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Articles 1 - 30 of 547

Full-Text Articles in Canadian History

Jesuit Education And History At The Archive Of The Jesuits In Canada, Francois Dansereau May 2024

Jesuit Education And History At The Archive Of The Jesuits In Canada, Francois Dansereau

Jesuit Higher Education: A Journal

This short article offers information on the scope of archival resources held at The Archive of the Jesuits in Canada (AJC), located in Montreal, Canada. It describes the characteristic of the archival collection, with a focus on historical records that testify to the Jesuits of Canada’s involvement in educational activities and institutions. It concludes by offering reflections on contemporary strategies at The AJC, particularly regarding archival material about Indigenous peoples, and by highlighting The AJC’s support to researchers.


"In The Name Of Progress": Postwar Urban Renewal And The Razing Of Black Spaces In Windsor, Ontario, 1957-1980, Willow Key May 2024

"In The Name Of Progress": Postwar Urban Renewal And The Razing Of Black Spaces In Windsor, Ontario, 1957-1980, Willow Key

Major Papers

In the mid-1950s, Windsor, Ontario embarked on a comprehensive fifteen-year urban renewal initiative aimed at redeveloping the city’s downtown core into a modern, municipal hub and locale for both private and commercial interests and cross-border tourism. The initial focus of this strategy was a neighbourhood situated just east of the commercial district, which had been home to much of the Windsor’s Black population for more than a century. Rooted in a complex interplay of social and economic factors, Windsor’s renewal efforts, guided by a misguided, paternalistic understanding of physical transformation as a catalyst for positive social change, resulted in the …


“Unnatural, Filthy, Unclean And Positively Dangerous To Health And Life.”: Smallpox Vaccine Refusal And Sectional Violence In Montréal 1885, Mary M. Horman May 2024

“Unnatural, Filthy, Unclean And Positively Dangerous To Health And Life.”: Smallpox Vaccine Refusal And Sectional Violence In Montréal 1885, Mary M. Horman

Major Papers

Montreal was stricken by an epidemic of smallpox in the year 1885 which resulted in over 3,000 deaths and which lasted 15 months. The disease was brought into the city by a pullman conductor arriving on a train from Chicago. The city of Montréal Health Department was confident that they would be able to manage the initial outbreak easily because by 1885 smallpox was considered to be a vaccine preventable disease. Unfortunately, many errors were made by the Health Department in the initial outbreak that allowed the disease to escape into the city of Montreal, where it was greatly aided …


High And Dry - Contextualizing Domestic Root Cellar Drains In Southern Ontario, Anatolijs Venovcevs Apr 2024

High And Dry - Contextualizing Domestic Root Cellar Drains In Southern Ontario, Anatolijs Venovcevs

Northeast Historical Archaeology

The subterranean root cellar is the quintessential feature of rural nineteenth-century archaeological sites in Ontario and much archaeological, historical, and architectural research on rural farmsteads has focused on defining and understanding these structures. However, this work has neglected an important component of this feature – the root cellar drain. This paper contextualizes these features within their broader nineteenth-century ideals of drainage and goes on to tackle the topic with the use of statistical analysis on the associated geographical, social, and economic attributes. The discussion presents opportunities that are present from the vast quantities of historical sites that have been excavated …


Transatlantic Traditions: The History Of Welsh Quarrying And Its Connections To Newfoundland Slate, Alexa D. Spiwak, Johanna Cole Apr 2024

Transatlantic Traditions: The History Of Welsh Quarrying And Its Connections To Newfoundland Slate, Alexa D. Spiwak, Johanna Cole

Northeast Historical Archaeology

Previous archaeological investigations have conclusively shown that the presence of Welshmen has co-occurred with the practice of local slate quarrying in Newfoundland since the early colonial ventures of the 17th century. The island experienced a resurgence in Welsh culture in the 19th century when a number of small slate quarries were established overlooking both the Bay of Islands on the west coast and Smith Sound in Trinity Bay. The following article outlines the history of these 19th-century Newfoundland quarries, as well as the social, political and economic factors which encouraged the migration of Welsh quarrymen across the Atlantic to remote …


