Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Gettysburg College

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 1787

Full-Text Articles in History

Economies Of Security: Foucault And The Genealogy Of Neoliberal Reason, Marshall Scheider Jun 2020

Economies Of Security: Foucault And The Genealogy Of Neoliberal Reason, Marshall Scheider

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

Michel Foucault is well-known for his theorizations of institutional power, normativity, and biopolitics. Less well-known is the fact that Foucault developed his analysis of biopolitics in and through his historical investigation of neoliberalism. Today, while critique of neoliberalism has become a commonplace of humanities discourse, and popular resistance to neoliberalization rocks the southern hemisphere, it remains unclear that the historical specificity of neoliberalism is well-understood. In particular, the relation between classical liberalism and neoliberal governance remains murky in popular debate. As Foucault powerfully illustrates, this relation is far from clear-cut, and neoliberalism is not reducible to a simple extension of ...


"I Am Not A Prisoner Of War": Agency, Adaptability, And Fulfillment Of Expectations Among American Prisoners Of War Held In Nazi Germany, Jessica N. Greenman Apr 2020

"I Am Not A Prisoner Of War": Agency, Adaptability, And Fulfillment Of Expectations Among American Prisoners Of War Held In Nazi Germany, Jessica N. Greenman

Student Publications

In war memory, the typical prisoner of war narrative is one of either passive survival or heroic resistance. However, captured service members did not necessarily lose their agency when they lost their freedom. This study of Americans held in Germany during the Second World War shows that prisoners generally grounded themselves in their personal and national identities, while compromising ideas of heroism, sometimes passing up opportunities for resistance in order to survive.


Illusions Of Grandeurs: Washingtonian Architecture As Seen By White And Black People Of The Early Nineteenth Century, Lillian D. Shea Apr 2020

Illusions Of Grandeurs: Washingtonian Architecture As Seen By White And Black People Of The Early Nineteenth Century, Lillian D. Shea

Student Publications

In the early nineteenth century, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson built a classically inspired capital designed to legitimize American republican ideals. White interpretations of the architecture gradually aligned more with the founders’ intentions, especially following its reconstruction after the 1814 conflagration. Enslaved and free black observers recognized their exclusion from the message of freedom and equality. Rather than finding their identity through federal buildings, they established their communities within churches, houses, and businesses owned by black people. The varied reactions to Washington’s and Jefferson’s designs demonstrated how the aesthetic idealization of republicanism revealed incongruities in the new capital.


The 'Spanish Flu': A True Global Pandemic, Erin H. Keener Apr 2020

The 'Spanish Flu': A True Global Pandemic, Erin H. Keener

Student Publications

This paper examines the portrayal of the 'Spanish Flu' in the press as it was emerging on the scene in 1918. Using contemporaneous newspaper articles, it shows the evolution from denial, to blame, and eventually to a call to action that developed as it spread around the country. This piece also provides some insight into the parallels between this pandemic and the current Covid 19 pandemic in regard to how both were handled, and what can be learned from when this devastating occurrence repeats itself.


Bangor Revisited: Bishop Benjamin Hoadly And Enlightenment Ecclesiology, Christopher T. Lough Apr 2020

Bangor Revisited: Bishop Benjamin Hoadly And Enlightenment Ecclesiology, Christopher T. Lough

Student Publications

As a Whig and a latitudinarian, Bishop Benjamin Hoadly of Bangor (1676-1761) was a persistent critic of any and all things Tory. His sermon “The Nature of the Kingdom, or Church, of Christ,” preached before King George I in 1717, touched upon the political and theological controversies that followed in the wake of the Glorious Revolution. It also forwarded a radical ecclesiological schema: effectively arguing that the Church of England lacked real moral authority, he advocated for its subsumption under the state’s own auspices. An analysis of Hoadly’s sermon, as well as his conduct throughout the ensuing Bangorian ...


“Reds Driven Off”: The Us Media’S Propaganda During The Gulf Of Tonkin Incident, Steven M. Landry Apr 2020

“Reds Driven Off”: The Us Media’S Propaganda During The Gulf Of Tonkin Incident, Steven M. Landry

Student Publications

In 2008, the Annenburg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania conducted a poll to determine just how informed voters were following that year’s presidential election. One of the most shocking things they found was that 46.4% of those polled still believed that Saddam Hussein played a role in the terrorist attacks on the US on September 11th, 2001. No evidence had ever emerged linking him to it after 5 years of war in Iraq, but that did not matter, as “voters, once deceived, tend to stay that way despite all evidence.” Botched initial reporting can permanently ...


