Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 54

Full-Text Articles in History

Re-Thinking Burial Dates At A Graeco-Roman Cemetery: Fag El Gamous, Fayoum, Egypt, Kerry Muhlestein, R. Evans, David Whitchurch Jan 2015

Re-Thinking Burial Dates At A Graeco-Roman Cemetery: Fag El Gamous, Fayoum, Egypt, Kerry Muhlestein, R. Evans, David Whitchurch

Kerry Muhlestein

The Fag el-Gamous cemetery is a 125 hectare Graeco-Roman necropolis on the eastern edge of the Fayoum Depression. The 1000 + burials excavated to date at the cemetery are found largely in rectangular shafts at 0.3–3.0 m deep and oriented on an east–west axis. The high burial density, varying between 1.3 and 3.0 burials per square meter, is due in part to multiple burials in the same shaft. The stratigraphically deepest burials in a shaft are buried head east and later burials in the same shaft are buried head west. It has been argued that ...


Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia Dec 2013

Anatomy Of Dissent In Islamic Societies, Ahmed Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The 'Arab Spring' that began in 2011 has placed a spotlight on the transfer of political power in Islamic societies, reviving old questions about the place of political dissent and rebellion in Islamic civilization and raising new ones about the place of religion in modern Islamic societies.

In Anatomy of Dissent in Islamic Societies, Ahmed E. Souaiaia examines the complex historical evolution of Islamic civilization in an effort to trace the roots of the paradigms and principles of Islamic political and legal theories. This study is one of the first attempts at providing a fuller picture of the place of ...


Review Of Michael Ostling, Between The Devil And The Host: Imagining Witchcraft In Early Modern Poland. Oxford University Press, 2011, For Polin/American Association For Polish Jewish Studies, Magda Teter May 2013

Review Of Michael Ostling, Between The Devil And The Host: Imagining Witchcraft In Early Modern Poland. Oxford University Press, 2011, For Polin/American Association For Polish Jewish Studies, Magda Teter

Magda Teter

Witches and witchcraft have fascinated not only the people of the premodern era, but also modern scholars who produced a tremendous amount of scholarship that has covered not only a large geographic area but also a wide variety of topics related to this subject in European history. Scholars have studied the legal and cultural underpinnings of witch-hunts; records of witch trials and works on witchcraft have served scholars as sources for the history of women and gender and the history of folk medical practices in the premodern era. Anyone interested in the history of witchcraft and magic in Europe can ...


Deeply Within: Catholicism, Faith And History, Nick Salvatore Mar 2013

Deeply Within: Catholicism, Faith And History, Nick Salvatore

Nick Salvatore

[Excerpt] In the decade I spent living with Gene Debs, I thought much about faith's relation to intellect, especially in the political realm. It was not just that a socialist in capitalist America needed faith but rather that Debs's very vision of America's promise was itself a profound act of faith. But with the exception of the last chapter, which I titled, "A Species of Purging," following a phrase in one of Debs's prison letters, overt discussion of any religious sensibility was largely sotto voce, echoes of a private dialogue with myself. Pleased as I was ...


To The Jew First: A Socio-Historical And Biblical-Theological Analysis Of The Pauline Teaching Of `Election' In Light Of Second Temple Jewish Patterns Of Thought, Anthony Thornhill Dec 2012

To The Jew First: A Socio-Historical And Biblical-Theological Analysis Of The Pauline Teaching Of `Election' In Light Of Second Temple Jewish Patterns Of Thought, Anthony Thornhill

A. Chadwick Thornhill

Paul's "doctrine" of election has remained a controversial and enigmatic topic for centuries. Few studies, however, have approached Paul's doctrine through the context of Second Temple Judaism. This study examines Paul's view of election through the lens of Second Temple Jewish texts written prior to 70 CE. In doing so, it is argued that the best framework through which to view Paul's discussion of election is through a primarily corporate model of election. While such a model is rooted in Judaism, Paul departs from his Jewish contemporaries in arguing that the locus of election is in ...


