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Articles 1 - 30 of 1651

Full-Text Articles in History

Ghosts Of The Revolution: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, And The Legacy Of The Founding Generation, Amelia F. Wald May 2019

Ghosts Of The Revolution: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, And The Legacy Of The Founding Generation, Amelia F. Wald

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

For the wartime generation, the Civil War in many ways represented a recapitulation of the American Revolution. Both the Union and Confederate civilian populations viewed themselves as the true successors of the Founding Generation. Throughout the Antebellum years and the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis frequently invoked the Founders and their legacy. The two future executives did so in order to both justify their own political ideologies as well as inspire their respective civilian populations. Their sense of ownership over the legacy of the Founders reflected one of the uniquely American conflicts of the Civil War Era.


“Mulatto, Indian, Or What”: The Racialization Of Chinese Soldiers And The American Civil War, Angela He May 2019

“Mulatto, Indian, Or What”: The Racialization Of Chinese Soldiers And The American Civil War, Angela He

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

About fifty Chinese men are known to have fought in the American Civil War. “'Mulatto, Indian, or What': The Racialization of Chinese Soldiers and the American Civil War" seeks to study how Chinese in the eastern portion of the United States were viewed and racialized by mainstream American society, before the Chinese Exclusion Act and rise of the "Yellow Peril" myth. Between 1860 and 1870, "Chinese" was added as a racial category on the U.S. federal census, but prior to 1870 such men could be fitted into the existing categories of "black," "white," or "mulatto." The author aims to ...


A Cause Lost, A Story Being Written: Explaining Black And White Commemorative Difference In The Postbellum South, Bailey M. Covington May 2019

A Cause Lost, A Story Being Written: Explaining Black And White Commemorative Difference In The Postbellum South, Bailey M. Covington

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

This paper addresses the disparate commemorative modes and purposes employed by black and white Southerners following the Civil War, in their competing efforts to control the cultural narrative of the war’s legacy. I attempt to explain commemorative difference in the post-war era by evaluating the historical and rhetorical implications of the white Confederate monument, in contrast with the black freedom celebration. The goal of this research is to understand why monuments to the Confederacy proliferate in the South, while similar commemorative markers of the prominent role of slavery in the Civil War are all but nonexistent. I conclude that ...


The Utility Of The Wounded: Circular No. 2, Camp Letterman, And Acceptance Of Medical Dissection, Jonathan Tracey May 2019

The Utility Of The Wounded: Circular No. 2, Camp Letterman, And Acceptance Of Medical Dissection, Jonathan Tracey

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

Prior to the American Civil War, doctors in the United States had difficulty obtaining cadavers for research and instruction purposes. Based on religious and moral objections, the American public staunchly opposed autopsies and dissections. With the coming of the Civil War, doctors needed the knowledge that could be obtained through examining cadavers. Over the course of the war, society came to accept these medical procedures as a necessity that could hopefully save more lives in the future. The publication of Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion as well as the establishment of the Army Medical Museum ...


Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2019 May 2019

Gettysburg College Journal Of The Civil War Era 2019

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


"Ein Pakt Mit Dem Teufel": Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph Of The Will, And The Nature Of Guilt, Andrew O. Burns Apr 2019

"Ein Pakt Mit Dem Teufel": Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph Of The Will, And The Nature Of Guilt, Andrew O. Burns

Student Publications

Leni Riefenstahl’s Triumph of the Will is rightly considered a massive technical achievement in the world of cinema and propaganda. However, this achievement was undertaken at the behest of the immoral, murderous regime of Nazi Germany, a regime that Riefenstahl was more than willing to work with and glorify in order to further her career. This thesis will argue that Riefenstahl’s onscreen deification of Hitler, visual representation of völkisch ideology, and use of the music of Richard Wagner make her later claims of ignorance as to the film’s ultimate meaning impossible to correlate with established facts.


