Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

University of Pennsylvania

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1462

Full-Text Articles in History

Deconstructing Cultural Food Borders: The Creation Of New Latinidades In Latina Literature Through Consumption, Elizabeth Vigil Feb 2019

Deconstructing Cultural Food Borders: The Creation Of New Latinidades In Latina Literature Through Consumption, Elizabeth Vigil

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

This research explores contemporary Latinx literature to examine the way discourse about food is presented as a form of socio-cultural control through the demand for culturally regulated forms of consumption. Judgmental discourse in what is said about food, how it is said, and expected behaviors of consumption are tied to the creation of a collective Latinx cultural identity. This cultural identity and its expected authenticity revolve around eating foods that are considered static segments of Puerto Rican cultural tradition. It works to assess expectations of identity which are forced upon individuals. This investigation looks at how the refusal of cultural ...


Gendering Of Home And Homelessness In Latinx Literature, Maria P. Ahumada Feb 2019

Gendering Of Home And Homelessness In Latinx Literature, Maria P. Ahumada

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

This research interrogates the gendering of notions of home and homelessness using the theoretical framing of Anzaldúa in a critical analysis of the works of Sandra Cisneros in The House on Mango Street, and Helena Maria Viramontes' The Moths and Other Stories. The women in these narrative struggle with the societal expectations that are imposed on them through patriarchal ideals, which invade the spaces of their home. This framework can lead to a sense of outsiderness and feelings of homelessness within the home for women when they realize that they are being oppressed by a dominant culture.


On Being As Passage And Plurality Of Self: Postcolonial Caribbean Identity In Merle Hodge's Crick Crack, Monkey, Amanda González Izquierdo Feb 2019

On Being As Passage And Plurality Of Self: Postcolonial Caribbean Identity In Merle Hodge's Crick Crack, Monkey, Amanda González Izquierdo

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

This essay examines questions of home and identity in a postcolonial Caribbean context. Situating itself in the dialogue between continental philosophy and postcolonial theory, this research explores how identity formations are processes which negotiate fragmentary demands of being as well as the various ruptures and dislocations that are resultants of colonization. This paper proposes that in thinking of postcolonial identities, we must explicitly and necessarily consider multiplicity, alterity, diaspora, and interstitial spaces. Focusing on Merle Hodge's novel Crick Crack, Monkey, this essay thinks through protagonist Tee's process of becoming, a process which is fluid, dynamic, and never complete ...


Ritratto Di Un Uomo Con Simboli: Lorenzo Lotto On Vice And Virtue, Victor Hurtado Feb 2019

Ritratto Di Un Uomo Con Simboli: Lorenzo Lotto On Vice And Virtue, Victor Hurtado

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

The art of Lorenzo de Tomasso Lotto (1480-1557) has until recently gained critical attention. Lotto, born in Venice to Tomasso Lotto, lived and traveled throughout Italy. The Portrait of Man with Allegorical Symbols on display at the El Paso Museum of Art is one of Lotto’s most elusive paintings. A man of about thirty years of age is portrayed on a neutral background and divides a set of six allegorical symbols in axially. He gestures toward a set of three symbols hanging from a festoon of laurel leaves: an armillary sphere, intertwined palm branches, and a full-blown bladder. A ...


Just War Theory: A Shift In Perspective, Hermes Rocha Feb 2019

Just War Theory: A Shift In Perspective, Hermes Rocha

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

War is an extreme human activity—not only because of the horror of war, but because of the severe emotional, physical, psychological, and moral strain it has on its combatants. Understanding war from the combatant’s point of view is hard enough without personally experiencing war. Without the direct experience of combat, an epistemic gap lies between one who knows what it is like and those lucky enough not to experience it. Consequently, the theoretical propositions of just and unjust conduct in war become difficult to support. I argue that just war theory and its tenets such as jus in ...


Voices Of Duranguito: A Barrio Under Siege, Johanna M. Lopez Velador Feb 2019

Voices Of Duranguito: A Barrio Under Siege, Johanna M. Lopez Velador

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

Duranguito, the historic first neighborhood of El Paso, Texas, is on the verge of being destroyed. Through the use of oral histories, the experiences of the people who currently live there and those who protect it are captured to tell the unique history of a low income and mostly immigrant elderly community. At this time of turmoil, it is important to capture oral histories in order to highlight the sense of community felt among the residents before those memories are lost. Over one-third of the residents have been displaced already and many others are under threat of being displaced over ...