Performing Masculinity: Calgary Men In The Great War, Andrew J. Hawkes Apr 2024

Performing Masculinity: Calgary Men In The Great War, Andrew J. Hawkes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis explores the masculinity of soldiers from Calgary during the Great War using a theoretical framework of hegemonic masculinity. The first chapter establishes a normative masculine standard in Calgary using local newspaper coverage of battalion departure parades. These events were rituals that celebrated militarized masculinity and reinforced the hegemonic ideal that existed across the British Empire in the early 20th century. The second chapter assesses how masculinity was performed in letters during the war. Although men strove to embody the masculine ideal, their letters were not uniform endorsements of martial masculinity. The third chapter analyzes how hegemonic masculinity …


Journey Of Resilience: A Review Of Asian Canadian Voices: Facets Of Diversity, Veronica Fu Feb 2024

Journey Of Resilience: A Review Of Asian Canadian Voices: Facets Of Diversity, Veronica Fu

Journal of East Asian Libraries

Asian Canadian Voices: Facets of Diversity is a compelling anthology that celebrates the contributions of Asian Canadians over two centuries. Edited by Hana Kim and presented by the Cheng Yu Tung East Asian Library, the book weaves together diverse stories, exploring themes of resilience, cultural pride, and evolving identity. Structured into ten chapters, it addresses critical issues like diversity, diaspora, and acculturation. Beyond its celebration of achievements, the anthology reflects on anti-Asian racism during COVID-19 and broader racial challenges. A visually striking cover and global significance make it a commendable contribution to literature, fostering understanding and appreciation for the diverse …


Soho Story, Michelle A. Hamilton, Mackenzie Bodnar, Emma Bronsema, Emily Clink, Jessica Hugh, Niġel Klemenčič-Puglisevich,, Hannah Mantel, Emma Macdonald, Zahra Mcdoom, Paige Milner, Sarah Pointer, Avraham Shaver, Keely Shaw, Madeline Shaw, Danielle Sinopoli Jan 2024

Soho Story, Michelle A. Hamilton, Mackenzie Bodnar, Emma Bronsema, Emily Clink, Jessica Hugh, Niġel Klemenčič-Puglisevich,, Hannah Mantel, Emma Macdonald, Zahra Mcdoom, Paige Milner, Sarah Pointer, Avraham Shaver, Keely Shaw, Madeline Shaw, Danielle Sinopoli

History Publications

Formed by the London Community Foundation (LCF), the Vision SoHo Alliance is a partnership between six non-profit housing developers, which includes Chelsea Green Home Society, Homes Unlimited, Indwell, Residenza Affordable Housing, London Affordable Housing Foundation, and Zerin Development Corporation. Vision SoHo Alliance will create 650-unit apartments, of which 30-60% will be affordable units, in seven buildings on the former South Street Victoria Hospital property. Most buildings will be located on the block bounded by Waterloo, South, Colborne, and Hill streets. Another building will be constructed at the northeast corner of South and Colborne. Indwell purchased the former Faculty of Medicine …


Mcdougall Street Corridor, Willow Key, Irene Moore Davis Jan 2024

Mcdougall Street Corridor, Willow Key, Irene Moore Davis

SWODA: Windsor & Region Publications

Recovering the stories: a brief pictorial history.

This commemorative booklet is part of a larger project: We Were Here: Bringing the Stories of Windsor's McDougall Street Corridor to Life.