“Youth Of The World, Unite So That You May Live": The World Youth Congress Movement, 1936-1939, Kevin Lavery Feb 2019

“Youth Of The World, Unite So That You May Live": The World Youth Congress Movement, 1936-1939, Kevin Lavery

Friday Forum

Although the World Youth Congress Movement (1936-1939) was established by liberal internationalists as an umbrella movement for youth organizations interested in advancing peace and international cooperation, it drew suspicion from conservatives, Catholics, and fascists over its inclusion of avowed communists and because of allegations—later verified—of covert communist influence among the movement’s youth leadership. Despite this, treating the WYCM exclusively as a communist front organization ignores the significance of the ideological accommodation that took place within the WYCM as both liberals and communists sought new allies and opportunities to bolster their causes at a turbulent time. Mutual accommodation ...


Overpriced Stamps And Mystery Pies: The Complicated Legacy Of Civil War Sutlers, Savannah Labbe Jan 2019

Overpriced Stamps And Mystery Pies: The Complicated Legacy Of Civil War Sutlers, Savannah Labbe

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

In every story, including ones about historical events, there are people who inevitably end up in the background. These people are ever-present but deemed unimportant to the story, like the Union Army sutler depicted next to his makeshift store above. Sutlers were merchants who would follow the Army around, selling the soldiers things they were not issued but might have wanted, such as paper and envelopes for writing home. The reason why the sutler is often left out of history is not just because they were only indirectly related to the fighting, but also because they were greatly disliked by ...


A Complete Transformation Of Medicine: John Letterman’S Ambulance Corps, Savannah Labbe Jan 2019

A Complete Transformation Of Medicine: John Letterman’S Ambulance Corps, Savannah Labbe

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Looking back on the practices of Civil War Americans, many people tend to believe the Civil War was a particularly dark time in medical history, a time when doctors sawed off limbs to solve any problems and often did it with dirty instruments and no anesthesia. This idea of Civil War medicine is a misconception because most amputations were, in fact, done with anesthesia and the Civil War did introduce many improvements in the medical field. In fact, the Civil War can be seen as a turning point from more ancient practices of medicine to more modern practices. [excerpt]


25 Years Of Gettysburg, Olivia Ortman Jan 2019

25 Years Of Gettysburg, Olivia Ortman

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Amongst the Civil War community here at Gettysburg College, the movie Gettysburg is very much a part of our daily lives. Quotes are thrown back and forth in witty banter, the music is played for dramatic effect, and history professors are badgered to show clips in class. Since the movie fits so seamlessly into our experience here in Gettysburg, we often take it for granted. However, Gettysburg recently celebrated its 25th anniversary with a special showing at the Majestic Theater, with remarks from the director preceding the viewing. Although none of the Fellows attended, it got a lot of us ...


Cohen, Joanna. Luxurious Citizens: The Politics Of Consumption In Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2017., Jacob Bruggerman Jan 2019

Cohen, Joanna. Luxurious Citizens: The Politics Of Consumption In Nineteenth-Century America. Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania Press, 2017., Jacob Bruggerman

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

To what extent should consumption reflect local and national interests? Joanna Cohen has written an excellent book at the intersection of intellectual, economic, and cultural history about how this question was asked and understood in the period extending from the American War for Independence to the post-bellum era. She demonstrates how citizens in the early republic struggled to understand the consumer’s place in the constellation of America’s national interest, asking questions such as, “’Who [should have] access to foreign goods?’ and “Who should shop and how[?]” (52). Although the Constitution roughly framed the relationship between the American government ...


Front Matter Jan 2019

Front Matter

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editors Jan 2019

Letter From The Editors

The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era

No abstract provided.


