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Full-Text Articles in History

Reassessing The Neustadt As A Site Of Outstanding Cultural Value, Sophie Higgerson Apr 2019

Reassessing The Neustadt As A Site Of Outstanding Cultural Value, Sophie Higgerson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis explores the logic of preservation behind the extension of Strasbourg's World Heritage Site to include the Neustadt, a development built by the German administration between 1870 and 1916. Divided into three sections focusing on the Neustadt master plan, the Orangerie/Conseil des XV neighborhood, and the Grande Percée, the paper reframes the interchange of French and German planning practices in the late 19th and early 20th century.


Urban Renewal In The Colonial Capital: Contextualizing The Williamsburg Redevelopment & Housing Authority, Zach Meredith Apr 2019

Urban Renewal In The Colonial Capital: Contextualizing The Williamsburg Redevelopment & Housing Authority, Zach Meredith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the fifty years since its activation in 1969, the Williamsburg Redevelopment & Housing Authority (WRHA) has shaped the Williamsburg landscape through projects such as the redevelopment of the Triangle Block, the development of Crispus Attucks Place and Strawberry Plains neighborhoods, and the development of Williamsburg's four public housing communities. This thesis provides a critical narrative of the WRHA that contextualizes the Authority's actions within a broader history of how race and class have informed the development of the Williamsburg area over time. Additionally, this thesis traces the rise of professional city planning in Williamsburg—largely serving the interests ...


Incident Of War: Civil War Soldiers And Military Executions Of Deserters, Ruofei Qu Feb 2019

Incident Of War: Civil War Soldiers And Military Executions Of Deserters, Ruofei Qu

James Blair Historical Review

Civil War soldiers’ attitudes toward capital punishment for desertion and the rituals of military execution, both conditioned by wartime necessity, influenced each other. Soldiers generally found the scene of executions impressive and distressing but did not explicitly opposed the executions. Rituals of execution were designed to maximize deterrence, and military officials customarily adjusted them to minimize their negative effects on morale. The rituals sometimes had unintended effects, depending on individual observers’ sensitivities. For most soldiers, however, perceived deterrent effects sufficiently justified the cruelty and humiliation involved in executions.


Shifting Interpretations: Unionism In Virginia On The Eve Of Secession, Matthew B. Gittelman Feb 2019

Shifting Interpretations: Unionism In Virginia On The Eve Of Secession, Matthew B. Gittelman

James Blair Historical Review

In the winter of 1861, the citizens of Pittsylvania County, Virginia, met to discuss the question of secession. They adopted a set of motions drafted by Judge William Marshal Treadway, which chiefly criticized northern states for refusing to uphold the Fugitive Slave Act and alleged that they were the true violators of the Constitution. If “Mr. Treadway's Resolution” is treated as a microcosm of Virginian thought on the eve of the Civil War, then the document raises serious questions. This paper evaluates the contentions of the Resolution and weighs evidence that both supports and contradicts the subversive claims it ...


Theater And The Truth: Political And Theatrical Representations Of The 1793 Siege Of Toulon, Chela M. Aufderheide Feb 2019

Theater And The Truth: Political And Theatrical Representations Of The 1793 Siege Of Toulon, Chela M. Aufderheide

James Blair Historical Review

The revolutionary period in France was characterized by great upheavals in theater, politics, and political culture, including the new popularity of théâtre d’actualité, or theater based on current events. This théâtre d’actualité offers a unique source with which to examine the interactions between the political and theatrical spheres at this time. To this effect, I used as a case study the 1793 siege of Toulon, in which republican forces recaptured the city after a royalist uprising. The siege and ensuing victory were frequently referenced in political discourse, and also served as the subject matter for a profusion of ...


