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Full-Text Articles in History

Gender Quotas And Women’S Political Participation In Slovenia And Croatia: When Similar Historical Developments And Homogeneity Of Design Yield Different Outcomes, Colin J. J. Yandam Apr 2018

Gender Quotas And Women’S Political Participation In Slovenia And Croatia: When Similar Historical Developments And Homogeneity Of Design Yield Different Outcomes, Colin J. J. Yandam

Student Publications

This paper aims at summarizing the knowledge surrounding gender quotas – which are a quick gate-way to women’s political participation – and at assessing the efficacy of their different means of implementation. Through the cross-national study of Slovenia and Croatia (two countries similar on almost every political, social, and historical development except for women’s political representation) and in tandem with an extensive review of previous works in the literature, this paper sheds some light on the techniques the civil society and feminist/women’s movements could use to maximize their political impact and overall gender-quota effectiveness. Indeed, this paper finds ...


History Of Key Events In Women’S Health Care, Zoё M. Chambliss Oct 2016

History Of Key Events In Women’S Health Care, Zoё M. Chambliss

Student Publications

In 1973, ninety-three percent of all American doctors were men (Ehrenreich and English). Gender based inequity permeates all spheres of women’s health care from employment to access to treatment to biologically-based myths of male superiority, yet women once presided over the health and spirituality of their communities and their own bodies. All of the earliest human societies worshipped the Earth Goddess and respected women as holy givers of life. This tradition persisted until the rise of the patriarchy and Western “Civilization” increasingly forced women out of positions of power and rewrote the religious stories to give supremacy to male ...


How History Shaped Women's Healthcare, Josephine M. Rivera Oct 2016

How History Shaped Women's Healthcare, Josephine M. Rivera

Student Publications

At the beginnings of civilizations around the world, many of these inhabitants worshipped goddesses that connected them to the world and earth. However, invaders from male-dominated civilizations worked diligently to eliminate the faces and ideas of a woman in power. As time progressed, other events like the witch craze continued to minimize the influence of midwives and healers, creating a medical dynamic where only men “knew” the ways of a woman’s body. Thus, the birth of gynecology and American medicine put notions into place that did not allow women to pursue medical careers, further eradicating the possibility for a ...


Niki De Saint Phalle: The Female Figure And Her Ambiguous Place In Art History, Lucy Kay Riley Apr 2016

Niki De Saint Phalle: The Female Figure And Her Ambiguous Place In Art History, Lucy Kay Riley

Student Publications

Niki de Saint Phalle had a fearless approach in her representation of women and her invitation of audience interaction. Born in 1930, she lived through the years of very male dominated areas of art: Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art, and Neo-Dada. Niki de Saint Phalle provided a unique treatment of the female figure through drawing, painting, writing, found object sculpture, large public sculpture, and installation. One of the pieces I will primarily focus on embodies her fascination with audience interaction and the portrayal of the female figure: her controversial and temporary installation of 1966, ‘SHE – a cathedral.' In comparison to other ...


Whose Story? His-Story., Meghan E. O'Donnell Mar 2016

Whose Story? His-Story., Meghan E. O'Donnell

SURGE

The essay instructions finally landed in front of me. I passed the extra sheets on and quickly glanced over the page, hoping that the prompt would be inspiring. There were two open-ended options from which to choose: military and social/political aspects of the war. My eyes first fell upon the social option and I pondered using this opportunity to shed light on the experiences of women during the war. I’d done this before – used assignments to explore history’s untold stories – and found it interesting. Then, in a fit of frustration that erupted out of nowhere, I thought ...


Gendered Geographies In Puerto Rican Culture: Spaces, Sexualities, Solidarities, Radost A. Rangelova Feb 2016

Gendered Geographies In Puerto Rican Culture: Spaces, Sexualities, Solidarities, Radost A. Rangelova

Gettysburg College Faculty Books

This is a critical study of the construction of gendered spaces through feminine labor and capital in Puerto Rican literature and film (1950-2010). It analyzes gendered geographies and forms of emotional labor, and the possibility that they generate within the material and the symbolic spaces of the family house, the factory, the beauty salon and the brothel. It argues that by challenging traditional images of femininity texts by authors and film directors like Rosario Ferré, Carmen Lugo Filippi, Magali García Ramis, Mayra Santos-Febres, Sonia Fritz and Ana María García, among others, contest the official Puerto Rican cultural nationalist discourse on ...