A Newly Discovered Manuscript Of The Historia De Los Reyes Moros De Granada By Hernando De Baeza, MaríA Mercedes Delgado PéRez Jan 2019

A Newly Discovered Manuscript Of The Historia De Los Reyes Moros De Granada By Hernando De Baeza, MaríA Mercedes Delgado PéRez

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


The Summula De Summa Raymundi In Gordan Ms 95, Bryn Mawr College, Thomas Izbicki Jan 2019

The Summula De Summa Raymundi In Gordan Ms 95, Bryn Mawr College, Thomas Izbicki

Manuscript Studies

Raymond of Peñafort’s Summa de casibus conscientiae, including its fourth book, the Summa de matrimonio, was one of the most successful texts for pastors and confessors composed in the Middle Ages. Written by a Dominican friar in the thirteenth century, it treated cases of conscience in a systematic manner. It also examined matrimony and the other sacraments. The Summa was subject to detailed commentary by William of Rennes, updates by John of Freiburg reflecting new papal pronouncements, and abridgment for pastors’ greater convenience. One important summary was done in Latin verse, a work attributed to Adam of Aldersbach, a ...


The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter Jan 2019

The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Prince ShōToku’S ShōMangyō-Gisho And Two Dunhuang Buddhist Manuscripts: A Debate Over Originality And Canonical Value, Mark Dennis Jan 2019

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Prince ShōToku’S ShōMangyō-Gisho And Two Dunhuang Buddhist Manuscripts: A Debate Over Originality And Canonical Value, Mark Dennis

Manuscript Studies

This article investigates the relationship between two manuscript fragments discovered in Dunhuang, China referred to as Nai 93 and Tama 24, and the Shōmangyō-gisho, a Buddhist text written in classical Chinese attributed to Japan’s Prince Shōtoku (574-622). Shōtoku is remembered in Japanese history as the country’s first patriarch of Buddhism, revered for his patronage of the nascent faith and his great erudition. His studies under a Korean Buddhist monk led, according to early historical texts, to his composing the Shōmangyō-gisho and two other Buddhist commentaries that have been greatly valued throughout Japanese Buddhist history.

But the discovery of ...


The Two Yoḥannǝses Of Santo Stefano Degli Abissini, Rome: Reconstructing Biography And Cross-Cultural Encounter Through Manuscript Evidence, Samantha Kelly, Denis Nosnitsin Jan 2019

The Two Yoḥannǝses Of Santo Stefano Degli Abissini, Rome: Reconstructing Biography And Cross-Cultural Encounter Through Manuscript Evidence, Samantha Kelly, Denis Nosnitsin

Manuscript Studies

The Ethiopian Orthodox monastery of Santo Stefano degli Abissini in Rome was one of four diasporic Ethiopian communities around the Mediterranean and played a central role in disseminating knowledge about Ethiopian language, culture, and religion in sixteenth-century Europe. Yet apart from its most famous member, Täsfa Ṣǝyon, very little is known about the identities and careers of its monks. This article draws on the surviving Geez manuscripts of Santo Stefano’s own library, as well as European correspondence and archival documents, to reconstruct the biographies of two influential denizens of Santo Stefano. Hitherto believed to be a single person, Yoḥannǝs ...


“My Written Books Of Surgery In The Englishe Tonge”: The London Company Of Barber-Surgeons And The Lylye Of Medicynes, Erin Connelly Jan 2019

“My Written Books Of Surgery In The Englishe Tonge”: The London Company Of Barber-Surgeons And The Lylye Of Medicynes, Erin Connelly

Manuscript Studies

The Middle English Lylye of Medicynes is an early fifteenth-century translation of Bernard of Gordon’s Latin Lilium medicinae (completed in 1305). The Lylye is contained in Oxford Bodleian Library MS. Ashmole 1505 as a sole text. Although there are many extant witnesses in Latin, there are no other known Middle English copies. The Lylye contains thousands of medicinal ingredients, including 360 individual recipes identified with Rx, with accompanying guidelines for diagnosis and prognosis. Although the text does contain some medical theory and etiology (based on thought from Arabic medicine, specifically Ibn Sīnā, and Antiquity, predominantly Galen and Hippocrates), its ...