A Tiger's Rest: A Reflection On The Killed At Gettysburg Profile Of Horthere Fontenot, Zachary A. Wesley Dec 2018

A Tiger's Rest: A Reflection On The Killed At Gettysburg Profile Of Horthere Fontenot, Zachary A. Wesley

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

As soon as I was assigned to the Killed at Gettysburg project, I knew that I wanted to work with a French Creole soldier. I have a soft spot for Louisiana troops, you see (along with Mississippians, but that is irrelevant here), partly because of my childhood filled with Scooby Doo. One film I remember particularly well is Scooby Doo on Zombie Island. To any of y’all who are unfamiliar with the film, let me give you a brief run-down. Scooby and the gang visit Moonscar Island out in the Louisiana Bayous with the promise that they will find ...


Making Photographs Speak, Cameron T. Sauers, Benjamin M. Roy, James T. Goodman Dec 2018

Making Photographs Speak, Cameron T. Sauers, Benjamin M. Roy, James T. Goodman

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

It has often been said that “a picture is worth a thousand words.” Making that picture spit out those mythical thousand words, as we can all attest, is no easy task. Over the course of the first half of the fall semester, the three of us were tasked with developing brief interpretive captions for two Civil War photographs each, with the end goal to display our work at the Civil War Institute’s 2019 Summer Conference. What initially appeared as a simple project quickly revealed itself to be a difficult, yet rewarding, challenge that taught us all important lessons concerning ...


A Soldier Of The North And South: The Remembrance Day Legacy Of Minion Knott, Ryan Bilger Dec 2018

A Soldier Of The North And South: The Remembrance Day Legacy Of Minion Knott, Ryan Bilger

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

For the third straight semester, I have returned to the Killed at Gettysburg project to chronicle the life and death of another soldier who lost his life in southern Pennsylvania. My personal interest in this project has not waned since I authored the first of my five profiles of Union soldiers in Dr. Carmichael’s “Gettysburg in History and Memory” course in the spring of 2017. I firmly believe that no interpretation of the Battle of Gettysburg is complete without a strong understanding of the unique lives that were extinguished there. This reminds us all that the battle was fought ...


The Forging Of Freedom: Slave Refugee Camps In The Civil War: An Interview Amy Murrell Taylor, Ashley Whitehead Luskey Dec 2018

The Forging Of Freedom: Slave Refugee Camps In The Civil War: An Interview Amy Murrell Taylor, Ashley Whitehead Luskey

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Today we are speaking with Amy Murrell Taylor, Associate Professor of History at the University of Kentucky. She is the author of Embattled Freedom: Journeys through the Civil War’s Slave Refugee Camps (UNC Press, 2018), as well as The Divided Family in Civil War America (UNC Press, 2005). Her research has been supported by fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the American Council of Learned Societies. Taylor has also served as a consultant for public history sites and is currently an editorial advisor for the Civil War Monitor magazine. [excerpt]


Flip Side Of The Coin: The Unpleasant Reality Of Hatred, Cameron T. Sauers Dec 2018

Flip Side Of The Coin: The Unpleasant Reality Of Hatred, Cameron T. Sauers

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

November 19th saw the anniversary of the Gettysburg Address, and with it, one of the highlights of the year: The annual Fortenbaugh Lecture. The goal of the annual Fortenbaugh lecture is to capture the spirit of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address and make academic history accessible to the general public. This year’s lecturer was Dr. George Rable, Professor Emeritus and formerly the Charles G. Summersell Chair in Southern History at the University of Alabama. Dr. Rable’s reputation as a prolific scholar of the Civil War era is well known, with 6 books to his credit, including Fredericksburg, Fredericksburg! which ...


A Common Soldier: William H. P. Ivey, Isaac J. Shoop Dec 2018

A Common Soldier: William H. P. Ivey, Isaac J. Shoop

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

When I set out to pick a soldier for my first Killed at Gettysburg project, I did not know what I would find. I chose to research a Confederate soldier named William H. P. Ivey simply because he was born and raised on a farm, like me. As I did my research, I realized that Ivey’s life tells us a lot about the motivations and thoughts of a common southern soldier in the Civil War. Like most Confederate infantrymen, Ivey’s family was of the lower class and they were not slaveholders. Ivey, along with his brother Hinton, enlisted ...


