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Full-Text Articles in History

Table Annexed To Article: Appraisives In The Early Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

Table Annexed To Article: Appraisives In The Early Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The vocabulary of the federal constitution includes appraisives such as ‘needful’, ‘comfort’ and ‘good.’ These are words employed when the writer is making a value judgment and wants the reader to know that a judgment has been made at the time of the communicative act. In addition, these words can be employed when the writer permits, commands, or prohibits the reader’s conduct in the future. Appraisives used in the Early Constitution are surveyed.


The Pasha's Gift: How The Few Benefit The Many By Arguing About The Perfect World, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

The Pasha's Gift: How The Few Benefit The Many By Arguing About The Perfect World, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

We know that process matters (for the wrong reasons) because participants in the process of organizing future process (such as a convention organizing a congress) will seek to ‘game’ the process. But does why the legislative (second-named) process exist at all? The presumption of rejection asserts that the many are jealous of the few; so how can the few overcome the presumption? The net social benefit conferred by the few is investigated and the Pasha’s search for answers requited.


Stop, Look And Lament: Jeremy Bentham Explains The Texture Of The Bill Of Rights, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

Stop, Look And Lament: Jeremy Bentham Explains The Texture Of The Bill Of Rights, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Words, phrases and sentences devoted to if … then … or provided that or but or as will not cue restraints, which enhance or diminish the force of commands and permissions, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, prohibitions, in the Early Constitution. Bentham and Madison are surveyed to mine an explanation for variance in texture of the Bill of Rights (1789) as opposed to the Philadelphia Constitution (1787) and the two amendments (1795, 1804) which complete the Corrective Constitution.


Classifying Our Constitution: Amendments Thirteen Through Twenty-Seven In Ctu Format With Word Counts, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

Classifying Our Constitution: Amendments Thirteen Through Twenty-Seven In Ctu Format With Word Counts, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Amendments Thirteen through Twenty-Seven are presented in CTU format with word counts to establish word placement. Amendments are grouped by purpose and various versions of the federal constitution are compared and named.


Table Annexed To Article: The Decline Of Virginia’S Voting Strength In Congress, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

Table Annexed To Article: The Decline Of Virginia’S Voting Strength In Congress, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The voting strength of the original thirteen states declined as new states entered the Union and population moved west. OCL tables the changes in Virginia’s congressional delegation. The information backgrounds Sen. Calhoun’s speech (March 4, 1850) against the Compromise of 1850.


Dr. Franklin's Dilemma: Per Capita Meets Per Stirpes At The Federal Convention, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

Dr. Franklin's Dilemma: Per Capita Meets Per Stirpes At The Federal Convention, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

At the federal convention, Benjamin Franklin highlighted the difference between the two voting regimes which divide the logical possibilities between them: per capita and per stirpes. Franklin forced the convention to consider what process was best designed to overcome the presumption of rejection by which assemblies are deemed to have rejected action.


The War Between The Stats: An Introduction To Taney’S Regrets, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

The War Between The Stats: An Introduction To Taney’S Regrets, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The decade of the 1850’s, leading up to Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), saw Americans debate the ‘war between the stats.’ OCL presents the third in its series of articles analyzing the mathematical logic of new state-making. Taney’s focus on the war between the stats explains Dred Scott, OCL suggests, as much as his inveterate racism, and, therefore, grounds any scholarly explanation of the coming war between the states.


Appraisives In The Early Constitution: An Introduction, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

Appraisives In The Early Constitution: An Introduction, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The vocabulary of the federal constitution includes appraisives such as ‘needful’, ‘comfort’ and ‘good.’ These are words employed when the writer is making a value judgment and wants the reader to know that a judgment has been made at the time of the communicative act. In addition, these words can be employed when the writer permits, commands, or prohibits the reader’s conduct in the future. Appraisives used in the Early Constitution are surveyed.


The Decline Of Virginia’S Voting Strength In Congress, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

The Decline Of Virginia’S Voting Strength In Congress, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The voting strength of the original thirteen states declined as new states entered the Union and population moved west. OCL tables the changes in Virginia’s congressional delegation. The information backgrounds Sen. Calhoun’s speech (March 4, 1850) against the Compromise of 1850.