Goddesses Versus Gynecologists: An Analysis Of The History Of Women’S Healthcare, Marion A. Mckenzie Oct 2015

Goddesses Versus Gynecologists: An Analysis Of The History Of Women’S Healthcare, Marion A. Mckenzie

Student Publications

Starting from the downfall of Goddess cultures in Europe, women's health care has been negatively impacted for generations. The rise of the white, male Indo-European "dominator model" along with the witch craze, caused the end of widespread wise women traditions and pharmacopeia methods. After women's traditional voice was silenced, medical colleges were established to pronounce new, "professional" knowledge. Only those who attended these universities were allowed to legally practice medicine; however, during this time, medical research and treatments for women primarily included mutilation and painful, nonsensical regimens. The horrifying state of women's healthcare has since improved, but ...


Muslim Head Coverings, Raven C. Waters Oct 2015

Muslim Head Coverings, Raven C. Waters

Student Publications

I researched female head coverings in the Muslim culture, to see how the veils affected society and society's response to the covering.


The Unfinished Work: Slavery Today, Kevin P. Lavery Apr 2015

The Unfinished Work: Slavery Today, Kevin P. Lavery

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

2.7 million. That’s an estimate for the number of slaves in the world today. The true number is probably higher, even though the United States abolished slavery 150 years ago. Most of today’s slaves go unseen and unaided, victims of an opaque system of exploitation that conspires to keep them oppressed. [excerpt]


Discussion Of Iran Awakening By Shirin Ebadi, Musselman Library Apr 2015

Discussion Of Iran Awakening By Shirin Ebadi, Musselman Library

Iran: Beyond the Headlines

In preparation for our book discussion on Iran Awakening by Shirin Ebadi for our Iran: Beyond the Headlines series, we created some of our own discussion questions about the book. Please feel free to use for your own book discussion!


Muslim Women Political Leaders And Electoral Participation In Muslim-Majority Countries, Abby M. Rolland Apr 2015

Muslim Women Political Leaders And Electoral Participation In Muslim-Majority Countries, Abby M. Rolland

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

This paper focuses on Muslim women political leaders and their agency in the modern world. While some Muslim women have a difficult time participating politically, others actively act in policy and government. Culture, identity, location, and political parties are some of the factors leading to different levels of participation from Muslim women in various countries.


Stoning In Iran: A Sexist And Overlooked Practice, Megan R. Haugh Apr 2015

Stoning In Iran: A Sexist And Overlooked Practice, Megan R. Haugh

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

This paper seeks to dissect and expose the ancient practice of stoning in Iran, and to analyze the injustices that are built into this punishment.


Beyond Rodin: Revisiting The Legacy Of Camille Claudel, Shannon R. Callahan Apr 2015

Beyond Rodin: Revisiting The Legacy Of Camille Claudel, Shannon R. Callahan

Student Publications

French sculptress Camille Claudel has gained recognition in the past 30 years due to a focus on her tragic life rather than her artistic talent. Despite critical acclaim and respect amongst her peers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, her affair with Auguste Rodin and her struggles with mental illness have cast a dark, dramatic shadow over modern interpretations of Claudel’s oeuvre. Considering how difficult it was for a woman to be working as an artist at this time, Claudel’s sculptures should not be outweighed by her personal life. In order to challenge the reader not ...


Peering Into The Jezebel Archetype In African American Culture And Emancipating Her From Hyper-Sexuality: Within And Beyond James Baldwin’S 'Go Tell It On The Mountain' And Alice Walker’S 'The Color Purple', Zakiya A. Brown Apr 2015

Peering Into The Jezebel Archetype In African American Culture And Emancipating Her From Hyper-Sexuality: Within And Beyond James Baldwin’S 'Go Tell It On The Mountain' And Alice Walker’S 'The Color Purple', Zakiya A. Brown

Student Publications

Literary authors and performing artists are redefining the image of the Jezebel archetype from a negative stereotype to an empowering persona. The reformation of the Jezebel’s identity and reputation, from a manipulating stereotype to an uplifting individual may not be a common occurrence, but the Jezebel archetype as a positive figure has earned a dignified position in literature and in reality. Jezebel archetypes wear their sexuality proudly. Her sultriness may be the first aspect of her identity that readers see, but readers must be cautious not to overlook her merit and moral standards as a character that has the ...


The Impact Of Empire On Native American Women And Mothers, Rebecca J.M. Yowan Oct 2014

The Impact Of Empire On Native American Women And Mothers, Rebecca J.M. Yowan

Student Publications

No one doubts that the colonizing forces of the dominant, Euro-American culture have had an extreme and enduring impact on Native American cultures. However, the specific impact that empire has had on Native American women is a salient topic for research. Drawing on examples of environmental degradation, stolen agency, and psychological suffering, this essay illustrates the numerous and distressing effects that the philosophy and practice of empire have had and continue to have on Native American women.


