Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 64

Full-Text Articles in History

Ghosts Of The Revolution: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, And The Legacy Of The Founding Generation, Amelia F. Wald May 2019

Ghosts Of The Revolution: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, And The Legacy Of The Founding Generation, Amelia F. Wald

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

For the wartime generation, the Civil War in many ways represented a recapitulation of the American Revolution. Both the Union and Confederate civilian populations viewed themselves as the true successors of the Founding Generation. Throughout the Antebellum years and the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis frequently invoked the Founders and their legacy. The two future executives did so in order to both justify their own political ideologies as well as inspire their respective civilian populations. Their sense of ownership over the legacy of the Founders reflected one of the uniquely American conflicts of the Civil War Era.


“Mulatto, Indian, Or What”: The Racialization Of Chinese Soldiers And The American Civil War, Angela He May 2019

“Mulatto, Indian, Or What”: The Racialization Of Chinese Soldiers And The American Civil War, Angela He

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

About fifty Chinese men are known to have fought in the American Civil War. “'Mulatto, Indian, or What': The Racialization of Chinese Soldiers and the American Civil War" seeks to study how Chinese in the eastern portion of the United States were viewed and racialized by mainstream American society, before the Chinese Exclusion Act and rise of the "Yellow Peril" myth. Between 1860 and 1870, "Chinese" was added as a racial category on the U.S. federal census, but prior to 1870 such men could be fitted into the existing categories of "black," "white," or "mulatto." The author aims to ...


A Cause Lost, A Story Being Written: Explaining Black And White Commemorative Difference In The Postbellum South, Bailey M. Covington May 2019

A Cause Lost, A Story Being Written: Explaining Black And White Commemorative Difference In The Postbellum South, Bailey M. Covington

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This paper addresses the disparate commemorative modes and purposes employed by black and white Southerners following the Civil War, in their competing efforts to control the cultural narrative of the war’s legacy. I attempt to explain commemorative difference in the post-war era by evaluating the historical and rhetorical implications of the white Confederate monument, in contrast with the black freedom celebration. The goal of this research is to understand why monuments to the Confederacy proliferate in the South, while similar commemorative markers of the prominent role of slavery in the Civil War are all but nonexistent. I conclude that ...


The Utility Of The Wounded: Circular No. 2, Camp Letterman, And Acceptance Of Medical Dissection, Jonathan Tracey May 2019

The Utility Of The Wounded: Circular No. 2, Camp Letterman, And Acceptance Of Medical Dissection, Jonathan Tracey

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

Prior to the American Civil War, doctors in the United States had difficulty obtaining cadavers for research and instruction purposes. Based on religious and moral objections, the American public staunchly opposed autopsies and dissections. With the coming of the Civil War, doctors needed the knowledge that could be obtained through examining cadavers. Over the course of the war, society came to accept these medical procedures as a necessity that could hopefully save more lives in the future. The publication of Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion as well as the establishment of the Army Medical Museum ...


Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2019 May 2019

Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2019

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editors Jan 2019

Letter From The Editors

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2019

Front Matter

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Cohen, Joanna. Luxurious Citizens: The Politics Of Consumption In Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2017., Jacob Bruggerman Jan 2019

Cohen, Joanna. Luxurious Citizens: The Politics Of Consumption In Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2017., Jacob Bruggerman

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

To what extent should consumption reflect local and national interests? Joanna Cohen has written an excellent book at the intersection of intellectual, economic, and cultural history about how this question was asked and understood in the period extending from the American War for Independence to the post-bellum era. She demonstrates how citizens in the early republic struggled to understand the consumer’s place in the constellation of America’s national interest, asking questions such as, “’Who [should have] access to foreign goods?’ and “Who should shop and how[?]” (52). Although the Constitution roughly framed the relationship between the American government ...


A Dagger Through The Heartland: The Louisville & Nashville Railroad In The Civil War, Gared N. Dalton May 2018

A Dagger Through The Heartland: The Louisville & Nashville Railroad In The Civil War, Gared N. Dalton

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

The Civil War was a defining moment in American history. What began as a sectional debate over states’ rights transformed itself into a bloody odyssey that would alter the national character itself. Within the wide scope of this conflict, scholars have sought to answer the multifaceted question of how the Union triumphed, often citing the proficient management of the railways as a key contribution to victory. Within this logistical network of rails, the Louisville & Nashville Railroad served as a vital mode of transportation for supplies and troop mobility through the heartland states of Kentucky and Tennessee. The Union exploited this ...