Who Were The Superfounders? And Why Does It Matter?, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

Who Were The Superfounders? And Why Does It Matter?, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Thirty-two of the fifty-five delegates who attended the federal convention went on to attend a ratifying convention; twenty-five are Yes-Founders and one, Gov. Edmund Randolph, won his ‘SuperFounder’ status at the Virginia Ratifying Convention. Never before surveyed as a group, the table annexed names the SuperFounders and details their opposite numbers, the No-Founders.


Table Annexed To Article: The Crittenden Amendment: The Key To American History, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jul 2012

Table Annexed To Article: The Crittenden Amendment: The Key To American History, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

“Whereas, serious and alarming dissensions have arisen between the Northern and Southern States,” the Crittenden amendment (1860-1861) proposed “constitutional provisions, which shall do equal justice to all sections, and thereby restore to the people that peace and good will which ought to prevail between all the citizens of the United States.” So what was wrong with the 5,224 words of the federal constitution that these 1,348 words were going to fix?


A Chronicle Of The Coles County (Illinois) Region, Mark Voss-Hubbard, Newton E. Key Jul 2012

A Chronicle Of The Coles County (Illinois) Region, Mark Voss-Hubbard, Newton E. Key

Newton Key

This chronology of Coles County, IL., was compiled by Mark Voss-Hubbard and Newton E. Key.


An Analytical Study Of 'Sanskrit' And 'Panini' As Foundation Of Speech Communication In India And World, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Jul 2012

An Analytical Study Of 'Sanskrit' And 'Panini' As Foundation Of Speech Communication In India And World, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

samskrtam or for short sanskrit or samskrtā vāk is an ancient sacred language of bharatavarsha that is the language of Hinduism and the Vedas and is the classical literary language of India. The name Sanskrit means "refined", "consecrated" and "sanctified". It has always been regarded as the 'high' language and used mainly for religious and scientific discourse. There are still hundreds of millions of people who use Sanskrit in their daily lives, but despite these numbers, its cultural worth is unsurpassed. The language name samskrtam is derived from the past participle saṃskṛtaḥ 'self-made, self-done' of the verb saṃ(s)kar- ...


[Review Of The Book William Johnson’S Natchez: The Ante-Bellum Diary Of A Free Negro], Nick Salvatore Jul 2012

[Review Of The Book William Johnson’S Natchez: The Ante-Bellum Diary Of A Free Negro], Nick Salvatore

Nick Salvatore

[Excerpt] To raise this issue of Johnson's silences and social isolation is not to engage in historical pity. He made choices from the options available to him and suffered the consequences as they developed. But his history underscores the fact that slavery generated a corresponding social system that was unforgiving to the individual caught in its contradictory currents. As Michael P. Johnson and James L. Roark suggest in Black Masters, their sensitive study of another slave owner and ex-slave, William Ellison of South Carolina, a purely personal solution to such volatile social relations proved impossible. What bound William Johnson ...


[Review Of The Book For Democracy, Workers, And God: Labor Song-Poems And Labor Protest, 1865-95], Nick Salvatore Jul 2012

[Review Of The Book For Democracy, Workers, And God: Labor Song-Poems And Labor Protest, 1865-95], Nick Salvatore

Nick Salvatore

[Excerpt] In this slim book, Clark D. Halker raises a series of complex and interrelated issues. Focusing on some 4,000 song-poems that appeared in the labour press in the late 19th century, Halker states that his purpose is to "expand knowledge of the musical and poetic history of the American working class;" to use these song-poems and their poets as "a lens into the larger world of Gilded-Age workers and labor protest;" and more specifically to examine the contours of a "movement culture" that, he acknowledges (14), was never coterminous with the whole of the working-class cultural experience. The ...


[Review Of The Book Perspectives On American Labor History: The Problems Of Synthesis], Nick Salvatore Jul 2012

[Review Of The Book Perspectives On American Labor History: The Problems Of Synthesis], Nick Salvatore

Nick Salvatore

[Excerpt] Over the past two decades many claims have been made for what was once called the "new" labor history. Deeply influenced by European scholarship (especially by the British historian, E. P. Thompson) and by writings in cultural anthropology and sociology, this new history seemed to sweep all before it. In a tumble of discrete community studies and precise examinations of individual strikes lay the foundation of the new history's critique of the work of John K Commons and his associates, who had stressed an institutional analysis of labor's growth and development within a liberal, democratic capitalist society ...