Night Falls, Fighters Fly: The Development And Evolution Of Navy Night Fighters In World War Ii, Mark A. Urbon Apr 2020

Night Falls, Fighters Fly: The Development And Evolution Of Navy Night Fighters In World War Ii, Mark A. Urbon

Student Publications

It is nearly impossible to overestimate the importance of radar in the Second World War. This piece of Allied technology was one which the Axis were never able to truly overcome. This paper will comprehensively explore how radar was used in the development of U.S. Navy carrier-borne night fighters in World War II. It seeks not just to demonstrate the effectiveness with which night fighters to use, but also the understudied and under-appreciated technological accomplishment that was night fighting. Whereas other works on the subject serve largely as roadmaps or timelines detailing the key moments in night fighter history ...


The National Intelligencer Validating Cowardice: How A Washington D.C. Newspaper Redefined Defeat Into Republican Victory, Wesley C. Cline Apr 2020

The National Intelligencer Validating Cowardice: How A Washington D.C. Newspaper Redefined Defeat Into Republican Victory, Wesley C. Cline

Student Publications

The fall and burning of Washington D.C. without substantial resistance by the American army and militia was initially an obvious disgrace, however the widely read Washington based newspaper, The National Intelligencer, sought to rewrite this story of defeat into a narrative highlighting republican virtue. Utilizing preexisting stereotypes perpetuated in their paper of British soldiers acting immoral, the staff of The National Intelligencer articulated that the men defending Washington had to return to their individual homes on account of the impending barbarism and savagery of the British invaders, therefore vindicating the militiamen of their lack of resistance and praising their ...


The Holodomor: A Tragic Famine Or Genocide Against The Ukrainian Peoples?, Jordan C. Cerone Apr 2020

The Holodomor: A Tragic Famine Or Genocide Against The Ukrainian Peoples?, Jordan C. Cerone

Student Publications

The Ukrainian Starvation of 1932-33, also known as the Holodomor, was a famine that impacted the Soviet Union, especially Ukraine, as a result of Stalinist policies and the First Five-Year Plan. This paper looks to argue that the events leading up to and during the famine were evidence of a genocide committed against the Ukrainian people. When the word was defined during the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in response to what had happened to European Jews during the Holocaust, certain groups that would and have been victims of genocide, along with actions that ...


Winning Hearts And Minds: Tactics Of Insurgency And Counterinsurgency In The Early Roman Empire, Wesley C. Cline Apr 2020

Winning Hearts And Minds: Tactics Of Insurgency And Counterinsurgency In The Early Roman Empire, Wesley C. Cline

Student Publications

The most common strategy for "Romanizing" a province was through developing connections with elites in the indigenous society coupled with (in many cases) the inclusion of regional gods into the Roman pantheon. These ties were cemented as Romans adopted the provincial religious deities and the sons of prominent locals were sent to Rome for the finest education of the day. This system allowed for relative stability in the provinces, particularly when the Roman provincial governor was sensitive to local customs. What about those indigenous people whose goals conflicted with those of Rome? How does one combat a monolithic power with ...


Sport Under The Iron Curtain: Alliance, Defection, And Competition During The Cold War, Samuel A. Sheldon Apr 2020

Sport Under The Iron Curtain: Alliance, Defection, And Competition During The Cold War, Samuel A. Sheldon

Student Publications

The crossroads at which Sports and Politics connect is the Summer Olympics. This is most evident is during the Olympics of the Cold War. Typically, sports history of the Cold War covers the clash between the United States and the Soviet Union. But examined further, Sports Politics in the Cold War was experienced by the other countries of the Eastern Bloc. Hungary’s Golden Team in Helsinki 1952, Bulgaria’s wrestlers in Rome 1960, East Germany’s success through drug use at Munich 1972, and Poland’s Pole Vaulters in Moscow 1980. Each case exemplifies the complex nature of sports ...


