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Full-Text Articles in History

Northern Indian Removal: An Unfamiliar History, John Bowes Dec 2011

Northern Indian Removal: An Unfamiliar History, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

No abstract provided.


The Choctaw, John Bowes Dec 2009

The Choctaw, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

1699, an expedition of Frenchmen encountered American Indians in the lower Mississippi Valley who referred to themselves as Choctaw. As the settlers expanded throughout America, the Choctaw developed a relationship with and adapted to the demands of these newfound neighbors. The Choctaw examines the history of these Native Americans, beginning with the Choctaw Confederacy, and provides insights into how the Choctaw survived as individuals and sovereign tribes in the aftermath of the removal policy of the 19th century. Today, three federally recognized tribes of Choctaw have a combined membership of nearly 200,000. This new title discusses the struggles and ...


Uncommon Defense: Indian Allies In The Black Hawk War, John Bowes Dec 2009

Uncommon Defense: Indian Allies In The Black Hawk War, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

The Black Hawk War has received an inordinate amount of attention over the years, most recently in Black Hawk: The battle for the Heart of America, by Kerry A. Trask (2006) and The Black Hawk War of 1832, by Patrick J. Jung (2007). Yet not until Uncommon Defense by John W. Hall has anyone closely examined the decisions made by the Menominees, Dakotas, Ho Chunks, and Potawatomis who allied with the forces of the United States in that conflict. In what is an accessible an enlightening study, Hall asserts that those Indian allies “were the true architects of an alliance ...


Great Lakes Indian Accommodation And Resistance During The Early Reservation Years, 1850-1900, John Bowes Dec 2009

Great Lakes Indian Accommodation And Resistance During The Early Reservation Years, 1850-1900, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

In his latest book, Great Lakes Indian Accommodation and Resistance, Edmund Jefferson Danziger presents a sound and straightforward argument. Through a series of chapters that cover reservation life, allotment, education policy, and missionary activity, the message is clear: American Indian residents of the Great Lakes region in the second half of the nineteenth century were active agents in their lives, not passive victims of federal government policies or settler invasions. It is an argument that noticeably reflects the critical developments of scholarship over the past several decades. And while some might debate the usefulness of such phrasing as accommodation versus ...


Trail Of Tears: Removal In The South, John Bowes Dec 2009

Trail Of Tears: Removal In The South, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

When the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson proposed that eastern Indian tribes could be moved west to this new expanse of land. Jefferson's recommendation was in direct response to the demand by white settlers for more land, especially in the southeastern portion of the United States. As a result, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which set in motion the relocation of thousands of eastern Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River. Among the primary tribes targeted for this large-scale removal was the Cherokee. Despite proving its sovereign ...


Histories Of Order And Empires, John Bowes Aug 2009

Histories Of Order And Empires, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

This is, at first glance, an odd pairing of books. One covers several centuries of Comanche history on the southern plains and the other focuses on the post-Revolution Ohio Valley. Pekka Hämäläinen explores a variety of anthropological and ethnohistorical sources to produce a wide-ranging analysis of Comanche internal and external life. David Andrew Nichols surveys the writings and records of citizens and politicians to bring more attention to the connections between national politics and local power struggles in the early American republic. Despite these apparent differences, however, both of these works have similar questions at their respective cores. Perhaps most ...


Restoring The Chain Of Friendship: British Policy And The Indians Of The Great Lakes, 1783-1815, John Bowes May 2009

Restoring The Chain Of Friendship: British Policy And The Indians Of The Great Lakes, 1783-1815, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

Over the past three decades scholars have examined the history of the Great Lakes region in the period covered by Timothy D. Willig in Restoring the Chain of friendship. Some of the most notable products of those efforts, including Colin Calloway's Crown and Calumet (1987), Richard White's The Middle Ground (1991), and Alan Taylor's The Divided Ground (2006), have laid an important foundation for our understanding of native peoples in this region and their negotiations with British and American policies and officials in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Willig acknowledges the contributions of these and ...


