justin M. Reid Dec 2022

“An Exercise In International Extortion”: Operation “Intercept” And Nixon’S 1969 War On Drugs, Justin M. Reid

War and Society (MA) Theses

When the former senator and vice president assumed the Oval Office in January 1969, President Richard M. Nixon inherited a nation in crisis with drugs playing a central role. At a campaign stop a few months earlier, Nixon announced to a packed convention center in Anaheim, CA, that if elected president he would end the flow of the illicit drugs coming into the United States “decimating a generation of young Americans.”

True to his word, Nixon moved aggressively after his election victory to refocus the federal drug enforcement bureaucracy on drug source control, blaming Mexico as the main culprit. On …


U.S. Hegemonic Control In Latin America: The 1973 Coup In Chile, Seth Wilbur Dec 2022

U.S. Hegemonic Control In Latin America: The 1973 Coup In Chile, Seth Wilbur

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

On September 11, 1973, the Chilean armed forces staged a coup d’état against their democratically elected and first socialist president, Salvador Allende. The coup ended in Allende’s death and seventeen years of military dictatorship under the auspices of General Augusto Pinochet. Although seemingly a domestic affair, the United States executive branch under the leadership of President Richard Nixon played a significant role in facilitating the coup and it is unlikely the coup would have occurred without U.S. support. While contemporary sources still point to American fears over communist incursion in the western hemisphere as the principal reason for U.S. involvement …


Review Of "The American 'Amigo' Nelson Rockefeller And Brazil" By Antonio Pedro Tota, Lorena B. Ellis Nov 2022

Review Of "The American 'Amigo' Nelson Rockefeller And Brazil" By Antonio Pedro Tota, Lorena B. Ellis

Publications and Research

Book review of "The American 'Amigo', Nelson Rockefeller and Brazil" by Antonio Pedro Tota, translated from Portuguese into English with a brief summary of all chapters and reviewers' comments. It is a great source for students of U.S. relations with Brazil, during and after World War II. Starting in 1945, Nelson Rockefeller used private and public efforts to stimulate Brazilian economic, promote political, and social change, always with idealism, love of art, and humanitarian concerns, especially preventing any Brazilian pursuits of Communism.


Imaginar La Historia: El Juego De Rol Leyenda Como Punto De Contacto Entre El Análisis Historiográfico Y El Narratológico En La Conquista Del Imperio Azteca, Marcos O. Cabobianco, Martín Van-Houtte Nov 2022

Imaginar La Historia: El Juego De Rol Leyenda Como Punto De Contacto Entre El Análisis Historiográfico Y El Narratológico En La Conquista Del Imperio Azteca, Marcos O. Cabobianco, Martín Van-Houtte

Journal of Roleplaying Studies and STEAM

ESPAÑOL

Los juegos de rol se pensaron ya como una herramienta educativa. Generalmente, se adaptaron sus idiosincrasias al contexto didáctico-pedagógico, como simulación de situaciones relevantes para el tema a enseñar. Pocas veces fue aprovechado su potencial para servir de puente entre la historiografía (escritura de la historia), la narratología (estudio de las narraciones), la metahistoria (estudio de cómo se escribe e interpreta la historiografía en tanto narración). En esta ponencia proponemos estudiar cómo las herramientas de un juego de rol particular colaboran con el estudio metahistórico de la conquista del imperio azteca, teniendo en cuenta la polisemia de la expresión: …


Cornielis (Alias Cornejo): A Coda To The Case Of María Pizarro And Francisco De La Cruz In Sixteenth-Century Lima, Nicole D. Legnani Oct 2022

Cornielis (Alias Cornejo): A Coda To The Case Of María Pizarro And Francisco De La Cruz In Sixteenth-Century Lima, Nicole D. Legnani

Translat Library

This note offers a transcription of the proceso de fe of Cornielis (alias Diego Cornejo), an enslaved Black man held by the Tribunal of the Spanish Inquisition in Lima in the 1570s. It is housed in the Archivo Histórico Nacional in Madrid, Spain. The inquest was opened in Cuzco in 1577, alleging that Cornielis had escaped prison to deliver messages from Francisco de la Cruz, the Dominican friar charged with heresy, to his followers in the Viceroyalty of Peru. I argue that Cornielis was queer and attracted the attention of De la Cruz, who mentions him several times in his …


A Bolivian Revolution: The Mnr's Populist Vision For A Modern Bolivia, Aaron R. Swanson Oct 2022

A Bolivian Revolution: The Mnr's Populist Vision For A Modern Bolivia, Aaron R. Swanson