A Hidden History: Alexandria’S Slave Pen And The Domestic Slave Trade, Savannah Labbe Nov 2018

A Hidden History: Alexandria’S Slave Pen And The Domestic Slave Trade, Savannah Labbe

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Historical objects often have dark and horrible stories hidden just beneath their unassuming and innocent visage. The picture above is one such example of this type of object. At first glance the photo seems to depict a simple brick building; however, this building is anything but simple. It was used as a slave pen in the 19th century. Slave pens were buildings in which slaves were imprisoned and prepared for sale. The one pictured above was located in Alexandria, Virginia, the site of a major slave-trading center. While this photo’s association with the slave trade makes the photo a ...


More Than A Stereotype?: A Reflection On The Life Of Benjamin Watkins Leigh, Jonathan Tracey Nov 2018

More Than A Stereotype?: A Reflection On The Life Of Benjamin Watkins Leigh, Jonathan Tracey

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

For my most recent, and likely final, foray into the Killed at Gettysburgdigital project, I delved into the story of Major Benjamin Watkins Leigh, Adjutant for “Alleghany” Johnson’s Division. This has certainly been a departure from my previous projects, Private Hannibal Howell of the 76th New York Infantry and Private James Bedell of the 7th Michigan Cavalry. Rather than examining unknown stories of Union privates, I worked to narrate the life and death of a Confederate officer. This was certainly a challenge, both because I lacked familiarity with Confederate primary sources and because of my inherent Unionist biases ...


War’S Tragic Pawn, Cameron T. Sauers Nov 2018

War’S Tragic Pawn, Cameron T. Sauers

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Students, faculty, and local art buffs packed Schmucker Art Gallery here at Gettysburg College on October 25th to hear CWI Director, Peter Carmichael talk about visual depictions of warfare. The talk was given as a part of the ongoing exhibition, “The Plains of Mars: European War Prints 1500-1815,” which features an array of war prints depicting a range of both heroic and tragic moments of warfare. This semester I have been closely studying and writing about 19th-century images of warfare to help curate a photography exhibit for this summer’s CWI Conference, so I was intrigued by what Dr. Carmichael ...


Understanding The True Nature Of War: Dr. James Clifton’S Lecture Mediated War, James T. Goodman Nov 2018

Understanding The True Nature Of War: Dr. James Clifton’S Lecture Mediated War, James T. Goodman

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Wartime artwork allows us to experience certain aspects of battle and its aftermath and yet to also be distanced from it: When viewing the artwork, we get a small visual window into the carnage and devastation of war, but we are spared the affronts to our other senses. This concept was present in Dr. James Clifton’s lecture, Meditated War. Dr. Clifton, the director of the Sarah Cambell Blaffer Foundation at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, coordinated with Gettysburg College to loan the collection of European war prints for the exhibit, The Plains of Mars. The exhibition is currently ...


Recording The Ruckus: Field Desks And Battlefield Administration, Elizabeth C. Hobbs Nov 2018

Recording The Ruckus: Field Desks And Battlefield Administration, Elizabeth C. Hobbs

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

For most people, the American Civil War calls to mind images of artillery, bayonet charges, waves of blue and gray uniforms, and daring acts of bravery and heroism. What we forget, however, is that behind every shift in an army’s position or deployment of troops was a long line of administration. Effective communication, as well as accurate record keeping of supply and personnel movements, recording the order of events of each engagement, and documenting the number of men engaged and lost, was crucial to the safety of soldiers and the success or failure of the war effort. During the ...