Enduring Nations: Native Americans In The Midwest, John Bowes Dec 2008

Enduring Nations: Native Americans In The Midwest, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

Enduring Nations is a collection that encompasses the work of twelve different scholars to highlight the ways in which the Native peoples of the states that once com- prised the Old Northwest Territory played critical roles in the history of the region, adapted to their changing world through successive waves of European and American colonialism, and persisted to the present-day. As David Edmunds notes in his introduction, just over 17 percent of all Native Americans currently reside within the states of the Great Lakes region. The contributors to this volume use a number of different historical events, individuals, and perspectives ...


The Black Hawk War Of 1832, John Bowes Dec 2007

The Black Hawk War Of 1832, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

Because it is most often viewed as the last display of violent resistance to American expansion in the Old Northwest, the conflict dubbed the Black Hawk War has received attention from numerous individuals over the past 170 years. Even Black Hawk felt it necessary to explain the war’s causes and events in writing. Patrick J. Jung’s book is the most recent addition to the historiography that examines the Sauk Indian Black Hawk and the conflict of 1832 that has long borne his name. It also follows close on the heels of Kerry Trask’s Black Hawk: The Battle ...


The Gnadenhutten Effect: Moravian Converts And The Search For Safety In The Canadian Borderlands, John Bowes Dec 2007

The Gnadenhutten Effect: Moravian Converts And The Search For Safety In The Canadian Borderlands, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

In 1782, 96 Moravian Indian converts, mostly Munsee Delawares, were systematically massacred at the Gnadenhutten settlement on the Muskingum River in Ohio. After the massacre, they struggled to find a new home in the Great Lakes region. Often finding themselves living in a war zone, the Moravians and the Indians were subject to raids, rumors, and misunderstandings, and in 1792 they made the decision to cross into Canada, where they established a successful settlement on the Thames River in Ontario. Ironically, during the War of 1812, the Battle of the Thames destroyed their settlement, but in 1815 they returned to ...


Native People Of North America: A History, John Bowes Dec 2006

Native People Of North America: A History, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

For those who teach survey courses, a textbook often serves as a foundation for classroom discussions and lectures. The book provides the basic material and overview so that classroom presentations have the opportunity to be more wide-ranging or specific depending on the teacher’s preference. A well constructed textbook is an extremely valuable tool. At present, instructors of American history have a plethora of options from which to choose. This is not the case with those of us who teach Native American history or Native studies. Consequently, it is always heartening to see someone attempt to create an overview of ...


Exiles And Pioneers: Eastern Indians In The Trans-Mississippi West, John Bowes Dec 2006

Exiles And Pioneers: Eastern Indians In The Trans-Mississippi West, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

Exiles and Pioneers focuses on the experiences of Shawnee, Delaware, Wyandot, and Potawatomi Indians from the late 1700s to the 1860s. The book uses this multi-tribal perspective to argue that these Indian communities both benefited and suffered from the ineffective policies of the federal government during this period of relentless western expansion.


Demanding The Cherokee Nation: Indian Autonomy And American Culture, 1830-1900, John Bowes Dec 2006

Demanding The Cherokee Nation: Indian Autonomy And American Culture, 1830-1900, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

In Demanding the Cherokee Nation, Andrew Denson takes on two very important tasks. First, he addresses the history of the Cherokee Nation in the years after their forced removal west of the Mississippi River. Second, he examines in great detail the ways the Cherokee leadership defined, protected, and promoted the political autonomy of the Cherokee Nation in relation to the U.S. government in the mid- to late nineteenth century. Other historians, most notably William McLoughlin, have written about the postremoval experience of the Cherokee and have illustrated the necessity of discussing the years after the Trail of Tears. But ...