For Prize Or Patriotism: The Understood Role Of Privateers In The American Revolution, Jay F. Feyerabend Feb 2019

For Prize Or Patriotism: The Understood Role Of Privateers In The American Revolution, Jay F. Feyerabend

James Blair Historical Review

This article assess the general effectiveness of privateers (as understood by their contemporaries) versus the understood effectiveness of the Continental Navy, building a clearer picture of the role privateers played during the early periods of the American Revolution. Additionally, it will examine the various perceptions of the role of privateers, and how those perceptions differed among politicians in the Continental Congress, military officials, and the privateers themselves to explain how privateers considered the act of Privateering to be a fiscal practice while the Continental Congress recognized privateers to be more of a militant group.


Interpreting The King’S Touch: Authority And Accessibility In The Reign Of Charles Ii, Audrey Spensley Feb 2019

Interpreting The King’S Touch: Authority And Accessibility In The Reign Of Charles Ii, Audrey Spensley

James Blair Historical Review

This article examines the religious and medical phenomenon of the “King’s Touch,” a ritualized healing ceremony by which French and English monarchs were thought to cure their subjects of scrofula (tuberculosis). The prevailing interpretation of the King’s Touch as an intimidating projection of monarchial authority is examined with respect to Charles II of England, whose divine right to lead was challenged by the national memory of Interregnum and Parliamentary rule. Additionally, the agential role of subjects in securing the King’s Touch and potential lay perceptions of the ceremony are discussed. The paper ultimately suggests that both “bottom-up ...


Front Matter Feb 2019

Front Matter

James Blair Historical Review

No abstract provided.


"By The Dear, Immortal Memory Of Washington"/The Baptists, Culture, And The Law In Eighteenth-Century Virginia, Douglas Breton Jul 2018

"By The Dear, Immortal Memory Of Washington"/The Baptists, Culture, And The Law In Eighteenth-Century Virginia, Douglas Breton

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

"By the Dear, Immortal Memory of Washington" Americans have long used the Founding Fathers as symbols of patriotism, invoking their names and using their images whenever they wish to demonstrate that a particular way of thinking or acting is true to American ideals. The vague patriotic image of the founders tends to eclipse their actual character, allowing diverse and competing movements to all use them. This has been especially true of George Washington, who long enjoyed a preeminent and almost mythic status among the founders. During the 1860s, both secessionists and unionists claimed him as their own in order to ...


Hark Upon The Gayle: A Depiction Of The Experiences Of The First Women Students At William & Mary, Yi Hao, Lisa Milne Jun 2018

Hark Upon The Gayle: A Depiction Of The Experiences Of The First Women Students At William & Mary, Yi Hao, Lisa Milne

The William & Mary Educational Review

As William & Mary celebrates the 100th anniversary of admitting women students as the first public college in Virginia to institute a co-educational system, this paper explores the life and times of the women who have shaped the College’s legacy for future women students. In researching the first women at William & Mary, we have found historical documentation, such as personal papers (letters and surveys) from both women students of the class of 1918 and a prior researcher; the Flat Hat, a student-run newspaper at the College; meeting minutes from the College Board of Visitors; William & Mary President Lyon Tyler’s papers; and, administrative artifacts from the Office of the Dean of Women. The pages that follow chronicle the challenges and advancements women students and the Deans of Women encountered while contributing to gender equality at one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in America.


The Women Of The Pwa: The Politics And Writings Of Rashid Jahan And Qurratulain Hyder, Mehr Ali May 2018

The Women Of The Pwa: The Politics And Writings Of Rashid Jahan And Qurratulain Hyder, Mehr Ali

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Progressive Writers' Movement emerged as a literary collective at the center of the leftist intellectual and literary culture in colonial South Asia. Its members produced literary works that dealt with issues of anti-imperialism, economic exploitation, misogyny, and a variety of other social ills. And while the male writers of the PWA are most remembered and celebrated for their contributions to the Urdu literary canon, it was the female writers that truly embodied the values and ideals of the PWA. This thesis analyses the works of writers Rashid Jahan and Qurratulain Hyder and aims to highlight the contributions that women ...