Conversational Lollardy: Reading The Margins Of Ms Bodley 978, Elizabeth Schirmer Jan 2019

Conversational Lollardy: Reading The Margins Of Ms Bodley 978, Elizabeth Schirmer

Manuscript Studies

Considers an unusual set of “key-object” annotations, pictorial as well as verbal, that appear in the margins of the Middle English gospel harmony Oon of Foure in Bodleian Library, MS Bodley 978. Argues that the margins of Bodley 978 record a variety of conversations shaped by lollardy. After briefly locating the Bodley manuscript in relation to the larger Oon of Foure tradition, the article proceeds by tracing a set of often-repeated annotative objects across the Bodley margins—key, sword, cross, lantern, heart. Taking these messy and amateurish finding aids seriously as intellectual work, it finds the primary Bodley annotator(s ...


A Tool For Exemplary Pastoral Care: Three Booklets Of The Edwardes Manuscript In Context, Hannah Weaver Jan 2019

A Tool For Exemplary Pastoral Care: Three Booklets Of The Edwardes Manuscript In Context, Hannah Weaver

Manuscript Studies

As the recent bloom of literary scholarship around manuscripts shows, the longstanding desire to correct and emend their lessons has ceded to an appreciation of what we can learn about medieval reading and writing practices from them. This paper addresses the question of genre through three apparently disparate manuscripts associated with the Augustinian canons at Oxford in the early thirteenth century. United by 1300 into a single codex that was later bound into the larger Edwardes manuscript, Gui de Warewic, La Chanson de Guillaume, and the Pseudo-Turpin Chronicle share a scribe, a lettrine artist, and a concern with acceptable Christian ...


Statim Prosequi: An Index As A Product, Instrument, And Medium Of The Medieval Franciscan Inquisition In Tuscany, Geoffrey W. Clement Jan 2019

Statim Prosequi: An Index As A Product, Instrument, And Medium Of The Medieval Franciscan Inquisition In Tuscany, Geoffrey W. Clement

Manuscript Studies

Codex Casanatensis Ms. 1730 is a compendious work containing a wide assortment of texts related to the medieval inquisition. This codex was conceived and executed as an unitary whole, and produced in the early fourteenth century for Franciscan inquisitors in Tuscany. While many texts in Casanatensis 1730 appear in other inquisitors’ codices, there are also texts that are unique to Ms. 1730. Among these is an index at the start (fol. 1-37) that not only covers Casanatensis 1730 in its entirety, but also contains features that render it especially utilitarian.

Through an exploration of these unique features in the index ...


Music And The Act Of Song In Dante’S ‘Purgatorio’ And ‘Paradiso’, Kevin Brownlee Dec 2018

Music And The Act Of Song In Dante’S ‘Purgatorio’ And ‘Paradiso’, Kevin Brownlee

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

The present paper explores the relation between the vernacular words used to designate the Act of Song, and the inscribed texts of the Sung Music itself, by considering a set of key cases first in Purgatory and then in Paradise. It focuses on important moments of structural and literary transition, at the same time as showing how sung sacred texts relate to each other (and to other kinds of passages) in important functional ways. I examine how song works in five key moments of the protagonist’s journey: the exit from the final terrace of the Purgatorial mountain, and the ...


From Casella To Cacciaguida: A Musical Progression Toward Innocence, Thomas E. Peterson Dec 2018

From Casella To Cacciaguida: A Musical Progression Toward Innocence, Thomas E. Peterson

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

The essay draws an arc between the episodes of Casella and Cacciaguida under the sign of music. It explores the symmetry between the brief encounter with the minstrel who sings lines from Dante’s poetry, and the extended episode with Dante’s ancestor, who instructs him about his destiny. The symmetry is at once biographical, as the two scenes are among the most personal in the Commedia, theoretical, as they exemplify the relations between poetry and music expounded on in De vulgari eloquentia and Convivio, and theological, in a sense consistent with the writings of Augustine and Boethius. If Mars ...


Dante, Liszt, And The Alienated Agony Of Hell, Tekla Babyak Dec 2018

Dante, Liszt, And The Alienated Agony Of Hell, Tekla Babyak

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

Dante Alighieri’s Inferno portrays Hell as an alienated realm in which the doomed spirits must spend eternity in isolation and regret. The Hungarian composer Franz Liszt (1811–1886) responded to this work with his Dante Symphony (1857) based on the Inferno and Purgatorio, in which he gave musical form to Dante’s textual expressions of agony. Throughout this two-movement work, Liszt offers a musical translation of the theological and emotional world portrayed in Dante’s Divina Commedia. This article examines Liszt’s evocations of silence, memory, regret, and redemption in the Dante Symphony. These evocations are enhanced by Liszt ...


