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Full-Text Articles in History

The Role Of Music In Assimilation Of Students At The Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Abigail C. Winston May 2019

The Role Of Music In Assimilation Of Students At The Carlisle Indian Industrial School, Abigail C. Winston

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Despite the vast research on the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, music is often overshadowed by the recognition of the school’s athletic program in the discussion of the place of extracurricular activities in Native American assimilation. This paper discusses the role of music in the assimilation of students at the Carlisle Indian School, drawing from the fields of both history and ethnomusicology to demonstrate that music had a much more profound effect on assimilation than athletics. Through a discussion on the differences between Native American and Western art music, and the disparity between their functions in society, it is clear ...


Best Of Intentions?: Rinderpest, Containment Practices, And Rebellion In Rhodesia In 1896, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson May 2019

Best Of Intentions?: Rinderpest, Containment Practices, And Rebellion In Rhodesia In 1896, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Rinderpest was a deadly bovine virus that plagued cattle herds accross Europe and Asia for centuries. In the late 1880s to early 1890s, the virus found its way to Africa, where it wiped out thousands of non-immune cattle herds belonging to African pastoralists and agriculturalists. By February 1896, the virus had crossed the Rhodesian border along the Zambezi River and began killing off cattle owned by ethnic groups that included the Matabele and the Shona, as well as cattle owned by white settlers. In an effort to contain the virus, the British South African Company consulted with colonial officials in ...


Victoria: The Girl Who Would Become Queen, Lindsay R. Richwine May 2019

Victoria: The Girl Who Would Become Queen, Lindsay R. Richwine

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

This research reviews the early life of Queen Victoria and through analysis of her sequestered childhood and lack of parental figures explains her reliance later in life on mentors and advisors. Additionally, the research reviews previous biographical portrayals of the Queen and refutes the claim that she was merely a receptacle for the ideas of the men around her while still acknowledging and explaining her dependence on these advisors.


Destroying The Right Arm Of Rebellion: Lincoln’S Emancipation Proclamation, Benjamin Pontz May 2019

Destroying The Right Arm Of Rebellion: Lincoln’S Emancipation Proclamation, Benjamin Pontz

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation was a gamble. If it were to succeed, it could cripple the economy of the South, decimating its war effort, drive the border states to accept compensated emancipation, ending slavery as an institution in the United States, and accelerate the end of the war, ensuring the endurance of the United States of America. If it were to fail, it could spur the border states to secede, galvanizing the South, render Abraham Lincoln a political pariah with two years remaining in his term, deflating the North, and encourage European states to broker a two-state solution in North ...


A Race To The Stars And Beyond: How The Soviet Union’S Success In The Space Race Helped Serve As A Projection Of Communist Power, Jack H. Lashendock May 2019

A Race To The Stars And Beyond: How The Soviet Union’S Success In The Space Race Helped Serve As A Projection Of Communist Power, Jack H. Lashendock

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

In the modern era, the notion of space travel is generally one of greater acceptance and ease than in times previously. Moreover, a greater number of nations (and now even private entities) have the technological capabilities to launch manned and unmanned missions into Earth’s Orbit and beyond. 70 years ago, this ability did not exist and humanity was simply an imprisoned species on this planet. The course of humanity’s then-present and the collective future was forever altered when, in 1957, the Soviet Union successfully launched the world’s first satellite into space, setting off a decades-long completion with ...


Letter From The Editors, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson, Abigal K. Major May 2019

Letter From The Editors, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson, Abigal K. Major

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

The Gettysburg Historical Journal embodies the History Department’s dedication to diverse learning and excellence in academics. Each year, the journal publishes the top student work in a range of topics across the spectrum of academic disciplines with different mythological approaches to the study of history. In the word of Marc Bloch, author of The Historian’s Craft, “history is neither watchmaking nor cabinet construction. It is an endeavor toward better understanding.” In the spirit of this maxim, our authors strive to elucidate the many facets of human societies and cultures. Whether this research is focused on politics, religion, economics ...


Featured Piece, Katheryn E. Whitcomb May 2019

Featured Piece, Katheryn E. Whitcomb

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

This year’s feature piece was written by Professor Kathryn Whitcomb who is new to Gettysburg College’s Department of Classics. In addition to Classics courses, she has taught courses that have been cross-listed with the History Department and thus adds to the diversity that make the historical field so great and broadens the horizons of historical scholarship to her students.


Front Matter May 2019

Front Matter

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Front Matter of the Gettysburg Historical Journal 2019


Gettysburg Historical Journal 2019 May 2019

Gettysburg Historical Journal 2019

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Complete issue of The Gettysburg Historical Journal 2019.


Ghosts Of The Revolution: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, And The Legacy Of The Founding Generation, Amelia F. Wald May 2019

Ghosts Of The Revolution: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, And The Legacy Of The Founding Generation, Amelia F. Wald

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

For the wartime generation, the Civil War in many ways represented a recapitulation of the American Revolution. Both the Union and Confederate civilian populations viewed themselves as the true successors of the Founding Generation. Throughout the Antebellum years and the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis frequently invoked the Founders and their legacy. The two future executives did so in order to both justify their own political ideologies as well as inspire their respective civilian populations. Their sense of ownership over the legacy of the Founders reflected one of the uniquely American conflicts of the Civil War Era.