Did One Veil Give Women A Better Life?, Mary C. Westermann Oct 2014

Did One Veil Give Women A Better Life?, Mary C. Westermann

Student Publications

Unfortunately, a young woman in Renaissance Florence did not have many options for her future. A woman's family usually decided whether she would be able to get married or would have to enter the convent, but sometimes she was able to make this choice. In this paper, I look at the lives of wives and nuns to analyze how their lives differed in responsibilities and freedoms, but also to see how all women had similar restrictions and expectations placed upon them.


The Ideal And The Real: Southern Plantation Women Of The Civil War, Kelly H. Crosby Oct 2014

The Ideal And The Real: Southern Plantation Women Of The Civil War, Kelly H. Crosby

Student Publications

Southern plantation women experienced a shift in identity over the course of the Civil War. Through the diaries of Catherine Edmondston and Eliza Fain, historians note the discrepancy between the ideal and real roles women had while the men were off fighting. Unique perspectives and hidden voices in their writings offer valuable insight into the life of plantation women and the hybrid identity they gained despite the Confederate loss.


“In Light Of Real Alternatives”: Negotiations Of Fertility And Motherhood In Morocco And Oman, Victoria E. Mohr Oct 2014

“In Light Of Real Alternatives”: Negotiations Of Fertility And Motherhood In Morocco And Oman, Victoria E. Mohr

Student Publications

Many states in the Arab world have undertaken wide-ranging family planning polices in the last two decades in an effort to curb high fertility rates. Oman and Morocco are two such countries, and their policies have had significantly different results. Morocco experienced a swift drop in fertility rates, whereas Oman’s fertility has declined much more slowly over several decades. Many point to the more conservative religious and cultural context of Oman for their high fertility rates, however economics and the state of biomedical health care often present a more compelling argument for the distinct differences between Omani and Moroccan ...


The Moroccan Women's Rights Movement, Amy Y. Evrard Jun 2014

The Moroccan Women's Rights Movement, Amy Y. Evrard

Gettysburg College Faculty Books

Among various important efforts to address women’s issues in Morocco, a particular set of individuals and associations have formed around two specific goals: reforming the Moroccan Family Code and raising awareness of women’s rights. Evrard chronicles the history of the women’s rights movement, exploring the organizational structure, activities, and motivations with specific attention to questions of legal reform and family law. Employing ethnographic scrutiny, Evrard presents the stories of the individual women behind the movement and the challenges they faced. Given the vast reform of the Moroccan Family Code in 2004, and the emphasis on the role ...


The Globalization Of Maternal Healthcare In Western Africa, Maura T. Magistrali May 2014

The Globalization Of Maternal Healthcare In Western Africa, Maura T. Magistrali

Celebration

Maternal healthcare is one of the most important global issues in today’s world, reflected in its inclusion in the Millennium Development Goals. Globalization, through increased acceleration and movement, has improved maternal healthcare in Western Africa, as observed through the spread of Westernized medicines and treatments and improved technology in prenatal and obstetric care. Another remarkable effect of globalization is the hybridity manifested in both women’s healthcare choices and in the pluralistic training of midwives. However, the same forces of movement and exchange can also bring negative consequences, visible through health-access inequalities, brain drain, and the exploitation West African ...


A Changing Force: The American Civil War, Women, And Victorian Culture, Megan E. Mcnish Apr 2014

A Changing Force: The American Civil War, Women, And Victorian Culture, Megan E. Mcnish

Student Publications

The American Civil War thrust Victorian society into a maelstrom. The war disrupted a culture that was based on polite behavior and repression of desires. The emphasis on fulfilling duties sent hundreds of thousands of men into the ranks of Union and Confederate armies. Without the patriarchs of their families, women took up previously unexplored roles for the majority of their sex. In both the North and the South, females were compelled to do physical labor in the fields, runs shops, and manage slaves, all jobs which previously would have been occupied almost exclusively by men. These shifts in society ...


The Patriarchy’S Role In Gender Inequality In The Caribbean, Erin C. O'Connor Apr 2014

The Patriarchy’S Role In Gender Inequality In The Caribbean, Erin C. O'Connor

Student Publications

While gender equality in the Caribbean is improving, with women’s growing social, economic, and political participation, literacy rates comparable to those in Europe, and greater female participation in higher education, deeply rooted inequalities are still present and are demonstrated in the types of jobs women are in and the limited number of women in decision-making positions. Sexism, racism, and classism are systemic inequalities being perpetuated in schools, through the types of education offered for individuals and the content in textbooks. Ironically, the patriarchy is coexisting within a system of matrifocal and matrilocal families, with a long tradition of female ...


The Reproductive Rights Movement: 1914-Present, Angela A. Badore Apr 2012

The Reproductive Rights Movement: 1914-Present, Angela A. Badore

Student Publications

The Reproductive Rights Movement has, throughout its history, been heavily affected by public perception. Both its proponents and opponents have therefore taken to using language in order to frame the controversial issues in ways that best achieve their respective objectives. This paper explores the terminology used to discuss such issues as birth control, sterilization, and abortion since 1914, when the term ‘birth control’ was first used.