Amex: Discord And Unity In The Canadian Vietnam-Era Anti-Draft Movement, 1969-1971, Doris R. Lanzkron-Tamarazo Dec 2023

Amex: Discord And Unity In The Canadian Vietnam-Era Anti-Draft Movement, 1969-1971, Doris R. Lanzkron-Tamarazo

The Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate History

During the American Vietnam War of the 1960s and early 1970s, a movement dedicated to opposing the draft and assisting draft dodgers and deserters emerged within Canada, where many of these war resisters immigrated. Exile groups were organizations in the anti-draft movement consisting entirely of American war resisters. One prominent exile newsletter was Amex: The American Expatriate in Canada. Amex’s reactions to events in the Canadian anti-draft movement during its second volume (1969-1971) demonstrate how despite frequently criticizing other organizations and individuals within the movement, it ultimately advocated for unity. Amex’s views on discord and unity within the anti-draft movement …


Community Resilience And Creating Capacities For Risk Reduction In First Nations Communities, Case Study In Minegoziibe Anishinabe (Pine Creek First Nation), Brittany S. Lavallee Dec 2023

Community Resilience And Creating Capacities For Risk Reduction In First Nations Communities, Case Study In Minegoziibe Anishinabe (Pine Creek First Nation), Brittany S. Lavallee

Capstone Collection

The colonization of Indigenous peoples in Canada has serious consequences on First Nations, including forced removal and displacement from their ancestral lands, environmental degradation, declining resources and capacities, and human rights violations. First Nations communities are currently facing the amplified effects of human-driven climate change. Sustainability of the environment is not just a concept, but a practiced way of life, that recognizes the interdependence of all living things. This deep respect for Aki (earth) is at the foundation of First Nations cultures and continues to guide their actions to insure better futures for Seven Generations. The community of Minegoziibe Anishinabe …


Matthew Bullock, Blackface And Belonging: Anti-Black Racism In Eary 20th Century Ontario Press, Rachael Edwards Dec 2023

Matthew Bullock, Blackface And Belonging: Anti-Black Racism In Eary 20th Century Ontario Press, Rachael Edwards

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In 1922 Matthew Bullock, a young Black North Carolinian was arrested in Hamilton, Ontario having fled the United States following the lynching of his teenage brother. His deportation and subsequent extradition cases received significant attention from the Canadian and American press. Historians Sarah-Jane Mathieu and John C. Weaver have discussed the case in the context of Black community formation and the development of the Canadians courts respectively. However, neither place significant focus on how the Ontario press covered the case. In this thesis, I argue that press and legal responses to Matthew Bullock were informed by a Canadian whiteness shaped …


Off By Heart Lake, Gayle I. Sacuta Nov 2023

Off By Heart Lake, Gayle I. Sacuta

The Goose

Memoir, history and critique of girlhood on a farm on the Alberta prairie in the 1970's and 1980's.


The Crusading Days Of Jackie Stewart: Evaluating The Development Of Safety In Motor Racing During The 1960s., Alex Twitchen Oct 2023

The Crusading Days Of Jackie Stewart: Evaluating The Development Of Safety In Motor Racing During The 1960s., Alex Twitchen

Journal of Motorsport Culture & History

This article critically evaluates the contribution of Jackie Stewart in making motor racing a safer sport for competitors. It challenges the validity of the popular assumption that Jackie Stewart by himself developed a ‘culture of safety’ that transformed the sport. Instead, the role of other individuals are identified alongside the importance of three social processes. These processes are identified as the changing balance of power between different masculine identities, the development of commercial sponsorship and a growth in the coverage of the sport on television.

The development of motor racing from the 1960s onwards as a safer sport in which …


Book Review: I Was A Nascar Redneck: Recollections Of The Transformation Of A Yankee Farm Boy To A Southern Redneck In The Golden Era Of Nascar And Beyond., Quinn Beekwilder, Daniel Dean Oct 2023

Book Review: I Was A Nascar Redneck: Recollections Of The Transformation Of A Yankee Farm Boy To A Southern Redneck In The Golden Era Of Nascar And Beyond., Quinn Beekwilder, Daniel Dean

Journal of Motorsport Culture & History

No abstract provided.