“Mulatto, Indian, Or What”: The Racialization Of Chinese Soldiers And The American Civil War, Angela He May 2019

“Mulatto, Indian, Or What”: The Racialization Of Chinese Soldiers And The American Civil War, Angela He

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

About fifty Chinese men are known to have fought in the American Civil War. “'Mulatto, Indian, or What': The Racialization of Chinese Soldiers and the American Civil War" seeks to study how Chinese in the eastern portion of the United States were viewed and racialized by mainstream American society, before the Chinese Exclusion Act and rise of the "Yellow Peril" myth. Between 1860 and 1870, "Chinese" was added as a racial category on the U.S. federal census, but prior to 1870 such men could be fitted into the existing categories of "black," "white," or "mulatto." The author aims to ...


A Cause Lost, A Story Being Written: Explaining Black And White Commemorative Difference In The Postbellum South, Bailey M. Covington May 2019

A Cause Lost, A Story Being Written: Explaining Black And White Commemorative Difference In The Postbellum South, Bailey M. Covington

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This paper addresses the disparate commemorative modes and purposes employed by black and white Southerners following the Civil War, in their competing efforts to control the cultural narrative of the war’s legacy. I attempt to explain commemorative difference in the post-war era by evaluating the historical and rhetorical implications of the white Confederate monument, in contrast with the black freedom celebration. The goal of this research is to understand why monuments to the Confederacy proliferate in the South, while similar commemorative markers of the prominent role of slavery in the Civil War are all but nonexistent. I conclude that ...


The Utility Of The Wounded: Circular No. 2, Camp Letterman, And Acceptance Of Medical Dissection, Jonathan Tracey May 2019

The Utility Of The Wounded: Circular No. 2, Camp Letterman, And Acceptance Of Medical Dissection, Jonathan Tracey

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

Prior to the American Civil War, doctors in the United States had difficulty obtaining cadavers for research and instruction purposes. Based on religious and moral objections, the American public staunchly opposed autopsies and dissections. With the coming of the Civil War, doctors needed the knowledge that could be obtained through examining cadavers. Over the course of the war, society came to accept these medical procedures as a necessity that could hopefully save more lives in the future. The publication of Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion as well as the establishment of the Army Medical Museum ...


Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2019 May 2019

Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2019

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editors Jan 2019

Letter From The Editors

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2019

Front Matter

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Cohen, Joanna. Luxurious Citizens: The Politics Of Consumption In Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2017., Jacob Bruggerman Jan 2019

Cohen, Joanna. Luxurious Citizens: The Politics Of Consumption In Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2017., Jacob Bruggerman

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

To what extent should consumption reflect local and national interests? Joanna Cohen has written an excellent book at the intersection of intellectual, economic, and cultural history about how this question was asked and understood in the period extending from the American War for Independence to the post-bellum era. She demonstrates how citizens in the early republic struggled to understand the consumer’s place in the constellation of America’s national interest, asking questions such as, “’Who [should have] access to foreign goods?’ and “Who should shop and how[?]” (52). Although the Constitution roughly framed the relationship between the American government ...


A Dagger Through The Heartland: The Louisville & Nashville Railroad In The Civil War, Gared N. Dalton May 2018

A Dagger Through The Heartland: The Louisville & Nashville Railroad In The Civil War, Gared N. Dalton

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

The Civil War was a defining moment in American history. What began as a sectional debate over states’ rights transformed itself into a bloody odyssey that would alter the national character itself. Within the wide scope of this conflict, scholars have sought to answer the multifaceted question of how the Union triumphed, often citing the proficient management of the railways as a key contribution to victory. Within this logistical network of rails, the Louisville & Nashville Railroad served as a vital mode of transportation for supplies and troop mobility through the heartland states of Kentucky and Tennessee. The Union exploited this ...


Rewriting History: A Study Of How The History Of The Civil War Has Changed In Textbooks From 1876 To 2014, Skyler A. Campbell May 2018

Rewriting History: A Study Of How The History Of The Civil War Has Changed In Textbooks From 1876 To 2014, Skyler A. Campbell

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

History textbooks provide an interesting perspective into the views and attitudes of their respective time period. The way textbooks portray certain events and groups of people has a profound impact on the way children learn to view those groups and events. That impact then has the potential to trickle down to future generations, fabricating a historical narrative that sometimes avoids telling the whole truth, or uses selective wording to sway opinions on certain topics. This paper analyzes the changes seen in how the Civil War is written about in twelve textbooks dated from 1876 to 2014. Notable topics of discussion ...