The Boundaries Between Us: Natives And Newcomers Along The Frontiers Of The Old Northwest Territory, 1750-1850, John Bowes Dec 2006

The Boundaries Between Us: Natives And Newcomers Along The Frontiers Of The Old Northwest Territory, 1750-1850, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

Of the eleven essays included in The Boundaries between Us, only the final two fail to reference Richard White’s The Middle Ground in their endnotes. This does not come as a surprise, because this collection revolves around the Old Northwest Territory and because White’s interpretive framework has loomed so large over American Indian historiography in the fifteen years since its publication. Yet the strength and popularity of the middle ground as a concept might be viewed as both a blessing and a curse.


Black Hawk And The War Of 1832: Removal In The North, John Bowes Dec 2006

Black Hawk And The War Of 1832: Removal In The North, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

In 1804, a delegation of five Sauk leaders signed a treaty with the U.S. government ceding all of the tribe's lands east of the Mississippi River. Although the treaty was not immediately enforced by the United States, the situation would change in 1822. That summer, an influx of white miners arrived in northwestern Illinois and the southwestern part of Michigan Territory to extract lead from the profitable mines of the region. The trickle of settlers soon turned into a flood: By 1829, thousands of white settlers had moved into the region and settled on Sauk lands. The following ...


The Struggle For Self-Determination: History Of The Menominee Indians Since 1854, John Bowes Mar 2006

The Struggle For Self-Determination: History Of The Menominee Indians Since 1854, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

In The Struggle for Self-Determination, Beck presents the second part of a two-book history of the Menominee Indians. His first study, Siege and Survival: History of the Menominee Indians, 1634-1856, was published in 2002 and recounts the manner in which the Menominees of Wisconsin negotiated the intrusions of French, British, and American colonizers and managed to retain both a diminished reservation and their cultural autonomy. Siege and Survival places Menominees in the forefront of the historical narrative, and Beck ably reveals that while the pressures of outsiders gradually undermined the power of the nation and its leaders in the first ...


The Great Confusion In Indian Affairs: Native Americans & Whites In The Progressive Era, John Bowes Dec 2005

The Great Confusion In Indian Affairs: Native Americans & Whites In The Progressive Era, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

According to Holm, the absence of a theortical framework caused the confusion in Federal Indian policy during the Progressive Era, a period stretching roughly from the 1890s to the 1920s. As the nineteenth century drew to a close, hardened supporters of assimilation like Richard Henry Pratt struggled to operate in an American society that began to view as worthy certain elements of American Indian culture like art and environmental preservation.


Indians And Emigrants: Encounters On The Overland Trails, John Bowes Dec 2005

Indians And Emigrants: Encounters On The Overland Trails, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

No abstract provided.


Ties That Bind: The Story Of An Afro-Cherokee Family In Slavery And Freedom, John Bowes Dec 2004

Ties That Bind: The Story Of An Afro-Cherokee Family In Slavery And Freedom, John Bowes

John P. Bowes

In Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom, Miles utilizes the experiences of one family to analyze the intersection of African-American slavery, Cherokee sovereignty and kinship obligations, and gender roles over the course of the nineteenth century.


Land, Labor, And Leadership: The Political Economy Of Hualapai Community Building, 1910-1940, Jeffrey P. Shepherd Dec 2003

Land, Labor, And Leadership: The Political Economy Of Hualapai Community Building, 1910-1940, Jeffrey P. Shepherd

Jeffrey P Shepherd

Increasingly, scholars are exploring the complex interplay between economic change and cultural identity, in which native communities and individuals respond creatively to the challenges post by captialism and wage labor. Utilizing political economy as an interpretive framework, this essay explores the ways Hualapais incorporated changes around them into their worldviews and agendas. In doing so, it moves beyond questions of agency and adapptation, persistence and innovation, to suggest that scholars consider how "incorporation," frequently seen as a unidirectional, not to mention wholly destructive, phenomenon, can in fact me multifaceted and constructive.