Nineteenth- And Twentieth-Century Musical Adaptations Of Dante’S ‘Commedia’: ‘Dante’S Greatest Hits’, Maria Ann Roglieri Dec 2018

Nineteenth- And Twentieth-Century Musical Adaptations Of Dante’S ‘Commedia’: ‘Dante’S Greatest Hits’, Maria Ann Roglieri

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

Composers through the centuries have tried to depict Dante’s Commedia in music, using Dante’s verses, characters, and design for Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven, and their compositions. This paper looks at some of the trends in musical adaptations of the Commedia and also some of the “greatest hits”—in the author’s opinion. Works by James Norton, Patric Standford, Jacob ter Veldhuis, David Denniston, Franz Liszt, Donald Martino, Tod Machover, Anita Saij, Allik and Mulder, and Theodore Wiprud are discussed.


“Dentro A La Danza De Le Quattro Belle” (Purg. 31.104): Dance In Dante’S ‘Commedia’, Madison U. Sowell Dec 2018

“Dentro A La Danza De Le Quattro Belle” (Purg. 31.104): Dance In Dante’S ‘Commedia’, Madison U. Sowell

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

Missing from standard reference works on Dante’s Commedia are separate entries devoted exclusively to dance or dancing. Primary sources for the history of dance in the Italian Trecento derive from tablatures (musical notations), scattered iconographic images, and literary works, such as Boccaccio’s Decameron and Dante’s Commedia. Representations of dancing in these works invariably double as a symbolic language or meta-commentary on the surrounding narrative. The interpretation of dance’s role in late medieval art and literature depends not only on the context but also on the type of dance depicted. This article focuses on the allegorical roles ...


Conversations With Francesca: Tchaikovsky, Liszt, And Wagner (And Zandonai And Granados And Rachmaninov) Go To Hell, Jess Tyre Dec 2018

Conversations With Francesca: Tchaikovsky, Liszt, And Wagner (And Zandonai And Granados And Rachmaninov) Go To Hell, Jess Tyre

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

Tchaikovsky completed his tone poem Francesca da Rimini in 1876, during the period he was attending the premiere of Wagner’s Ring Cycle at Bayreuth. Critics of the work drew comparisons with the Tetralogy and faulted what seemed to be Tchaikovsky’s derivative inspiration. Indeed, the composer him-self acknowledged Wagner’s influence. In this paper, I set aside influence to consider intertextual dialogues between Tchaikovsky’s work and others by Liszt, Zandonai, Rachmaninov, and not Wagner’s Ring, but Tristan und Isolde. Drawing upon theories by Klein and Peirce, I examine parallelisms of topic, melodic contour, tonal motion, and timbral ...


Singing For Dante In ‘Purgatorio’ 30–31, Helena Phillips-Robins Dec 2018

Singing For Dante In ‘Purgatorio’ 30–31, Helena Phillips-Robins

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

This essay investigates types of sociality enacted through song, as depicted in Dante’s Earthly Paradise. The first section of the essay argues that the singing of Psalm 30 (In te, Domine, speravi) in Purgatorio 30 is a way of enacting a particular mode of compassion. In the second section of the essay I argue that Dante’s depiction of Psalm 30—together with his depiction of the antiphon sung in Purgatorio 31, the Asperges me—invites a devotional response from the reader. The sociality of prayer can involve not only the characters, but also the readers of the Commedia ...


“Temprando Col Dolce L’Acerbo”: Instrumental And Vocal Polyphony In The ‘Commedia’, Francesco Ciabattoni Dec 2018

“Temprando Col Dolce L’Acerbo”: Instrumental And Vocal Polyphony In The ‘Commedia’, Francesco Ciabattoni

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

This essay tracks the historical-musicological context of the lemma “organi” / “organo” as it appears in Purg. 9.144 and Par. 17.44. Drawing from medieval treatises and monks’ descriptions such as Raban Maur, Notkerus Balbulus, Baldric of Dol, Aelred of Rievaulx, and Wulstan, the author uses intertextual evidence to show that Purg. 9.144 (“quando a cantar con organi si stea”) evokes a great pipe organ as was found in some medieval churches. The essay also argues that Par. 17.43–44 (“come viene ad orecchia / dolce armonia da organo”) should be understood as a polyphonic organum that serves the ...