Condemning Colonization: Abraham Lincoln’S Rejected Proposal For A Central American Colony, Matthew Harris May 2018

Condemning Colonization: Abraham Lincoln’S Rejected Proposal For A Central American Colony, Matthew Harris

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This article focuses on a proposal by Abraham Lincoln to settle freed African Americans in Central American countries. The backlash from several countries reveals that other countries besides the warring United States were also struggling with reconciling racial issues. This also reveals how interwoven racial issues were with political crises during the Civil War because it not only effected domestic policies but also international relations.


After Andersonville: Survivors, Memory And The Bloody Shirt, Kevin S. Nicholson May 2018

After Andersonville: Survivors, Memory And The Bloody Shirt, Kevin S. Nicholson

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This article details the experiences of survivors of the Andersonville prison camp after the Civil War. Feeling marginalized by the public after returning to the North, prisoners of war worked to demonstrate that their experiences were exceptional enough to merit the same kind of respect and adoration given to other war veterans. In particular survivors utilized the strategy of "waving the bloody shirt," describing purported Confederate atrocities at the camp to a Northern audience looking for figures to blame for the horrors of war. Through prison narratives, veteran organizations, the erection of memorials, and reunions years later, Andersonville survivors worked ...


A Divided Generation: How Anti-Vietnam War Student Activists Overcame Internal And External Divisions To End The War In Vietnam, Jeffrey L. Lauck May 2018

A Divided Generation: How Anti-Vietnam War Student Activists Overcame Internal And External Divisions To End The War In Vietnam, Jeffrey L. Lauck

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Far too often, student protest movements and organizations of the 1960s and 1970s are treated as monolithic in their ideologies, goals, and membership. This paper dives into the many divides within groups like Students for a Democratic Society and Young Americans for Freedom during their heyday in the Vietnam War Era. Based on original primary source research on the “Radical Pamphlets Collection” in Musselman Library Special Collections, Gettysburg College, this study shows how these various student activist groups both overcame these differences and were torn apart by them. The paper concludes with a discussion about what made the Vietnam War ...


European Jazz: A Comparative Investigation Into The Reception And Impact Of Jazz In Interwar Paris And The Weimar Republic, Douglas A. Kowalewski May 2018

European Jazz: A Comparative Investigation Into The Reception And Impact Of Jazz In Interwar Paris And The Weimar Republic, Douglas A. Kowalewski

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Both Paris and the Weimar Republic were fascinated with American jazz in the interwar period. Because of jazz's connection to African American culture, this fascination is linked with the themes of identity and race relations. This work will demonstrate that interwar Parisians were not always receptive of African Americans that played jazz, and that the citizens of the Weimar Republic were more aware of and interested in the African American culture that permeated jazz in the 1920s and 30s.


Saving Grace On Feathered Wings: Homing Pigeons In The First World War, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson May 2018

Saving Grace On Feathered Wings: Homing Pigeons In The First World War, Brandon R. Katzung Hokanson

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Soldiers of the First World War came in all shapes and sizes. The humble homing pigeon is one of the more unique and critical examples of such. They served in the armed forces of both the Allies and the Central Powers. Used as a last-ditch form of communication, the homing pigeons were exceptional in the work of sending messages back and forth between the battle lines. Little has been written about their vital role and even less in the rigorous training the birds and their handlers both endured. Understanding their training is critical to understanding how the homing pigeons performed ...


Through The Eyes Of Children: Social Oppression Under Nazi Rule From 1933 To 1938 Reflections Of Three Holocaust Survivors, Lauren Ashley Bradford May 2018

Through The Eyes Of Children: Social Oppression Under Nazi Rule From 1933 To 1938 Reflections Of Three Holocaust Survivors, Lauren Ashley Bradford

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

This paper discusses the experiences of three Berlin native child survivors of the Holocaust through analysis of their oral testimonies. Their unique voices help shed light on the various ways in which lives were forever changed for those who were legally identified as Jewish in Nazi Germany by way of social oppression. This paper highlights three key years that each survivor discussed at length in their testimonies: Hitler’s Chancellorship in 1933, the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, and Kristallnacht in 1938. Ultimately, this paper argues for the importance of these years and labels them as being a crucial part in ...


The Castle Of Intelligence: Camp Ritchie Maryland And The Military Intelligence Training Center During The Second World War., Kevin M. Aughinbaugh May 2018

The Castle Of Intelligence: Camp Ritchie Maryland And The Military Intelligence Training Center During The Second World War., Kevin M. Aughinbaugh

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Abstract: During the Second World War, Camp Ritchie, Maryland played an important role in the training of intelligence soldiers. This camp was one of the many that taught men the various ways to gather intelligence on a battlefield. From aerial photography to prisoner interrogations, soldiers learned the skills required to gather information, make sense of it, and propose plans based on what they knew about enemy troop positions and movements. These skills would be put to the test once the men graduated their six months of intensive training, and were sent abroad to assist in the war effort. Despite Camp ...


Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2018 Jan 2018

Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2018

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editors Jan 2018

Letter From The Editors

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2018

Front Matter

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Gettysburg Historical Journal 2018 Jan 2018

Gettysburg Historical Journal 2018

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

No abstract provided.