Table Annexed To Article: Text Of Early State Bills Of Rights, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jun 2012

Table Annexed To Article: Text Of Early State Bills Of Rights, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The thirteen newly-organized colonies (states) began to adopt Bills of Rights. These are presented in Constitutional Text Unit format and analyzed.


Table Annexed To Article: Dual Office Holding / Status Acquisition In The Federal Constitution: The Logic Of Aspirations Introduced, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jun 2012

Table Annexed To Article: Dual Office Holding / Status Acquisition In The Federal Constitution: The Logic Of Aspirations Introduced, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The federal constitution addresses a number of situations in which an aspirant to office or status must abide by requirements/prohibitions regarding dual office holding and status acquisition. The pertinent provisions are reviewed and logical aspects of this issue are introduced.


Recovered Textures In The Early Constitution: Schemes Vs. Dreams, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jun 2012

Recovered Textures In The Early Constitution: Schemes Vs. Dreams, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Are the Philadelphia Constitution and the Bill of Rights works of art? If so, how would critics describe these works in program notes? Contrast is the order of the day: the features of each one, played against the other. Goethe, Cervantes, Beethoven , Wagner and the divine Wolfgang are invoked, along with Pope, Richardson, and the Immortal Bard.


Crafting The Northwest Ordinance Of 1787: Tracking Delegates Blount, Few, Pierce And Butler, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jun 2012

Crafting The Northwest Ordinance Of 1787: Tracking Delegates Blount, Few, Pierce And Butler, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Tracking Paths of Four Men Who were Delegates and Attendees at both the 1787 Federal Convention and the 1787 Session of the Continental / Confederation Congress, when combined with internal quorum requirements of the Congress, yields significant information about the adoption of the Northwest Ordinance. First in a series.


Table Annexed To Article: What The Polar Bears Taught The Cops, Peter J. Aschenbrenner Jun 2012

Table Annexed To Article: What The Polar Bears Taught The Cops, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Charting of Shouldstatements is explored: while parliamentary procedure guides delegates at a constitutional assembly, who, in ordered discourse will tease out goodness, right and duty statements, the delegates could, on the voicing of any proposal, generate twelve statements by resort to a routine which deploys grammatically correct sentences.


[Review Of The Book The Trials Of Anthony Burns: Freedom And Slavery In Emerson's Boston], Nick Salvatore Jun 2012

[Review Of The Book The Trials Of Anthony Burns: Freedom And Slavery In Emerson's Boston], Nick Salvatore

Nick Salvatore

[Excerpt] The intellectual core of The Trials of Anthony Burns explores the connection between Ralph Waldo Emerson and the New England Transcendentalists and the abolitionist cause. Ideas effect social life, von Frank insists, and he examines that point in a rich analysis that weaves intellectual, religious, political, and cultural perspectives into a sophisticated and detailed narrative. Emersonians came to embrace abolitionist activity as a central component of their philosophical idealism, particularly during the i850s. In an interesting way, the Burns case called upon many of New England's social and cultural elites to rethink their understanding of the relationship between ...


The Long Exception: Rethinking The Place Of The New Deal In American History, Jefferson Cowie, Nick Salvatore Jun 2012

The Long Exception: Rethinking The Place Of The New Deal In American History, Jefferson Cowie, Nick Salvatore

Nick Salvatore

"The Long Exception" examines the period from Franklin Roosevelt to the end of the twentieth century and argues that the New Deal was more of an historical aberration—a byproduct of the massive crisis of the Great Depression—than the linear triumph of the welfare state. The depth of the Depression undoubtedly forced the realignment of American politics and class relations for decades, but, it is argued, there is more continuity in American politics between the periods before the New Deal order and those after its decline than there is between the postwar era and the rest of American history ...


America Reborn? Conservatives, Liberals, And American Political Culture Since 1945, Nick Salvatore Jun 2012

America Reborn? Conservatives, Liberals, And American Political Culture Since 1945, Nick Salvatore

Nick Salvatore

[Excerpt] From the perspective of the early twenty‑first century, we can chide the good professor for not carefully considering the consequences of what he wished for half a century ago. For it is clear that the force of this conservative movement in America was in fact “stronger than most of us [knew]” or could have imagined in 1950, or, indeed, in 1968. This conservative “impulse”, those “irritable mental gestures”, has largely restructured American political thinking with a force and popular approval that remains stunning to consider. The growth of the conservative movement since 1945 was also accompanied by the ...