Women's Leadership And Third-Wave Feminism, Kathleen P. Iannello Jan 2010

Women's Leadership And Third-Wave Feminism, Kathleen P. Iannello

Political Science Faculty Publications

Leadership is a term that women strive to claim as their own. Whether in the halls of Congress, the corporate boardroom, or the privacy of the home, women’s leadership challenges traditional notions of the concept. Throughout the ages images of leadership feature men in uniform and men in positions of power, whether it be military, government, or market. The traditional view of leaders is imbued with male images of “heroes,” who issue orders, lead the troops—save the day. But leadership has another face. It is the face of Abigail Adams admonishing her husband to “Remember the Ladies” in ...


“There Was Nothing In Sight But Nature, Nothing...”: Nineteenth-Century Gendered Perceptions Of The Overland Trail, Andrea J. Savadelis Jan 2010

“There Was Nothing In Sight But Nature, Nothing...”: Nineteenth-Century Gendered Perceptions Of The Overland Trail, Andrea J. Savadelis

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

One hundred and seventeen years ago, between 1841 and 1867, the Overland Trail saw approximately 350,000 Oregon and California bound North Americans traverse its landscape. This westward migration painted the American frontier with a white sea of wagon covers, spotted the grassy plains with brown patches of oxen herds, and lighted the night sky with open cooking fires. Men and women Overlanders experienced this life-changing event in different ways, which are crucial to understanding the dynamics and interaction between these people and their frontier context. Gender-specific roles and social standards of masculinity and femininity carried from emigrants’ previous lives ...


Ms-112: Deborah H. Barnes Papers, Katherine Downton Jan 2010

Ms-112: Deborah H. Barnes Papers, Katherine Downton

All Finding Aids

The collection contains papers accumulated by Deborah Barnes while she was a graduate student at Howard University and a professor at Gettysburg College. The bulk of the collection consists of course materials, including syllabi, handouts, course readings, and other resources used for course preparation and research.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and biographical information about each collection in addition to inventories of their content. More information about our collections can be found on our website http://www.gettysburg.edu/special_collections/collections/.


Ms-110: Fannie Hurst Newsletter Collection, Katherine Downton Nov 2009

Ms-110: Fannie Hurst Newsletter Collection, Katherine Downton

All Finding Aids

Much of this collection is comprised of drafts and final copies of the Fannie Hurst Newsletter (published from 1991-1995), material submitted for publication, and some promotional material. The collection also includes a substantial amount of correspondence, comprised mostly of letters and a several e-mails.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and biographical information about each collection in addition to inventories of their content. More information about our collections can be found on our website http://www.gettysburg.edu/special_collections/collections/.


Ms-091: Women’S Student Government Association Papers, David Putnam Hadley Jul 2007

Ms-091: Women’S Student Government Association Papers, David Putnam Hadley

All Finding Aids

This collection consists of the early Constitution of the Women’s Student Government Association, a Record Book containing minutes from the late 1940’s to early 1950’s, and some early correspondence. The remainder contains minutes from 1965 to 1971, with gaps in between, and documents pertaining to the activities and actions of the Women’s Student Government Council.


Ms-085: Mary Dolheimer Collection Of Women’S Commission Papers (1985- 2001), Krystal M. Thomas Mar 2007

Ms-085: Mary Dolheimer Collection Of Women’S Commission Papers (1985- 2001), Krystal M. Thomas

All Finding Aids

The contents of the collection include reports, memos, minutes, agenda, budget reports, grant requests and other various miscellaneous materials from the Women’s Commission’s long tenure on campus. Included are the Climate Study of 1986 and the Reassessment that followed in 1990. Also included are minutes from subcommittees tasked with budget concerns, planning the annual Women’s Dinner or other current concerns of the Commission that year. A History of the Women’s Commission written by the summer intern Meredith Bowne during the summer of 1996 is included and is a good source on how to approach the collection ...


Revealing Zion's Daughters: Women In Puritan Jurisprudence, Brett Jackson Jan 2007

Revealing Zion's Daughters: Women In Puritan Jurisprudence, Brett Jackson

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

The legal status of American women has consistently been portrayed as a linear progression flowing from a colonial jurisprudential repression and exclusion to a modern-day legal equity and a female influence within every aspect of justice. In this narrative of sequentially gained status, seventeenth-century Puritan law has stood as the exemplar of America’s most repressive jurisprudential treatment of women. However, when its characteristics are triangulated and its subordination of women is juxtaposed with its inclusion of a female voice, a new conception of America’s first legal system is seen. The notion of a linear progression is thus replaced ...