Rewriting History: A Study Of How The History Of The Civil War Has Changed In Textbooks From 1876 To 2014, Skyler A. Campbell May 2018

Rewriting History: A Study Of How The History Of The Civil War Has Changed In Textbooks From 1876 To 2014, Skyler A. Campbell

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

History textbooks provide an interesting perspective into the views and attitudes of their respective time period. The way textbooks portray certain events and groups of people has a profound impact on the way children learn to view those groups and events. That impact then has the potential to trickle down to future generations, fabricating a historical narrative that sometimes avoids telling the whole truth, or uses selective wording to sway opinions on certain topics. This paper analyzes the changes seen in how the Civil War is written about in twelve textbooks dated from 1876 to 2014. Notable topics of discussion ...


Condemning Colonization: Abraham Lincoln’S Rejected Proposal For A Central American Colony, Matthew Harris May 2018

Condemning Colonization: Abraham Lincoln’S Rejected Proposal For A Central American Colony, Matthew Harris

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This article focuses on a proposal by Abraham Lincoln to settle freed African Americans in Central American countries. The backlash from several countries reveals that other countries besides the warring United States were also struggling with reconciling racial issues. This also reveals how interwoven racial issues were with political crises during the Civil War because it not only effected domestic policies but also international relations.


After Andersonville: Survivors, Memory And The Bloody Shirt, Kevin S. Nicholson May 2018

After Andersonville: Survivors, Memory And The Bloody Shirt, Kevin S. Nicholson

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This article details the experiences of survivors of the Andersonville prison camp after the Civil War. Feeling marginalized by the public after returning to the North, prisoners of war worked to demonstrate that their experiences were exceptional enough to merit the same kind of respect and adoration given to other war veterans. In particular survivors utilized the strategy of "waving the bloody shirt," describing purported Confederate atrocities at the camp to a Northern audience looking for figures to blame for the horrors of war. Through prison narratives, veteran organizations, the erection of memorials, and reunions years later, Andersonville survivors worked ...


Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2018 Jan 2018

Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2018

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editors Jan 2018

Letter From The Editors

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2018

Front Matter

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2017 Jan 2017

Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2017

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editors, Anika N. Jensen, Jeffrey L. Lauck Jan 2017

Letter From The Editors, Anika N. Jensen, Jeffrey L. Lauck

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Murder In Manassas: Mental Illness And Psychological Trauma After The Civil War, Savannah G. Rose Jan 2017

Murder In Manassas: Mental Illness And Psychological Trauma After The Civil War, Savannah G. Rose

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

Following the American Civil War, the small railroad junction of Manassas, Virginia grew into one of the most prominent towns in the region with the help of town founder William S. Fewell and his family. In 1872, the youngest daughter of the prominent Fewell family was seduced and abducted by Prince Williams County’s Commonwealth Attorney and most prominent orator, James F. Clark without warning. Having just come home from three years of military service in the Civil War, witnessing the death of his twin brother as well as suffering for a year in Elmira Prison as a prisoner of ...


"With Nothing Left But Reputation": Reconstructing The Virginia Military Institute, Kaylyn L. Sawyer Jan 2017

"With Nothing Left But Reputation": Reconstructing The Virginia Military Institute, Kaylyn L. Sawyer

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

The Virginia Military Institute was founded in 1839 and flourished throughout the mid- nineteenth century. The Institute remained loyal to Virginia during the Civil War, providing the Confederate Army with top ranking generals and deploying the corps of cadets during the Battle of New Market. Exposed as a target for Union troops marching through the valley, the Institute was virtually destroyed in 1864. The defeat of the Confederacy in 1865 left VMI uncertain of its very existence. Advocates for the Virginia Military Institute faced the daunting task of rebuilding the school while a fractured nation struggled to rebuild itself through ...


“Altoona Was His, And Fairly Won”: President Lincoln And The Altoona Governors’ Conference, September 1862, Kees D. Thompson Jan 2017

“Altoona Was His, And Fairly Won”: President Lincoln And The Altoona Governors’ Conference, September 1862, Kees D. Thompson

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This article explores the long-forgotten Altoona Conference of 1862, when nearly a dozen Union governors met at the Civil War's darkest hour to discuss war strategy and, ultimately, reaffirm their support for the Union cause. This article examines and questions the conventional view of the conference as a challenge to President Lincoln's efficacy as the nation's leader. Rather, the article suggests that Lincoln may have actually welcomed the conference and had his own designs for how it might bolster his political objectives.