The 1900s Southwestern Ontario Sand Sucker Panic, Mary E. Baxter Jul 2023

The 1900s Southwestern Ontario Sand Sucker Panic, Mary E. Baxter

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During the early twentieth century, waterbed aggregate mining in the Great Lakes supplied sand and gravel for infrastructure development in the lakes’ shoreline communities. This thesis explores commercial dredging and its impacts at Lake Erie's Pelee Island and Point Pelee, and along the St. Clair River. The mostly transnational activity produced shoreline erosion that threatened agricultural operations, and sand suckers, the dredges that performed the mining, came to symbolize American capitalist exploitation in southwestern Ontario. Disputes arose over the extent of the erosion and affected relations between governments at all levels. Using government and business records, I argue that the …


Rebraiding Frayed Sweetgrass For Niijaansinaanik: Understanding Canadian Indigenous Child Welfare Issues As International Atrocity Crimes, Alyssa Couchie Jun 2023

Rebraiding Frayed Sweetgrass For Niijaansinaanik: Understanding Canadian Indigenous Child Welfare Issues As International Atrocity Crimes, Alyssa Couchie

Michigan Journal of International Law

The unearthing of the remains of Indigenous children on the sites of former Indian Residential Schools (“IRS”) in Canada has focused greater attention on anti-Indigenous atrocity violence in the country. While such increased attention, combined with recent efforts at redressing associated harms, represents a step forward in terms of recognizing and addressing the harms caused to Indigenous peoples through the settler-colonial process in Canada, this note expresses concern that the dominant framings of anti-Indigenous atrocity violence remain myopically focused on an overly narrow subset of harms and forms of violence, especially those committed at IRSs. It does so by utilizing …


Soldiering On After The Armistice: Health, Work And Family In The Lives Of Some Canadian Army Medical Corps Nurse Veterans, Sarah Glassford May 2023

Soldiering On After The Armistice: Health, Work And Family In The Lives Of Some Canadian Army Medical Corps Nurse Veterans, Sarah Glassford

Canadian Military History

This article analyses the federal government pension files of forty Canadian women who nursed for the Canadian Army Medical Corps (CAMC), exploring aspects of their health, work and family lives in the decades immediately following the First World War. The sample exclusively features nurses with ties to the region of Southwestern Ontario but in demographic terms is also largely representative of the entire body of CAMC nurses. Collectively, the files depict nurse veterans who mobilized their medical knowledge and professional networks when faced with challenging health situations, pursued diverse postwar employment strategies, and in some cases played crucial roles in …


Canada’S Most Decisive Victory: An Analysis Of Canada’S Role In The Hundred Days Offensive, 8 August - 11 November 1918, Ryan Goldsworthy, J.L. Granatstein May 2023

Canada’S Most Decisive Victory: An Analysis Of Canada’S Role In The Hundred Days Offensive, 8 August - 11 November 1918, Ryan Goldsworthy, J.L. Granatstein

Canadian Military History

Of Canada’s long military history, Vimy is the one battle that most Canadians will know. Some will be familiar with Passchendaele, D-Day or the disasters at Hong Kong and Dieppe. Canadians should know the Hundred Days because the battles that constitute that offensive were almost certainly the most important victories ever won by Canadian soldiers. This article analyses the various reasons for the stunning Canadian successes of that war-winning offensive: chiefly the Canadian experience and doctrine; the state of the enemy and the Allies; artillery and counter-battery fire (the most important tactical arm); and logistics and administration. Ultimately, as the …


Bearing Witness To Sacrifice: Death, Grief And Memorialisation In The Collections Of The Canadian War Museum, Teresa Iacobelli May 2023

Bearing Witness To Sacrifice: Death, Grief And Memorialisation In The Collections Of The Canadian War Museum, Teresa Iacobelli

Canadian Military History

This article presents a selection of artworks, archival material and artifacts from the Canadian War Museum (CWM) that illuminate how Canadians—soldiers and civilians— have experienced and endured war. By focusing on the themes of death, grief and memorialisation, these items convey how Canadians have borne the sacrifice of war, and the way in which those losses have been memorialised in ways both public and private.