Graduate Review

The twentieth century is a century riddled with “isms,” such as communism, capitalism, and imperialism. Most of these are usually discussed within the European context. However, Europe was not the only location susceptible to these “isms.” In 1952, Bolivia experienced a revolution similar to the size and scale of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. At the heart of the revolution was the MNR, known in English as the National Revolutionary Movement, a populist party that gained traction in Bolivia during the Chaco War which spanned from 1932 to 1935. The MNR was a coalition of middle-class mestizos, Indians who had …


State Violence And The Cuban Diaspora Since 1959, Sondra K. Marshall Oct 2022

State Violence And The Cuban Diaspora Since 1959, Sondra K. Marshall

Graduate Review

ABSTRACT

The story of mass migration, violence, and human rights violations in Cuba since 1959 is not a simple one. It is an extremely complex web of local and international politics, economics, psychology, sociology, culture, and history. Studies of the Cuban diaspora have been dominated by failures and cyclical crises in the economy, Castro’s adherence to an Eastern European based communist ideologies and policies, and international politics and migration policies. However, Castro’s calculated use of instilling an endemic fear of the State’s use of violence and cruelty to enforce laws, ideologies, and policies is much less studied as a critical …


Complete Issue: Volume 4 Issue 1 Sep 2022

Complete Issue: Volume 4 Issue 1

Maya America: Journal of Essays, Commentary, and Analysis

Maya America presents this special issue as a stand-alone primary document to further an understanding of the life experiences of Guatemalan adoptees and to encourage the inclusion of irregular adoption as part of the Maya diaspora and as an integral part of the migration of peoples from Central America. Indeed, it is striking to see Maya heritage adoptees, raised in various parts of the world, add to the concept of "Maya America.”


Resituando El Cuerpo Femenino A Través De La Memoria Histórica Y La Ficción: Carlota De Bélgica Y Eva Perón En Las Novelas Noticias Del Imperio De Fernando Del Paso Y Santa Evita De Tomás Eloy Martínez, Krysheida Ayub - Unzon Aug 2022

Resituando El Cuerpo Femenino A Través De La Memoria Histórica Y La Ficción: Carlota De Bélgica Y Eva Perón En Las Novelas Noticias Del Imperio De Fernando Del Paso Y Santa Evita De Tomás Eloy Martínez, Krysheida Ayub - Unzon

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes the body and the memory of Charlotte of Belgium and Eva Perón in the historical novels Noticias del Imperio (1987) by the Mexican writer Fernando del Paso and Santa Evita (1996), by the Argentine Tomás Eloy Martínez. Through the conformation of these historical characters as literary protagonists, we observe how both are endowed with a new historical meaning from the articulation of fictional narratives that differ from traditional historiographical texts. From the analysis of the corporality and the memory of the female characters, we will attend to the resignification of the historical texts and their fictional ramifications …


Wak'as, Mallkis, And The Inca Afterlife: The Hydrological Connection Between The Incan Empirical And Nonempirical Worlds, Marius C. Vold Jul 2022

Wak'as, Mallkis, And The Inca Afterlife: The Hydrological Connection Between The Incan Empirical And Nonempirical Worlds, Marius C. Vold

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The ruling elite amongst the indigenous groups of the Andes region, often referred to as the Incas, were, before European contact, a non-literal society. Therefore, our understanding of their religious beliefs pertaining to the relationship between life and death, and the intricate relationship between this belief system and the environment surrounding the Inca is heavily influenced by post-European contact, often clouded by European propaganda and a lack of cultural relativism. This project aims at exploring the relationship between the hydrological cycle and the Incan empirical and nonempirical worlds by comparing and synthesizing post-European contact written records, ethnohistorical records, archeological evidence, …


Cities Of God Under Occupation: Settler Colonial Practices And Pacification In The Favelas Of Rio De Janeiro And The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Amanda Pimenta Da Silva Jul 2022

Cities Of God Under Occupation: Settler Colonial Practices And Pacification In The Favelas Of Rio De Janeiro And The Occupied Palestinian Territories, Amanda Pimenta Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

The 2002 film ‘City of God’ tells an anecdotal story of violence in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, and is a reminder that the societies we tend to take for granted can actually be a luxury. The film portrays the daily life of the peripheries of Rio and its relation with drug trafficking, crime, and poverty, and how it has deteriorated into a war zone so dangerous that anyone risk being shot to death. Thousands of miles away from the Brazilian slums there is another so-called city of God, or the city chosen by God to be the home’s …


Brazil And Racism: Examining The Unified Black Movement, 1970-2000, Max Laine Jun 2022

Brazil And Racism: Examining The Unified Black Movement, 1970-2000, Max Laine

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

In 1978, two events changed the current understanding of race in Brazil. The killing of a Black worker who died while in police custody, and the dismissal of four black volleyball players because the manager didn’t want to inspire more Black players to join the team and lose white customers who were against the inclusion of Afro-Brazilians. These two events inspired the creation of the Unified Black Movement (MNU) a month after the events occurred, leading to the challenging of social apartheid which had been implemented by Brazilian society this day leading to an increase in Black Consciousness through the …


The Green Revolution As Counterrevolution: American Philanthropy, Media, And The Destruction Of Mexico's Peasantry, Sam Speckman Jun 2022

The Green Revolution As Counterrevolution: American Philanthropy, Media, And The Destruction Of Mexico's Peasantry, Sam Speckman

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

No abstract provided.