Before Religion: A History Of A Modern Concept, William Cavanaugh Dec 2012

Before Religion: A History Of A Modern Concept, William Cavanaugh

William T. Cavanaugh

No abstract provided.


Genius And Monologue, Ken Frieden Sep 2012

Genius And Monologue, Ken Frieden

Ken Frieden

"Genius is the intellectual obsession of our time," Ken Frieden writes, "and monologue is one symptom of the disorder." From ancient, spiritual conceptions of genius to modern notions of the extraordinary mind, Frieden traces associated philosophic and literary expressions of inspiration and individuality.

Frieden juxtaposes the evolving forms of genius with traditions of monologue in pre-Shakespearean and Shakespearean drama, Romantic poetry, and nineteenthand twentieth-century fiction. He delineates the linguistic mechanisms that have shaped the dominant ideology of genius, showing that while literary monologues typically break the conventions of dialogue, aethetics ultimately identifies originality with deviance and madness. The successive guises ...


Freud's Dream Of Interpretation, Ken Frieden Sep 2012

Freud's Dream Of Interpretation, Ken Frieden

Ken Frieden

Frieden explores methods of dream interpretation in the Bible, the Talmud, and in the writings of Sugmund Freud, and brings to light Freud's Troubled relationship to his Judaic forerunners. This book reveals unfamiliar associations in intellectual history and challenges received ideas in biblical, Talmudic, and Freudian scholarship.


Suessen Is Now Free Of Jews: World War Ii, The Holocaust, And Rural Judaism, Gilya Schmidt Jun 2012

Suessen Is Now Free Of Jews: World War Ii, The Holocaust, And Rural Judaism, Gilya Schmidt

Gilya Gerda Schmidt

Süssen Is Now Free of Jews offers a close look at the legacy of a few Jewish families from Süssen—a village in the District of Göppingen, which is located in the state of Baden Württemberg in southern Germany. The author, Gilya Gerda Schmidt, looks at this rural region through the lens of two Jewish families—the Langs and

the Ottenheimers—who settled there in the early twentieth century. As a child, she shared with the Langs the same living space for just a few months. She remembers her mother’s telling her of the Jews who lived in Süssen ...


The Cabra Dominican Sisters And The ‘Open Schools’ Movement In Apartheid South Africa, Margaret Kelly, Catherine Higgs Feb 2012

The Cabra Dominican Sisters And The ‘Open Schools’ Movement In Apartheid South Africa, Margaret Kelly, Catherine Higgs

Catherine Higgs

In January 1976, the Cabra Dominican Sisters in South Africa and the Association of Women Religious (AWR), with the support of the Southern African Catholic Bishops’ Conference (SACBC), opened their schools to students of all races in direct contravention of apartheid law. This radical action was informed by their dedication to the Dominican motto ‘veritas’ (truth) and by the desire ‘to give practical Christian witness to social justice’ in a revolutionary situation. In opening their schools, the Cabra Dominicans joined the broad liberation movement that helped to crack the façade of the apartheid state and ultimately led to its dismantling.


'Olah: The Rhetoric Of Burnt Offerings, James Watts Feb 2012

'Olah: The Rhetoric Of Burnt Offerings, James Watts

James Watts

The ‘olah offering receives pride of place in most lists of sacrifices in the Hebrew Bible, including the ritual rules of Leviticus. Its prominence in these texts suggests that the writers expected its mention to have an effect on their audience. This rhetorical effect must be evaluated and understood before the references to the `olah can be used to reconstruct ancient religious practices reliably. A comparative analysis of the rhetoric about the `olah suggests that its priority burnished the image of priests as devoted selflessly to divine worship and drew attention away from their economic interests in the sacrificial system ...


Disposing Ofnon-Disposable Texts, James Watts Feb 2012

Disposing Ofnon-Disposable Texts, James Watts

James Watts

These concluding reflections on the essays in The Death of Sacred Texts consider evidence that the disposal of secular books also evokes serious concern. There is an inherent tension in most literate cultures between the idea of a book or enduring text on the one hand and the possibility of its disposal or destruction on the other. Disposing of books transgresses inhibitions reinforced by family, school, media, and government. The concern for book preservation involves respect for culture(s), veneration of traditions, and, at its root, the preservation of cultural values. Factors other than information preservation are at work here ...