Cet article présente une sélection d’oeuvres d’art, de documents d’archives et d’artefacts du Musée canadien de la guerre (MCG) qui illustrent la façon dont les Canadiens – soldates et civils – ont vécu et enduré …


“Such An Immoral Creature”: Widowed Women And The Board Of Pension Commissioners, Lyndsay Rosenthal May 2023

“Such An Immoral Creature”: Widowed Women And The Board Of Pension Commissioners, Lyndsay Rosenthal

Canadian Military History

Widows’ pensions were a vital source of income following the loss of a spouse during and after the war. While soldiers enlisted with the promise that their families would be taken care of, accessing state assistance could be exceedingly difficult. In addition to proving their husband’s death was connected to their wartime service, widows also had to meet contemporary ideals about gender, sexuality and motherhood. These pensions provided more financial support than any other social welfare system available at the time. However, pension regulations governed widows’ daily lives and influenced major life events such as marriage and childrearing.


Indigenous Veterans Of The First World War And Their Families In The Prairie West, William John Pratt May 2023

Indigenous Veterans Of The First World War And Their Families In The Prairie West, William John Pratt

Canadian Military History

This study of forty-five military pension files of Indigenous First World War veterans of the Treaty 4, 6 and 7 regions shows that the racist perspectives and structures of settler colonialism on the Prairies could prevent just administration of benefits. Pension files of Indigenous veterans expose the tragedy of their lives during and after the First World War. Many soldiers had lingering pains and ailments as a result of the war, as well as continuing problems shaking the gaze of settler colonialism, which seemed unable to view them as both Indigenous and veterans. Despite the numerous legal and cultural obstacles …


Je Ne Me Souviens Pas: Pensioned Veterans From French Canada’S 22nd Battalion, Serge Marc Durflinger May 2023

Je Ne Me Souviens Pas: Pensioned Veterans From French Canada’S 22nd Battalion, Serge Marc Durflinger

Canadian Military History

An examination of the pension files of men having served in the 22nd Battalion (canadien-français), the Canadian Corps’ only French-speaking line battalion, situates veterans into a specific ethno-linguistic and, more generally, socio-economic context. This article seeks to illuminate some of the many personal crises that could, and commonly did, afflict veterans, their families and their survivors. It demonstrates that beyond the devastation of serious physical or psychological wounding, many of Canada’s returned men, perhaps far more than we imagined, suffered persistent ill health, financial distress and family estrangement. Almost without exception, the sixty 22nd Battalion case files examined …


“Anxious To Be Restored”: Managing War Neuroses In Interwar Canada, Heather Ellis May 2023

“Anxious To Be Restored”: Managing War Neuroses In Interwar Canada, Heather Ellis

Canadian Military History

Using newly available records from the Veterans Affairs Pension Files, doctors’ notes and Veterans’ Hospital records, this article explores how war neurosis was simultaneously a personal and public event. Veterans were required to describe symptoms that breached masculine ideals to demonstrate that their disability impacted their daily lives. Ex-servicemen were caught in a delicate balance between following the soldier ideal and describing their symptoms accurately. War neurosis not only impacted veterans in the private examining room of the pension administrator it also affected their ability to find and maintain employment and the lives of their family members. The more public …


A Generation Curtailed: The Lifespans Of Canada’S Pensioned Veterans Of The Great War, Jonathan Scotland May 2023

A Generation Curtailed: The Lifespans Of Canada’S Pensioned Veterans Of The Great War, Jonathan Scotland

Canadian Military History

Despite long-time interest in links between the Great War and concepts of a Lost Generation, there have been few efforts to study veteran lifespans. The death dates of Canadian pensioned veterans recorded in the Department of Veterans Affairs pensions files, combined with those recorded in department’s death cards, offers an opportunity to quantify not just veteran life expectancy, but actual lifespans. The ensuing analysis of pensioned veteran lifespans suggests that research conducted in the mid 1930s by F. S. Burke for the Department of Veterans Affairs, which concluded that pensioned veteran life expectancy would exceed that of the average Canadian …