Stasis And Carnal Song: Dante’S Medusa And The Siren, Fiorentina Russo Dec 2018

Stasis And Carnal Song: Dante’S Medusa And The Siren, Fiorentina Russo

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

In his epic journey, Dante experiences entrapments, digressions, and ultimately new apertures, leading him forward on his journey to Paradise. The hag-siren of Purgatorio 19 is one of the primary figures, whose song sways the poet in a moment of reverie, embodying a de-mobilizing entrapment most unique and perilous within the poem. While the patristic and medieval traditions have traditionally portrayed the siren as a figure for the deleterious effects of music on the soul, Dante scholarship has glossed the dolce serena as a coordinate for the Medusa of Inferno 9. The siren's association with the Medusa implicitly harkens ...


Ironizing Ugolino, David Heinsen Dec 2018

Ironizing Ugolino, David Heinsen

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

This article analyzes an adaptation of Canto 33 of the Inferno, a musical setting of Count Ugolino composed by Gaetano Donizetti (1828). The composition is first presented within the frame of its contemporaneous aesthetic, one that treats Ugolino as a pathos-inspired tale of human suffering. Donizetti’s composition, however, fails to align itself to this tragic reading due to structural contradictions that prevent the listener from sympathizing with the musical agent. To address this divergence, the article extends the most recent theories of musical narrative by Byron Almén and Michael Klein to propose an ironic reading of the work, essentially ...


Dante Decrypted: Musica Universalis In The Textual Architecture Of The ‘Commedia’, C.S. Adoyo Dec 2018

Dante Decrypted: Musica Universalis In The Textual Architecture Of The ‘Commedia’, C.S. Adoyo

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

For seven centuries scholars have speculated about the structural design of Dante’s Commedia but remain perplexed by the poem’s comprehensive ar-chitecture. This study undertakes a strictly empirical quantitative analysis of Dante’s magnum opus to address this lacuna. The outcome of this analysis enumerates the correspondence between the foundational rationale of the Commedia’s textual architecture and both physical and metaphysical concepts of Ptolemaic cosmology and Pythagorean principles of harmony and propor-tion as described by Boethius. The poem manifests a musically and mathemat-ically meticulous design conceptualized as musica universalis and expressed as musica instrumentalis that echoes Paschal and ...


“Scores For A Particular Chemical Orchestra”: The ‘Commedia’ And The Matter Of Sound In Osip Mandelstam’S ‘Conversation About Dante’, Andrea Gazzoni Dec 2018

“Scores For A Particular Chemical Orchestra”: The ‘Commedia’ And The Matter Of Sound In Osip Mandelstam’S ‘Conversation About Dante’, Andrea Gazzoni

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

This paper discusses the implications of the wide-ranging use of sound in Osip Mandelstam’s 1933 essay “Conversation about Dante,” a landmark in the twentieth-century reception of Dante. With a special focus on the sound mo-tives incorporated in Mandelstam’s description of the Commedia, the Con-versation is analyzed as a study in the receptiveness of the reader, as it is acti-vated by the poetic speech of Dante in a call-and-response relation. At the same time, the paper explores issues of individuation, as reading through sound brings the reader back to his or her historicity and presentness, and of trans-formation, as ...


“Canzone... T’Ho Allevato Per Figliuola D’Amore”: Three Songs Of Love In Dante’S ‘Vita Nuova’, Alfred R. Crudale Dec 2018

“Canzone... T’Ho Allevato Per Figliuola D’Amore”: Three Songs Of Love In Dante’S ‘Vita Nuova’, Alfred R. Crudale

Bibliotheca Dantesca: Journal of Dante Studies

This paper examines the poetics and musicality of three canzoni of Dante’s Vita Nuova and explores how four fundamental musical elements produce specific meanings while evoking a desired emotion in the reader. “Donne ch’avete intelletto d’amore,” the first canzone of the Vita Nuova, initiates Dante’s poetry of praise as it contributes to the elation of the first third of the work. The two later canzoni, “Donna pietosa” and “Li occhi dolenti,” however, transition the Vita Nuova to a more somber and finally grief-stricken piece. Analysis of the musical elements of these three poems demonstrates how Dante ...


Illuminating Archives: Collectors And Collections In The History Of Thai Manuscripst, Justin Mcdaniel May 2018

Illuminating Archives: Collectors And Collections In The History Of Thai Manuscripst, Justin Mcdaniel

Manuscript Studies

No abstract provided.


Ms. Codex 238: The Foundling: A Tragedy, Martin Earl Smith May 2018

Ms. Codex 238: The Foundling: A Tragedy, Martin Earl Smith

Transcription Collection

The Foundling: A Tragedy. Both a raw and a critical transcription (edited for performance) of a play, composed c 1803-1810 by a Scottish teenager, discussing the issues of bastard children, abortion, honor, and the Scottish nobility.