Using Ezra's Time As A Methodological Pivot For Understanding The Rhetoric And Functions Of The Pentateuch, James Watts Feb 2012

Using Ezra's Time As A Methodological Pivot For Understanding The Rhetoric And Functions Of The Pentateuch, James Watts

James Watts

The Persian period saw the transformation of pentateuchal materials into a scripture, the Torah. The story of Ezra exemplifies that transformation by its description of his manipulation of the physical scroll, his oral reading of it before the people of Jerusalem, and his arrangement for its professional translation/interpretation by Levites. These rituals have characterized the function of the Torah (and other scriptures) from that time forward. The Persian period, however, also marks a major change in the nature of our evidence for the form, contents and meaning of pentateuchal materials. The only historical evidence from before the time of ...


Springtime For Freedom Of Religion Or Belief: Will Newly Democratic Arab States Guarantee International Human Rights Norms Or Perpetuate Their Violation?, Robert Blitt Dec 2011

Springtime For Freedom Of Religion Or Belief: Will Newly Democratic Arab States Guarantee International Human Rights Norms Or Perpetuate Their Violation?, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented and seismic political and social upheaval across the Arab world. The reasons for the outbreak of widespread and vociferous public protest are myriad, but generally understood as including long-simmering resentment of government corruption and repression, underwhelming economic development, chronic unemployment and poor respect for human rights, including the treatment of individuals and groups affiliated with political manifestations of Islam. Despite the initial drama surrounding the street rallies, two years on, the pace of change has grown fitful and uncertain. The purpose of this chapter is to consider one narrow aspect of the Arab Spring ...


With A Shamble And A Moan: Zombie Eschatology In American Popular Culture, Kelly Baker Dec 2011

With A Shamble And A Moan: Zombie Eschatology In American Popular Culture, Kelly Baker

Kelly J. Baker

(Forthcoming.)


Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, And Colonial Africa, Catherine Higgs Dec 2011

Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, And Colonial Africa, Catherine Higgs

Catherine Higgs

In Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery, and Colonial Africa, Catherine Higgs traces the early-twentieth-century journey of the Englishman Joseph Burtt to the Portuguese colony of São Tomé and Príncipe—the chocolate islands—through Angola and Mozambique, and finally to British Southern Africa. Burtt had been hired by the chocolate firm Cadbury Brothers Limited to determine if the cocoa it was buying from the islands had been harvested by slave laborers forcibly recruited from Angola, an allegation that became one of the grand scandals of the early colonial era. Burtt spent six months on São Tomé and Príncipe and a year in ...


Religious Apocalypse In America, Kelly Baker Dec 2011

Religious Apocalypse In America, Kelly Baker

Kelly J. Baker

(Forthcoming.)


Gospel According To The Klan: The Ku Klux Klan’S Appeal To Protestant America, 1915 ‐1930, Kelly Baker Aug 2011

Gospel According To The Klan: The Ku Klux Klan’S Appeal To Protestant America, 1915 ‐1930, Kelly Baker

Kelly J. Baker

To many Americans, modern marches by the Ku Klux Klan may seem like a throwback to the past or posturing by bigoted hatemongers. To Kelly Baker, they are a reminder of how deeply the Klan is rooted in American mainstream Protestant culture.

Most studies of the KKK dismiss it as an organization of racists attempting to intimidate minorities and argue that the Klan used religion only as a rhetorical device. Baker contends instead that the KKK based its justifications for hatred on a particular brand of Protestantism that resonated with mainstream Americans, one that employed burning crosses and robes to ...