"Back To Batoche: Métis History And Memory 1885-2015", Brendan Thomas May 2018

"Back To Batoche: Métis History And Memory 1885-2015", Brendan Thomas

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper is primarily concerned with historical memory, and how native peoples remember the events of their history. The paper consists of an analysis of the ways in which the Métis, a native group in Western Canada, have articulated a distinctly Métis narrative of history through their efforts to regain control of a place called Batoche, their ancestral capital and the site of their greatest military defeat in 1885 at the hands of the Canadian army. Since 1925, the Canadian government has owned the battlefield site, and attempted to monopolize the interpretation of the site’s history, focusing on the ...


Breaking The Stereotype: Age And Public Opinion Towards Refugees In Germany, Michelle Hermes May 2018

Breaking The Stereotype: Age And Public Opinion Towards Refugees In Germany, Michelle Hermes

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In light of the ongoing refugee crisis, Germany has proven itself as a humanitarian leader. The country has accepted more refugees than any other country in the European Union and has some of the most liberal policies in regards to refugee admittance. Some speculate that Germany’s policies and attitudes stem from a desire to break from stereotypes that remain from World War II and the Holocaust. At the same time, Germany has also experienced a rise in far-right populist attitudes, evident through the success of the AfD party in the 2017 parliamentary election. This majority of the AfD’s ...


The James Blair Historical Review, Volume 8:2 (Spring 2018), Barrett Mills Apr 2018

The James Blair Historical Review, Volume 8:2 (Spring 2018), Barrett Mills

James Blair Historical Review

No abstract provided.


Maritime Governance: How State Capacity Impacts Piracy And Sea Lane Security, Yuito Ishikawa Apr 2018

Maritime Governance: How State Capacity Impacts Piracy And Sea Lane Security, Yuito Ishikawa

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Maritime piracy varies from place to place and from age to age. This thesis aims to explain the variation of piracy across time and space by exploring the capability of establishing maritime governance against piracy. The spatial variation in the number of piratical attacks is explained by calculating the state capacity for governing the surrounding seas called Sea Power Index. The thesis argues that pirates particularly target waters near a state with “medium” levels of sea power because such states are not capable of enforcing strict regulations on piracy but can provide enough infrastructure and economy for pirates to have ...


Linguistic Feminism & The Body In 20th-Century French Feminist Texts, Lauren Hammett Apr 2018

Linguistic Feminism & The Body In 20th-Century French Feminist Texts, Lauren Hammett

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis examines the use of linguistic feminism and references to the body in 20th-century French feminist texts, and particularly in the work of Luce Irigaray. This involves an investigation into the nature of French feminism and the validity of the accusations of essentialism that have been leveled against it by many critics. The thesis argues for French feminists' place in feminist scholarship and for an anti-essentialist, more figurative reading of their discussions of the body, in addition to examining their discussions of language, including écriture féminine. Finally, the implications of French feminist ideology for feminism today, as well as ...


Althea Hunt: Behind The Curtain, Samantha Ryan Apr 2018

Althea Hunt: Behind The Curtain, Samantha Ryan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Althea Hunt is not a name well known outside of Phi Beta Kappa Hall. Yet, she pioneered the establishment of William and Mary Theatre as a single, female professor in 1926. Hunt never married, nor did she have children during an era in which this was an expectation of upper-middle class women. Hunt provides an insight to nontraditional womanhood and first-wave feminism on our campus. As a woman in the professional world, Hunt was a minority; however, her educational experiences with other women created a comfortable environment in which Hunt was able to thrive and perform confidently. Hunt defied gender ...


The Devil's Café Au Lait: The Métis Question In Colonial French West Africa, 1870-1940, Rose Olwell Apr 2018

The Devil's Café Au Lait: The Métis Question In Colonial French West Africa, 1870-1940, Rose Olwell

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Over the course of the French Third Republic (1870-1940), a period of roughly seventy years, public opinion and colonial policy oscillated widely between a range of approaches to the so-called the métis question. The métis question, put simply, was the debate over what should be done about the thousands of mixed-race children fathered by French soldiers, administrators, and merchants in colonies around the world. This thesis examines four facets of the métis question in West Africa: imperial policy, paternity, motherhood, and the lives of métis individuals. The first section will deals with the relationship between métis and the French imperial ...