La Cultura Que No Cambia, Karina Arreola-Gutierrez Jun 2022

La Cultura Que No Cambia, Karina Arreola-Gutierrez

MFA in Visual Art

In the text of La Cultura Que No Cambia, I mention how my work has been influenced by becoming more aware of generations of altar making that occur in my family. By collecting stories and photographs of altars, I can observe and create work based on how the legacies can change through generations or stay the same. The memory of my ancestors and family traditions is strengthened. Growing up seeing discrimination towards others has influenced me to highlight my Mexican heritage of traditions, culture, and language through several different methods. Using these elements, I can create work informing audiences about …


Review Of Sandinista Narratives: Religion, Sandinismo, And Emotions In The Making Of The Nicaraguan Insurrection And Revolution, Lynn Horton Jun 2022

Review Of Sandinista Narratives: Religion, Sandinismo, And Emotions In The Making Of The Nicaraguan Insurrection And Revolution, Lynn Horton

Sociology Faculty Articles and Research

A review of Jean-Pierre Reed's Sandinista Narratives: Religion, Sandinismo, and Emotions in the Making of the Nicaraguan Insurrection and Revolution.


A Parar Para Avanzar: To Stop/To Stand/To Strike To Advance, Christina N. Barrera May 2022

A Parar Para Avanzar: To Stop/To Stand/To Strike To Advance, Christina N. Barrera

Theses and Dissertations

This paper presents the first fragments of a political framework outlining how I situate my work, which lives between “craft” and “art” models of making and between colonized and colonizing traditions. My writing proposes ways of making and being informed by practices, strategies, and organizing that work towards greater autonomy and liberation under these conditions.


Maybe The Real Prize Was The Connections They Built Along The Way: A Legal Analysis Of The Role Of Privateering In The Creation Of The Trans-Imperial Greater Caribbean, Daniel Hall May 2022

Maybe The Real Prize Was The Connections They Built Along The Way: A Legal Analysis Of The Role Of Privateering In The Creation Of The Trans-Imperial Greater Caribbean, Daniel Hall

Honors Theses

While study of the eighteenth-century Caribbean has traditionally focused on the stark separation between the European empires of the region, this thesis seeks to reveal privateering’s role as an important force in creating what has come to be referred to as the trans-imperial or trans-national Caribbean. This will be based in an analysis of the legal structure of British privateering as a means of both drawing attention to the practice’s intrinsically legalistic nature as well as highlighting the fact that this regional creation was a result of colonists working within imperial guidelines as much as it was an act of …


Me Tengo Que Ir, Eddy Leonel Aldana May 2022

Me Tengo Que Ir, Eddy Leonel Aldana

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Creative Activity, School of Art, Art History and Design

In Spanish, me tengo que ir means “I have to go.” “I have to go” as in go home, or back to one’s home country. As in leaving home for the unforeseeable future, hang up the phone, or pass away. me tengo que ir is also the name of a song by Adolescent’s Orquesta — a song about love, loss, and heartbreak over time that was always played at family parties when I was growing up.

In me tengo que ir, I use world history and personal memory to examine my family’s place within the Guatemalan diaspora. Diaspora is …


Postcards From Paradise: How Cuba’S Tourism Industry Enabled The Hyper-Sexualization Of Black Women And Erasure Of Female Afro-Cuban Identity, Christina Darko May 2022

Postcards From Paradise: How Cuba’S Tourism Industry Enabled The Hyper-Sexualization Of Black Women And Erasure Of Female Afro-Cuban Identity, Christina Darko

Of Life and History

When tourists vacation in Cuba, they might take walks on its warm beaches, take pictures of its colorful architecture, or enjoy rich Afro-Cuban culture. Parallel to these scenes is the people who work in Cuba’s tourism industry, supplying entertainment to tourists to consume during their stays in paradise. This paper discusses Cuba’s tourism industry during its “Special Period,”: a time in the 1990s when Cuba reintroduced the dollar into its economy and reopened its tourism industry. The reintroduction of the dollar created increased racial inequality, especially among Afro-Cuban women. This research examines the increase in racial inequality during the Special …


Contextualizing The 2019 “Chile Despertó” Movement: The Impact Of Historical Relational Processes On Mobilization And Repression, Tanya Leon May 2022