Getting Rapture Ready: The Materiality Of The Rapture In North America, Kelly Baker Jul 2011

Getting Rapture Ready: The Materiality Of The Rapture In North America, Kelly Baker

Kelly J. Baker

Evangelical and fundamentalist belief in the Rapture, an event in which righteous Christians are called up to heaven, can be found in fiction, prophecy books, and on the internet, yet much of the scholarship on the Rapture focuses upon the rhetoric and beliefs of this impending beginning of the end. However, rapture readiness is also an act of faith with bodily practice, artifacts, and materiality. This article explores rapture practice, RaptureReady.com, and the work of Tim LaHaye and Jerry Jenkins to argue that the Rapture is more than words and requires material action to become ready for the end ...


Putting "Blood Libel" In Historical Context, Magda Teter Jan 2011

Putting "Blood Libel" In Historical Context, Magda Teter

Magda Teter

When Sarah Palin used the term “blood libel” in response to the shooting in Arizona that left six people dead and severely injured others, including Democratic Representative Gabrielle Giffords, she stirred a controversy. To defend herself in the midst of the controversy, Palin defined the term “blood libel” very broadly as “being falsely accused of having blood on your hands.” Despite her broad definition, blood libel is a term that refers very specifically to the historical accusation that Jews killed Christian children to obtain their blood. A false accusation, to be sure, but one with a long and painful history ...


Egyptian Middle Kingdom Contexts For Human Sacrifice, Kerry Muhlestein, John Gee Dec 2010

Egyptian Middle Kingdom Contexts For Human Sacrifice, Kerry Muhlestein, John Gee

Kerry Muhlestein

No abstract provided.


Whither Secular Bear: The Russian Orthodox Church’S Strengthening Influence On Russia's Domestic And Foreign Policy, Robert Blitt Dec 2010

Whither Secular Bear: The Russian Orthodox Church’S Strengthening Influence On Russia's Domestic And Foreign Policy, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

As 2012 presidential elections in Russia draw near, evidence points to a collapse in that country’s constitutional obligation of secularism and state-church separation. Although early signs of this phenomenon can be traced back to the Yeltsin era, the Putin and Medvedev presidencies have dealt a fatal blow to secular state policy manifested both at home and abroad, as well as to Russia’s constitutional human rights principles including nondiscrimination and equality of religious beliefs. The first part of this article argues that leadership changes in the Russian government and the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) have triggered an unprecedented deepening ...


Russia’S 'Orthodox' Foreign Policy: The Growing Influence Of The Russian Orthodox Church In Shaping Russia’S Policies Abroad, Robert Blitt Dec 2010

Russia’S 'Orthodox' Foreign Policy: The Growing Influence Of The Russian Orthodox Church In Shaping Russia’S Policies Abroad, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

The government of Russia and the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) - the country’s predominant religious group - recently underwent back-to-back changes in each institution’s respective leadership. This coincidence of timing has afforded a unique opportunity to reexamine the status of constitutional secularism and church-state relations in the Russian Federation. In the short space of two years, the partnership of President Dmitri Medvedev and Patriarch Kirill has further entrenched a discriminatory three-tiered status system for religious groups and - perhaps more significantly - has generated multiple new channels of influence for the ROC in Russian social and political life, including handing the Church ...


Defamation Of Religion: Rumors Of Its Death Are Greatly Exaggerated, Robert Blitt Dec 2010

Defamation Of Religion: Rumors Of Its Death Are Greatly Exaggerated, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

This Article explores the recent decisions by the United Nations (“UN”) Human Rights Council and General Assembly to adopt consensus resolutions aimed at “combating intolerance, negative stereotyping and stigmatization of, and discrimination, incitement to violence and violence against, persons based on religion or belief.” These resolutions represent an effort to move past a decade’s worth of contentious roll call votes in favor of prohibiting defamation of religion within the international human rights framework. Although labeled “historic” resolutions, this Article argues that the UN’s new compromise approach endorsed in 2011 — motivated in part by the desire to end years ...