“When Wartime Friends Meet”: Great War Veteran Culture And The (Ab)Use Of Alcohol, Jonathan F. Vance May 2023

“When Wartime Friends Meet”: Great War Veteran Culture And The (Ab)Use Of Alcohol, Jonathan F. Vance

Canadian Military History

After the First World War, Canadian veterans created a culture that celebrated the camaraderie, sense of purpose, and light-hearted moments of their experience as soldiers. Much like the trench culture of the war years, it poked fun at misfortune, satirized the enemy, and presumed that a stiff drink could make any situation better. Veteran culture provided ex-soldiers in the 1920s and 1930s with the mutual support they needed to get through difficult times, but it was a milieu in which the excessive consumption of alcohol was accepted and even encouraged. This had little impact on the settled, well-adjusted veteran but …


“By Reason Of Age And Necessity”: Pension Claims Of Veterans Of The War In South Africa, Amy Shaw May 2023

“By Reason Of Age And Necessity”: Pension Claims Of Veterans Of The War In South Africa, Amy Shaw

Canadian Military History

Under the War Veterans Allowance Act (1930) some veterans of the War in South Africa (1899-1902) became eligible for support from the Canadian government. The terms of eligibility and the discourse around granting these pension allowances echo debates during the war itself, with a focus on the men’s physicality and an ambiguity about the country’s relations with the British Empire. The act required both military service and impecunity of the veterans it proposed to assist. The veterans’ interactions with the government, asserting both need and earned reward, position the Act as a significant point of transition in the country’s discourse …


Reconciling Genoa: A Historiography Of The Genoa Indian Industrial School, Andrea Huebner May 2023

Reconciling Genoa: A Historiography Of The Genoa Indian Industrial School, Andrea Huebner

Graduate Review

In 1884, the Genoa Indian Industrial School was established to aid in the assimilation of Native American students. Schools, like Genoa Indian Industrial School, were originally considered successful but as historians uncovered abuse and unsafe living conditions the narratives surrounding the schools changed. This paper builds looks directly at how historians’ interpretation of the Genoa Indian Industrial School has changed over time. This contributes to a deeper understanding of how important it is to continue re-evaluating events throughout history.


‘Death Of A Union Man’: Reconstructing Conflict At Windsor Chrysler During The Long Seventies, Heat Harvie May 2023

‘Death Of A Union Man’: Reconstructing Conflict At Windsor Chrysler During The Long Seventies, Heat Harvie

Major Papers

The shooting of UAW Local 444 President Charles “Charlie” Brooks in January 1977 by former Chrysler worker Clarence Talbot, allegedly over a grievance, brought the city of Windsor, Ontario to a standstill. Recently fired from his position as a relief worker at the Chrysler plant, Talbot was in a very vulnerable position where his ability to survive hinged on a successful grievance. Brooks was a beloved labour leader noted for his radical and colourful ways who had a long history of working hard for union and community members through his advocacy. The Ontario Supreme Court ultimately declared Talbot not criminally …


Canada's Evergreen Playground: A History Of Snow In Vancouver, M Blake Butler Apr 2023

Canada's Evergreen Playground: A History Of Snow In Vancouver, M Blake Butler

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The City of Vancouver is not as snowy as the rest of Canada; rain, not snow, is its defining weather feature. But snow is a common seasonal occurrence, having fallen there nearly every winter since the 1850s. This dissertation places snow at the centre of the City of Vancouver’s history. It demonstrates how cultural and natural factors influenced human experiences and relationships with snow on the coast between the 1850s and 2000s. Following Vancouver’s incorporation, commercial and civic boosters constructed – and settlers adopted – what I call an evergreen mentality. Snow was reconceptualized as a rare and infrequent phenomenon. …