Faith, Politics, And American Culture [Review Of The Books Letter To A Christian Nation, Pity And Politics: The Right-Wing Assault On Religious Freedom, Faith And Politics: How The “Moral Values” Debate Divides America And How To Move Forward Together, The Compassionate Community: Ten Values To Unite America, Righteous: Dispatches From The Evangelical Youth Movement, And Believers: A Journey Into Evangelical America], Nick Salvatore Jun 2012

Faith, Politics, And American Culture [Review Of The Books Letter To A Christian Nation, Pity And Politics: The Right-Wing Assault On Religious Freedom, Faith And Politics: How The “Moral Values” Debate Divides America And How To Move Forward Together, The Compassionate Community: Ten Values To Unite America, Righteous: Dispatches From The Evangelical Youth Movement, And Believers: A Journey Into Evangelical America], Nick Salvatore

Nick Salvatore

[Excerpt] In January 2004, before a black church congregation in New Orleans, President George W. Bush commemorated Martin Luther King's birthday with a spirited promotion of his faith-based initiatives. Appropriating the slain Civil Rights leader's profession of faith, Bush proclaimed his ultimate purpose was to change "America one heart, one soul, one conscience at a time." He emphasized voluntary action by citizens (four times he extolled them as "the social entrepreneurs") and he consistency denigrated the role of government but for one critical function: providing "billions of dollars" to faith-based social-service groups. Proclaiming the values of the Christian ...


Radio In India:The Fm Revolution And Its Impact On Indian Listeners, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Jun 2012

Radio In India:The Fm Revolution And Its Impact On Indian Listeners, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

If you ask most people who invented Radio, the name Marconi comes to mind. Usually KDKA Pittsburgh is the response when you ask about the first Radio station. But are these really Radio's firsts? In the interest of curiosity and good journalism, we set out to determine if these were in fact Radio's firsts. Broadcasting began in India with the formation of a private radio service in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1924. In the very same year, British colonial government approved a license to a private company, the Indian Broadcasting Company, to inaugurate Radio stations in Bombay and ...


Hamilton And Madison Deploy ‘Constitution’ In The Federalist Papers: Semantic Values Surveyed, Peter J. Aschenbrenner May 2012

Hamilton And Madison Deploy ‘Constitution’ In The Federalist Papers: Semantic Values Surveyed, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The eighty-five Federal Papers (authors James Madison and Alexander Hamilton; John Jay contributed five) are justifiably famous as elaborations of constitutional structure and text, sans citation to the convention, understandably, since secrecy imposed by Standing Order on May 28th was continued indefinitely (at the pleasure/non-action of Congress) on September 17th. Counts on semantic value/s of ‘constitution’ and ‘constitutional’ are surveyed.


Officials Subject To Prohibitions In The Corrective Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner May 2012

Officials Subject To Prohibitions In The Corrective Constitution, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The Philadelphia Constitution created expressly or contemplated, by implication, 107 officials to employ the 91 CTUs (in 4,320) words by organizing and operating a new national government for the United States. Did the commitment to officialdom oblige the ratifying conventions to list some (but not all) prohibitions on official conduct? Or is the list of prohibitions nothing more or less than an alternate census of officialdom?


Table Annexed To Article: Franklin’S Dilemma: Per Capita Meets Per Stirpes At The Federal Convention, Peter J. Aschenbrenner May 2012

Table Annexed To Article: Franklin’S Dilemma: Per Capita Meets Per Stirpes At The Federal Convention, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

At the federal convention, Benjamin Franklin highlighted the difference between the two voting regimes which divide the logical possibilities between them: per capita and per stirpes. Franklin forced the convention to consider what process was best designed to overcome the presumption of rejection by which assemblies are deemed to have rejected action.


The Joy Of Text And Numbers, Peter J. Aschenbrenner May 2012

The Joy Of Text And Numbers, Peter J. Aschenbrenner

Peter J. Aschenbrenner

The text writers of the Philadelphia Constitution divided their product into seven Articles, subdividing five of these Articles into Sections. This presentation was challenged by James Madison in his proposal for a Bill of Rights. What is the deeper understanding of assigning numbers (of one dimension) to text (of two dimensions)?