The Bottom Up Journey Of 'Defamation Of Religion' From Muslim States To The United Nations: A Case Study Of The Migration Of Anti-Constitutional Ideas, Robert Blitt Dec 2010

The Bottom Up Journey Of 'Defamation Of Religion' From Muslim States To The United Nations: A Case Study Of The Migration Of Anti-Constitutional Ideas, Robert Blitt

Robert C. Blitt

This chapter is intended to elaborate on the existing academic literature addressing the migration of constitutional ideas. Through an examination of ongoing efforts to enshrine “defamation of religion” as a violation of international human rights, the author confirms that the phenomenon of migration is not restricted to positive constitutional norms, but rather also encompasses negative ideas that ultimately may serve to undermine international and domestic constitutionalism. More specifically, the case study demonstrates that the movement of anti-constitutional ideas is not restricted to the domain of “international security” law, and further, that the vertical axis linking international and domestic law is ...


The Clash Of Modernities: The Islamist Challenge To Jewish, Turkish, And Arab Nationalists, Khaldoun Samman Nov 2010

The Clash Of Modernities: The Islamist Challenge To Jewish, Turkish, And Arab Nationalists, Khaldoun Samman

Khaldoun Samman

Professor Samman’s latest book, Clash of Modernities: The Islamist Challenge to Jewish, Turkish and Arab Nationalism was released in December 2010. Samman challenges Eurocentric theorists who peddle the clash of civilization thesis by demonstrating that what in fact is clashing are not civilizational differences but rather a number of modernist discourses that are all trapped in a discursive tradition that has its origins in colonial modernity. This book argues that to understand the Middle East we must also understand how the West produced a temporal narrative of world history in which westerners placed themselves on top and all others ...


Social And Cultural Boundaries In Pre-Modern Poland, Magda Teter, Adam Teller, Antony Polonsky Dec 2009

Social And Cultural Boundaries In Pre-Modern Poland, Magda Teter, Adam Teller, Antony Polonsky

Magda Teter

Boundaries—physical, political, social, religious, and cultural—were a key feature of life in medieval and early modern Poland, and this volume focuses on the ways in which these boundaries were respected, crossed, or otherwise negotiated. It throws new light on the contacts between Jews and Poles, including the vexed question of conversion and the tensions it aroused. The collected articles also discuss relations between the various elements of Jewish society—the wealthy and the poor, the educated and the uneducated, and the religious and the lay elites, considering too contacts between Jews in Poland and those in Germany and ...


Religion And The Rise Of The Second Ku Klux Klan, Kelly Baker Aug 2009

Religion And The Rise Of The Second Ku Klux Klan, Kelly Baker

Kelly J. Baker

In 1915, the second incarnation of the Ku Klux Klan was born. The second Klan, a memorial to the Reconstruction Klan and its work in the postbellum South, was to act as a restructured fraternity that supported white supremacy, the purity of white womanhood, nationalism and Protestant Christianity. William J. Simmons, a fraternalist and former minister, organized the charter for the new order and consecrated its beginning by setting afire a cross on the top of Stone Mountain, Georgia.


Enlightenment And The Creation Of German Catholicism, Michael Printy Dec 2008

Enlightenment And The Creation Of German Catholicism, Michael Printy

Michael Printy

This book tells the story of how eighteenth-century German Catholics rethought the Church. Educated German Catholics envisioned a Church that would solidify the link between religion, civilization, and morality. The first account of the German Catholic Enlightenment, this book explores the ways in which eighteenth-century Germans reconceived the relationship between religion, society, and the state. Seeking a balance between Germany and Rome, Catholic reformers desired a national Church that would enjoy a large measure of autonomy but would still be in communion with the universal Church. In trying to reform the Church, educated Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire questioned ...


Female Leadership In Southern Religion (And American Religions), Review Essay Of Women In The Church Of God In Christ (Anthea Butler) And Women With A Mission (Laura R. Olson Et Al.), Kelly Baker Dec 2008

Female Leadership In Southern Religion (And American Religions), Review Essay Of Women In The Church Of God In Christ (Anthea Butler) And Women With A Mission (Laura R. Olson Et Al.), Kelly Baker

Kelly J. Baker

No abstract provided.