The Perfect Vessel Of Grief: Women And Mourning Photography, Savannah Labbe Nov 2018

The Perfect Vessel Of Grief: Women And Mourning Photography, Savannah Labbe

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

After her father died, the girl in the photo above went through a highly ritualized and formalized process of Victorian mourning. This process radically changed with the invention of photography in 1839. Now one could record the grieving process, which is what the photograph above accomplished. The photograph is a typical mourning portrait, depicting the mourner (the little girl in this case), with the photo of her deceased loved one in her hands. Like so many other photographs, this one recorded the grieving process, allowing loved ones to keep a piece of that person even after their death. 19th-century photographs ...


Unspeakable Suffering; Eloquent Explanations: National Civil War Medicine Museum’S 26th Annual Conference, Benjamin M. Roy, Cameron T. Sauers Oct 2018

Unspeakable Suffering; Eloquent Explanations: National Civil War Medicine Museum’S 26th Annual Conference, Benjamin M. Roy, Cameron T. Sauers

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

On Friday, October 12th, 2018, the National Civil War Medicine Museum kicked off its 26th annual conference and began its three-day event with a series of lectures on topics ranging from Confederate medical practice to cultural understandings of cowardice. A series of unique lectures given by a professionally diverse cast of presenters illuminated the often-peripheral field of Civil War Medicine. [excerpt]


Hot Off The Press: War Matters Review, Cameron T. Sauers Oct 2018

Hot Off The Press: War Matters Review, Cameron T. Sauers

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

This collection of essays illustrates that a material culture approach to the past can help us better understand some of the deeper complexities of the Civil War era, such as the expansion of consumer culture, the common soldier’s experience, and behavioral history, as well as issues of race, bondage, and emancipation. Cashin argues that it is important to study the objects featured within the book to understand their multi-valenced roles in the daily lives of 19th-century Americans, as well as the cultural and emotional significance they held for those who utilized them. From Robert Hicks’s essay on vaccinating ...


Complicating The Civil War Narrative: The Lincoln Lyceum Lecture, Savannah Labbe Oct 2018

Complicating The Civil War Narrative: The Lincoln Lyceum Lecture, Savannah Labbe

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

On October 3rd, the 2018 Lincoln Prize-winning author and historian, Edward Ayers, gave a talk on his most recent book, The Thin Light of Freedom: The Civil War and Emancipation in the Heart of America. Ayers began the process of writing this book in 1991 while driving through the Shenandoah Valley and wondering how places so naturally beautiful could go to war with each other so quickly. In his book, he attempts to answer that question by looking at how the Civil War was experienced on the ground by normal, everyday people. He does this by following two communities from ...


Running Wires: Digital History In The Classroom And The Field, Ian A. Isherwood, Amy E. Lucadamo, R.C. Miessler Oct 2018

Running Wires: Digital History In The Classroom And The Field, Ian A. Isherwood, Amy E. Lucadamo, R.C. Miessler

Musselman Library Staff Publications

The First World War Letters of H.J.C. Peirs is a digital history project that publishes the letters of a British World War I officer 100 years to the day they were written. By telling the story of one person, we have aimed to humanize a dehumanizing war and supported the effort to commemorate the centennial of the conflict. While the project was conceived with pedagogy in mind, it has grown beyond the letters and crossed boundaries: from the analog to the digital, from the classroom to the public, and from the archives to the field.


To Liberty, Honor, And…Cufflinks?: The Grand Army Of The Republic, Savannah Labbe Oct 2018

To Liberty, Honor, And…Cufflinks?: The Grand Army Of The Republic, Savannah Labbe

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Borne of the Civil War, one fraternal organization quickly assumed such great authority that it re-shaped cultural prescriptions of manhood, dictated the northern public’s memory of the war, and even influenced presidential elections. This organization, the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), was formed in Illinois in 1866 by veteran Benjamin Franklin Stephenson and its number of posts in the United States quickly increased. In order to be a member, one simply had to be a Union veteran. By the 1890s, there were 7,000 GAR posts around the country; approximately 1.3 million men, half of all Union ...