“A Qué Manera De Libros Y Letras Es Inclinado”: Las Bibliotecas Privadas De Navarra En Los Siglos Xvi Y Xvii, Alexandra Wingate Apr 2018

“A Qué Manera De Libros Y Letras Es Inclinado”: Las Bibliotecas Privadas De Navarra En Los Siglos Xvi Y Xvii, Alexandra Wingate

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Private libraries have traditionally been studied exclusively from a historical perspective. Using the methods of book history to fashion private library inventories into cultural artifacts, the methods of a cultural studies analysis are utilized to infer the identities that 37 clergy, legal professionals, and women of Navarre in the 16th and 17th centuries expressed through their libraries.


A Genealogy Of Terror In Eighteenth-Century France, Ronald Schechter Jan 2018

A Genealogy Of Terror In Eighteenth-Century France, Ronald Schechter

Arts & Sciences Books

In contemporary political discourse, it is common to denounce violent acts as “terroristic.” But this reflexive denunciation is a surprisingly recent development. In A Genealogy of Terror in Eighteenth-Century France, Ronald Schechter tells the story of the term’s evolution in Western thought, examining a neglected yet crucial chapter of our complicated romance with terror.

For centuries prior to the French Revolution, the word “terror” had largely positive connotations. Subjects flattered monarchs with the label “terror of his enemies.” Lawyers invoked the “terror of the laws.” Theater critics praised tragedies that imparted terror and pity. By August 1794, however, terror ...


Literary Continuities/Imperative Education, Jane Snyder Jan 2018

Literary Continuities/Imperative Education, Jane Snyder

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Literary Continuities: British Books and the Britishness of Their Early American Readers People get their worldview from what they read. in a reading-saturated society such as 18th-century America, the most popular books determined the public consciousness. as such, the origin of these books must be carefully examined. Herein lies the question of whose books and ideas were popularized. According to quantitative analysis of primary evidence gathered from private and public library collections as well as booksellers' advertisements and inventories, the majority of books read in 18th-century America could be considered British more than American. Before, during, and after the American ...


The James Blair Historical Review, Volume 8 (Fall 2017) Nov 2017

The James Blair Historical Review, Volume 8 (Fall 2017)

James Blair Historical Review

No abstract provided.


Scattered Prizes: Colonial Fantasies And The Material Body In The English Renaissance Blazon, Aidan J. Selmer May 2017

Scattered Prizes: Colonial Fantasies And The Material Body In The English Renaissance Blazon, Aidan J. Selmer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper attempts to draw connections between instances when English Renaissance poets use descriptive language tinged by colonial imaginings within a popular contemporary poetic device, the Petrarchan blazon. In the process, Aidan Selmer explores new ways to read selections from Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip Sidney, William Shakespeare, Sir Walter Ralegh, Sir John Davies, and John Donne, within the context of each poet's real and fictional roles in the early imperial and colonial projects of Early Modern England. What emerges is a thoughtful, complex conversation between several influential writers who recognize the materialistic (and misogynistic) politics inherent within the blazon ...


A Case Study In The Interdisciplinary: The Role Of Anthropology, Archaeology And History In Academia And Museums, Alexnadra A. Rosenberg May 2017

A Case Study In The Interdisciplinary: The Role Of Anthropology, Archaeology And History In Academia And Museums, Alexnadra A. Rosenberg

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis will examine the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to anthropology, archaeology and history in both academic and museum settings. Using the “Lives Bound Together: Slavery at George Washington’s Mount Vernon” exhibit as a case study, the necessity of teaching from an interdisciplinary perspective at an undergraduate level, if not before is stressed. Specific attention is given to the subfield of archaeology, the role of oral histories and descendant communities in creating museum exhibitions and the ways in which the museum presents a historical narrative about a complex and emotionally charged topic to visitors who arrive with diverse ...