Front Matter Jan 2017

Front Matter

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


An Anomalous Case Of Southern Sympathy: New Jersey's Civil War Stance, Emily A. Hawk Jan 2017

An Anomalous Case Of Southern Sympathy: New Jersey's Civil War Stance, Emily A. Hawk

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

A popular narrative of the Civil War assumes that all Northern states stood united behind President Abraham Lincoln in their loyalty to the Union. However, the case of New Jersey suggests that this narrative of devotion is simply a myth. The agrarian economy of New Jersey kept the state firmly opposed to universal emancipation, and New Jersey behaved more like a border state than its geographic neighbors of Pennsylvania and New York. By examining New Jersey's response to the release of the Emancipation Proclamation and the Election of 1864, the myth of Northern unity is broken by understanding persistent ...


Cotton, Clemency, And Control: United States V. Klein And The Juridical Legacy Of Executive Pardon, Heather L. Clancy Jan 2016

Cotton, Clemency, And Control: United States V. Klein And The Juridical Legacy Of Executive Pardon, Heather L. Clancy

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

When the guns of war fell silent in 1865, Americans throughout the reunited states grappled with the logistics of peace. At virtually every turn lay nebulous but critical questions of race, class, allegiance, and identity. More pragmatic legal stumbling blocks could also be found strewn across the path to Reconstruction; some of them would ensnare the healing nation for decades to come. Among their number was notorious Supreme Court decision United States v. Klein (1872). Born on July 22, 1865 out of a small debate over the wartime seizure of Vicksburg cotton stores, Klein quickly evolved into a legal behemoth ...


Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2016 Jan 2016

Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2016

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jan 2016

Front Matter

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editors, Kevin P. Lavery, Anika N. Jensen, Jeffrey L. Lauck Jan 2016

Letter From The Editors, Kevin P. Lavery, Anika N. Jensen, Jeffrey L. Lauck

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


"The Honor Of Manhood:" Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain And Notions Of Martial Masculinity, Bryan G. Caswell Jan 2016

"The Honor Of Manhood:" Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain And Notions Of Martial Masculinity, Bryan G. Caswell

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain is perhaps best known as the commander of the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry during the Battle of Gettysburg. While depictions of Chamberlain's martial glory abound, little attention has been paid to the complicated motives of the man himself. This paper seeks to examine the unique ways in which Chamberlain interacted with Victorian conceptions of martial masculinity: his understanding and expression of it, his efforts to channel it, and his use of it as a guiding principle throughout the trials of both the American Civil War and his post-war life.


"For Safety And For Liberty," The Devan Family Of Gettysburg, Andrew I. Dalton Jan 2016

"For Safety And For Liberty," The Devan Family Of Gettysburg, Andrew I. Dalton

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This article explores Gettysburg’s 19th century black history through the exciting experiences of the Devan family. Originally from Frederick County, Maryland, they came to Gettysburg as free people of color. In town, one member of the family was suspected of assisting slave catchers by handing over escaped slaves for a profit. Four members of the family served during the Civil War in the United States Colored Troops, three of whom died in the service. This complex story proves the fact that black history is extremely complex and should not be painted by historians with a single brush stroke.


"Spare Your Country's Flag": Unionist Sentiment In Frederick, Maryland 1860-1865, Megan E. Mcnish Jan 2016

"Spare Your Country's Flag": Unionist Sentiment In Frederick, Maryland 1860-1865, Megan E. Mcnish

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

The historiography of Frederick, Maryland has maintained in the years since the Civil War that the area was firmly pro-Union. However, through the 1860 presidential election, as well as the reactions of residents of Frederick to the Confederate Army through 1862, it becomes apparent that there was a significant, although perhaps not sizeable, group with Confederate sympathies. In 1863, Frederick County began to shift its sympathies. Through the narrative written by one diarist about the Confederate Army’s march through Maryland prior to the Gettysburg Campaign, the army’s residence in Frederick during the Battle of Monocacy, as well as ...


Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2015 Apr 2015

Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2015

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.