Manly Mud: Portrayal Of Masculinity In Infantry Units In World War Two As Seen In The Comics Of Bill Mauldin, Aren G. Heitmann Apr 2020

Manly Mud: Portrayal Of Masculinity In Infantry Units In World War Two As Seen In The Comics Of Bill Mauldin, Aren G. Heitmann

Student Publications

This essay will explore the comics of Bill Mauldin published during World War Two and how masculinity in the infantry was portrayed. Current studies on masculinity in World War Two have focused on soldier’s accounts of the war as well as depictions of soldiers in propaganda. Some work on the effects of comics during the war has also been done but nothing as of yet has combined the two. This paper aims to look at how the comics of Bill Mauldin supported or rejected the model masculine archetype that was developed through propaganda and became a privileged figure in ...


Be Good: Hatred And Hope In The Letters Of Gerald Koster, Steven M. Landry Apr 2020

Be Good: Hatred And Hope In The Letters Of Gerald Koster, Steven M. Landry

Student Publications

To tell an informative story about someone’s life is difficult at the best of times. Gerald “Gerry” Koster’s correspondence during his last year of service in the US Navy towards the end of the Pacific War can thus only paint an incomplete portrait of who he was and what exactly the war meant to him. Nevertheless, there are things that his letters can teach readers, not only about Koster’s role and daily activities in the military, but about his personal character and how that manifested in his interactions with the defeated Japanese and his family. And perhaps ...


The Great Wave: Margaret Thatcher, The Neo-Liberal Age, And The Transformation Of Modern Britain, John M. Zak Apr 2020

The Great Wave: Margaret Thatcher, The Neo-Liberal Age, And The Transformation Of Modern Britain, John M. Zak

Student Publications

Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1979-1990. During this period she implemented policies that profoundly changed British society, politics, and its economy through neoliberal policies. This work seeks to analyze those policies and its impact on Great Britain. From Thatcher’s economic policies of neoliberalism, social policies toward the unemployed, and her foreign policy of national reinvigoration, this work seeks to provide a panoramic analysis of Thatcher’s premiership and its long term impact on Britain.This work will also seek to argue that Thatcher and her policies were both revolutionary in their thinking and contributed to ...


Cives Arma Ferant: Reconstructing Infantry Combat And Training In The European Theater Of Operations, Phil R. Kaspriskie Apr 2020

Cives Arma Ferant: Reconstructing Infantry Combat And Training In The European Theater Of Operations, Phil R. Kaspriskie

Student Publications

A common theme in memoirs, oral histories, and other sources dealing with servicemen in World War II seems to be a focus on the experience of combat. Training, particularly individual training, is rarely discussed beyond a cursory mention, and if it is discussed at all, the overwhelming tendency is to paint a picture of half-trained cannon fodder, at best.

This paper’s goal is twofold: First, explore methods of instruction at the individual and unit levels, and explain the reasoning behind the evolution of training as the Army Ground Forces’ understanding of contemporary warfare changed; second, provide a case study ...


“Peace For Our Time”: Past And Present Receptions Of Neville Chamberlain’S Speech And The Munich Agreement, Erica L. Uszak Apr 2020

“Peace For Our Time”: Past And Present Receptions Of Neville Chamberlain’S Speech And The Munich Agreement, Erica L. Uszak

Student Publications

This paper covers British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's role in the Munich Agreement, as well as his September 30th speech in London, and explains how Chamberlain's attempt to negotiate "peace" with Hitler was received by the public. This paper examines three major newspapers: The London Times, The Manchester Guardian, and The New York Times, to see whether the press interpreted Chamberlain's negotiation with Hitler as a success or a failure. The paper also builds off of the newspapers' coverage to explain how Chamberlain and his policy of appeasement have been perceived through present-day.


Thinking Of Home: The World War Two Letters Of Gerald Koster, Erica L. Uszak Apr 2020

Thinking Of Home: The World War Two Letters Of Gerald Koster, Erica L. Uszak

Student Publications

This paper covers the letters of Gerald Koster, who served aboard the USS New Jersey during World War Two. This paper covers his letters from the time of his enlistment in January 1943 through November 1943, and shows how his attitude towards the Navy, his parents, and his home changed over that period, as Koster became homesick and lost enthusiasm for Navy life.