Defining Ambiguous: Lesbianism And The Vampire In “Christabel” And Carmilla, Holly E. Reynolds May 2017

Defining Ambiguous: Lesbianism And The Vampire In “Christabel” And Carmilla, Holly E. Reynolds

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within vampire fiction, there exists a common narrative of a wide-eyed, innocent victim being pursued and then corrupted by a mysterious figure. At first glance, Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem "Christabel" (1816) and Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's novella Carmilla (1872) seem to adhere to this narrative. Both works feature young women, Christabel in "Christabel" and Laura in Carmilla, being pursued by vampires: specifically, female vampires. However, it can be argued that the young women in Coleridge's and Le Fanu's works are not victims; rather, they are liberated agents acting independently in their sexual lives. An analysis of ...


Jimmy Carter’S Human Rights Diplomacy And The Democratization Of Taiwan, Cody A. Grogan May 2017

Jimmy Carter’S Human Rights Diplomacy And The Democratization Of Taiwan, Cody A. Grogan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

President Carter began a new era of American diplomacy by attempting to refocus America's foreign policy towards promoting human rights. Taiwan provides an interesting case study to see the effectiveness of Carter's human rights policy and the difficulty in applying it to nations that were of critical importance during the Cold War. In particular, this thesis analyzes the relationship between arms sales to Taiwan, human rights, and the process of normalization with the People's Republic of China, as well as the integration of human rights into foreign policy decision making. This paper also examines the impact of ...


A Cup Of Imperial Taste: The Formation Of Ceramic Aesthetics Under Emperor Huizong (R. 1100-1126), Kexin Ma May 2017

A Cup Of Imperial Taste: The Formation Of Ceramic Aesthetics Under Emperor Huizong (R. 1100-1126), Kexin Ma

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ancient Chinese ceramics are objects of appreciation around the world and have been defined as works of art by the art world. My thesis, however, points out that the taken-for-granted idea that ceramics are born to be works of art in ancient China, is, in fact, a constructed interpretation. In the thesis, I ask the question: when and how were ceramics transformed from functional objects into works of art in ancient China? The thesis investigates the change of roles and imperial tastes of ceramics during the Tang-Song transition, and examines the formation of a new aesthetics of ceramics, combining two ...


American Education Reform And The Humanism Of Mathematics, 1890-1940, James Leach May 2017

American Education Reform And The Humanism Of Mathematics, 1890-1940, James Leach

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the early 20th century, mathematicians and math teachers became interested in the connections between mathematics and areas of humanistic interest such as philosophy, aesthetics, music, and especially history. This thesis narrates how this interest came about and explains mathematics educators' motivation and understanding of mathematics as a humanistic discipline. Math educators reacted to an attack on their subject from progressive educators who argued that math education was inefficient or useless to children. In response, math educators stressed the cultural value of the subject, portraying it as an important part of human culture and an essential subject in the school ...


"A Corps Of Much Service:" The German Regiment Of The Continental Army, John B. Weaver Apr 2017

"A Corps Of Much Service:" The German Regiment Of The Continental Army, John B. Weaver

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The German Regiment was a unit raised for service in the Continental Army in the summer of 1776 from among the ethnic German populations of Pennsylvania and Maryland, which saw service in late 1776 at the Battle of Trenton and in early 1777 at the Battles of Assunpink Creek (Second Trenton) and Princeton. This thesis to examines the role of the regiment from the time it was raised to the aftermath of the campaign in New Jersey and Pennsylvania in late 1776 and 1777, emphasizing the social makeup of the regiment's officers and men, and its place as an ...


Community Radio In Guatemala: A Half-Century Of Resistance In The Face Of Repression, Polly W. Lauer Apr 2017

Community Radio In Guatemala: A Half-Century Of Resistance In The Face Of Repression, Polly W. Lauer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

While Guatemalan community radio stations have been legally repressed or “criminalized” since 1996, there is a longer trend of military repression of community radio stations that reaches back to the 1970s. Looking at an extended narrative of repression lends context to the present day fight for policy change in favor of community radio rights; it illustrates a continual exclusion and sustained repression by the state against the institution of Guatemalan community radio and the Maya campesino population.