Contextualizing The 2019 “Chile Despertó” Movement: The Impact Of Historical Relational Processes On Mobilization And Repression, Tanya Leon

International Studies (MA) Theses

To expand our theoretical and empirical understanding of mobilization and repression in Latin America, this thesis asks three critical questions. Are economic indicators sufficient predictors of social movement emergence in Latin America? What other factors contribute to large-scale mobilization in Latin America? How do government’s respond to large-scale Latin American social movements? Specifically, when, and why do democratic governments choose to employ repression against social movements? Accordingly, I construct a quantitative model to test the correlation between rise in protest and worsened economic conditions. I apply it to a comprehensive dataset of political events in multiple South American countries throughout …


Reinventing Our Understanding Of The Left-Right Political Dichotomy: The Case Of Argentina, Sol Halle May 2022

Reinventing Our Understanding Of The Left-Right Political Dichotomy: The Case Of Argentina, Sol Halle

International and Global Studies Undergraduate Honors Theses

What happens to a country’s political culture once populism takes root? Have Global North-centered methods of evaluation miscategorized Global South political party identification both historically and contemporaneously? As the world grapples with the continued rise of populism and its divisive rhetoric, scholars must thoroughly examine the movement’s spheres of influence beyond traditionally accepted frameworks. Understanding populist parties is vital, for they oftentimes create staggering disruptions within a nation’s political culture. These disturbances become starkly apparent in times of crises as challenges plunge everyday citizens deeper into the political sphere. The case of Argentina allows for an examination of the ways …


Historical Underpinnings And Consequent Effects Of Labor Exploitation Of Mexican And Central Americans In The United States, Andrew Elkins May 2022

Historical Underpinnings And Consequent Effects Of Labor Exploitation Of Mexican And Central Americans In The United States, Andrew Elkins

World Languages, Literatures and Cultures Undergraduate Honors Theses

The experience immigrants have today working and living in the southern United States is defined by systems that have developed out of lingering racist attitudes and reactions toward these individuals. The flow of people across the U.S.-Mexico border has a long history, and it is characterized by patterns that have continued from early guest worker programs to the present-day flow of migrants, both legal and undocumented. Also continually present is the racialization of these migrants, which has often forced them to work and live as marginalized members of American society. This project will explore the establishment of Mexican American citizen …


The Political Power Of Museums: A Case Study On The Museum Of Spanish Colonial Art, Emily Snyder May 2022

The Political Power Of Museums: A Case Study On The Museum Of Spanish Colonial Art, Emily Snyder

History Undergraduate Honors Theses

Museums hold an esteemed position that grants validity to the objects and history held within them based solely on their inherent authority as institutions. This makes the analysis of what museums portray incredibly important given the extent of people’s belief that they hold the power to determine authoritative truth concerning art, history, and society. In the late 1970s, museums underwent a period of change tied to becoming more pluralistic. Beginning in the 1990s, many museums touted their postcolonial status in the wake of their inclusion of and collaboration with traditionally outsider communities. Despite this change appearing to create more diverse …


Line As Site And Material, Analise Minjarez May 2022

Line As Site And Material, Analise Minjarez

Art Theses and Dissertations

This paper recounts my artistic practice over the last three years. I will describe the places, artists, artworks, and processes that have been meaningful to me in this time as I pursued my MFA and worked to understand my relationship to the living world. In the thesis Line as Site and Material, I respond to materiality and site through installation, sculpture, drawing, and video. I work with clay harvested from my hometown of El Paso, TX to connect to the personal histories of the borderlands and geological time. In the Second River Series, I walk in the empty riverbed of …


Paz Y Amor: The Making Of Mexican Hippie Culture, Allie R. Cobb May 2022

Paz Y Amor: The Making Of Mexican Hippie Culture, Allie R. Cobb

All Theses

Following the violent government massacre of students in October of 1968, Mexican youth turned away from organized protest and turned on to the likes of Jimi Hendrix and Timothy Leary to challenge established society. This project focuses on Mexican hippie culture and Mexican hippie identity. It argues that hippie culture flourished in Mexico because of the development of consumer society and offered a way for Mexican youth to rebel against traditional authority while feeling a part of an international youth culture and at the same time reshaping what nationalism meant to them. In other words, hippie culture offered youth a …


The Forgotten Wayuu People, Laura Hoya Noel Apr 2022

The Forgotten Wayuu People, Laura Hoya Noel

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This article focuses on the history of the Wayuu tribe and its relationship with the Spanish conquistadors and later the Colombian government. It reviews the history to understand why the tribe is ignored and disregarded by the Colombian government. The article tries to find a solution to the gap between non-Wayuu Colombians and the Wayuu community through the contact theory. It aims to connect these two groups to more interactions which would cause for tolerance to develop according to the contact theory.