"They Were Only Playin' Leapfrog!": The Infantryman And The Staff Officer In The British Army In The Great War, Benjamin M. Roy Apr 2020

"They Were Only Playin' Leapfrog!": The Infantryman And The Staff Officer In The British Army In The Great War, Benjamin M. Roy

Student Publications

The British Infantryman of the First World War hated Staff Officers more than any other supporting or service branch in the BEF. This essay explores this attitude, its motivations, and the ways complaining helped British Infantrymen endure the Great War. It argues that the British Infantryman felt separate from the Staff Officers because of his intimate understanding of combat and killing and manifested his frustration with the helpless circumstances of war by hating Staff Officers, but ultimately understood the Staff Officer's role and the necessity of their service. By reconsidering the hackneyed views of the 'Poor Bloody Infantry' a ...


The Ussr And The Gdr: Mutual Collapse, Jessica M. Alessi Apr 2020

The Ussr And The Gdr: Mutual Collapse, Jessica M. Alessi

Student Publications

The Soviet Union had a number of satellite states, where communist puppet regimes were propped up in order to serve the interests of the Soviet Union. The Eastern Bloc was established with the goal of spreading the Soviet style of government, regardless of its unpopularity. The only reason that the communist regimes in these states were able to survive was because of Soviet support. This meant that the decline of the Soviet Union and the individual bloc states fed into each other. This is examined through the case of the German Democratic Republic and its relations with the Soviet Union.


"Here All Seems Security And Peace!": How Brookeville, Maryland Became United States Capital For A Day, Lindsay R. Richwine Apr 2020

"Here All Seems Security And Peace!": How Brookeville, Maryland Became United States Capital For A Day, Lindsay R. Richwine

Student Publications

When the British burned Washington D.C. during the War of 1812, the city’s civilians and officials fled to the surrounding countryside to escape the carnage. Fearful that the attack on the Capital could eventually spell defeat and worried for their city, these refugees took shelter in the homes and fields of Brookeville, Maryland, a small, Quaker mill town on the outskirts of Washington. These pacifist residents of Brookeville hosted what could have been thousands of Washingtonians in the days following the attack, ensuring the safety of not only the people of Washington, but of President Madison himself. As ...


The Life And Legacy Of James I, King Of England, Nicholas S. Arbaugh Apr 2020

The Life And Legacy Of James I, King Of England, Nicholas S. Arbaugh

Student Publications

As the first member of the Stuart line to hold the Kingdoms of England, Ireland, and Scotland under his suzerainty, the life and reign of King James I was always going to mark a serious turning point in the histories of the lands under his control. The Tudors, who had dominated English politics, religion, and culture since the end of the War of the Roses, had been extinguished with the death of the childless Queen Elizabeth I. Their successors, the Stuarts, would find that their personal rule over the British Isles would mark some of the most defining moments in ...


Brexit, A Brief Historical Analysis, Amy E. Cantrell Apr 2020

Brexit, A Brief Historical Analysis, Amy E. Cantrell

Student Publications

This paper will specifically examine the historical impact of decolonization, integration and immigration on the 2020 Brexit decision. The research will identify key events that have contributed to a rise in British Euroscepticism which has continuously served as backdrop for British isolationism and anti-immigrant thought. A study of the increased movement of people attributed to mass mobilization following decolonization and integration will play a key role in highlighting the effects Brexit will have both on Britain and on an international platform. Emphasis will be placed on the implications this history and resulting policies will have on the economic prosperity and ...


Elmer Mckee: A Window Into The Past, Erin H. Keener Apr 2020

Elmer Mckee: A Window Into The Past, Erin H. Keener

Student Publications

Elmer McKee was a Gettysburg College graduate, decorated World War II soldier, successful in his career, and a humble family man. This paper examines his correspondence with his then girlfriend "Diz," from February 25, 1945 to April 5, 1945, it is in this time that he is awarded the Bronze Star Medal. This work attempts to piece together his experiences overseas and how he coped with the experience at such a young age, examining as well what image he wanted to project outwards to his friends and family.


“Strike Up” And Mobilize The Band: Musical Activities In The United States Military During World War Ii, Max R. Bouchard Apr 2020

“Strike Up” And Mobilize The Band: Musical Activities In The United States Military During World War Ii, Max R. Bouchard

Student Publications

After the United States’ entry into the Second World War, music was one of the most prominent forms of art and popular entertainment to be repurposed by the federal government as part of the mobilization for war. The military implemented numerous music programs produced and consumed by a wide range of service personnel. These activities functioned as a means of building morale among military and civilian audiences, both on the domestic home front and in foreign nations, and disseminating an image of American culture that reinforced a set of values integral to the war effort. In order to present this ...


Holding On To History, Jesse A. Cromer Feb 2020

Holding On To History, Jesse A. Cromer

Georges Lieber Essay Contest on Resistance

When I searched for the story of Georges Lieber, the very man whose drive to resist inspired the concept for this essay, I could not find it. The only trace of him was his record on the Yad Vashem database which merely states that he was a student and that he was transported from Lyon, France to Auschwitz in 1944. His story, along with much of Holocaust history, remains unknown or misunderstood for many people, both from my generation and those before us. As a long-term student of history and an aspiring educator, I have chosen to resist the sliding ...


Who Builds The Motherland?, Benjamin D. Goldman Feb 2020

Who Builds The Motherland?, Benjamin D. Goldman

Georges Lieber Essay Contest on Resistance

I was born in 2002 into a middle-class Jewish family, in a very Jewish town. The town was our Zion, our Mini-Israel, our bubble. It prided itself on being a sleepy town where any American can feel safe and comfortable. At the best of times, the town felt like a family; everyone knew your name and many children born in the town decided to live the rest of their adult lives there. It was a place where the support of Israel was of utmost importance. Although everyone prided themselves on the security, there was always this unease that our human ...


Righteousness, Reservation, Remembrance: Freedom-Loving Whites, Freedom-Seeking Blacks, And The Societies They Formed In Adams County, Brandon Roos Jan 2020

Righteousness, Reservation, Remembrance: Freedom-Loving Whites, Freedom-Seeking Blacks, And The Societies They Formed In Adams County, Brandon Roos

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

On the border between slave society and free society a collection of ideologies mixed. The residents of Adams County, even before its inception on January 22, 1800, lived in a state of division that swirled and crashed against the omnipresent slavery conundrum. The "New World Renaissance" swept through Adams County in the 1830s bringing schools, public works, businesses, and most culturally significant, new ideas. These ideas would prove to be the fount from which flowed the waters of reform. As the first settlers had made good use of the physical creeks and streams that dotted their pastoral landscape, so too ...


"Moses In Retirement": Andrew Johnson, 1869-1876, Evan Rothera Jan 2020

"Moses In Retirement": Andrew Johnson, 1869-1876, Evan Rothera

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

On March 4, 1869, a tailor from Greeneville, Tennessee, who began his political life as an alderman and then mayor of Greeneville, who served in both houses of the State Legislature and both Houses of Congress, who served as the Governor of Tennessee and later the wartime Governor of Tennessee, who was elected to the vice-presidency of the United States, and, by the bullet of an assassin, made President of the United States, gave his Farewell Address. A few days later, he slunk out of Washington, D.C., and began his long journey home. Henry H. Ingersoll wrote to Johnson ...


"What Good Can There Be In This Kind Of Human?" Spanish Justification For The Conquest Of The Americas, John R. Pittenger Jan 2020

"What Good Can There Be In This Kind Of Human?" Spanish Justification For The Conquest Of The Americas, John R. Pittenger

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

The Spanish conquest of the Americas was one of the most brutal episodes in human history. Entire cultures of American natives were suppressed, murdered, raped, and enslaved by Spanish conquistadors on an incessant quest for precious metals and other material wealth. The devastation wrought upon the natives was so great that some Spaniards felt that what they were doing violated God's will and was naturally and morally wrong, but they were vastly outnumbered. The majority saw it as their right, duty, and privilege to conquer and subject these millions of people to Spanish rule. Since they were trying to ...


'A Beautiful Dream Realized': John S. Rice And The Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Of The Battle Of Gettysburg, Brian Matthew Jordan Jan 2020

'A Beautiful Dream Realized': John S. Rice And The Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Of The Battle Of Gettysburg, Brian Matthew Jordan

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

"We have real cause for being proud of our past and the heritage it has given us ... We have a rich past ... along with this heritage we have had thrust upon us a deep responsibility," John S. Rice said in 1959. Indeed, it was the same sense of deep responsibility that had motivated him in anticipation of 1938. That year marked the seventy-fifth anniversary of the cataclysmic, three-day battle that was waged in the fields and farm lanes surrounding the seat of his native Adams County, Pennsylvania. Rice's cognizance of the importance not only of the Battle of Gettysburg ...