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Medieval History

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Full-Text Articles in History

Disaster Response And Ecclesiastical Privilege In The Late Middle Ages: The Liberty Of Durham After The Black Death, John K. Mennell Oct 2020

Disaster Response And Ecclesiastical Privilege In The Late Middle Ages: The Liberty Of Durham After The Black Death, John K. Mennell

Major Papers

This paper examines the estate incomes of three large ecclesiastical corporations in medieval England to analyse the impact local autonomy has upon economic recovery following a medieval disaster scenario. It utilizes manorial records, assessments, and tax farms for the bishop of Durham, Durham Priory, and the archbishop of York to pursue this goal. Data is complied and presented, building off the methodology of a series of articles in the twentieth century on the changing distribution of wealth in medieval England to allow additional comparison with the wider kingdom. The character of the four truly autonomous bishops of Durham is analysed ...


The Almohad: The Rise And Fall Of The Strangers, David Michael Olsen Aug 2020

The Almohad: The Rise And Fall Of The Strangers, David Michael Olsen

Dissertations and Theses

The Almohad (1120-1269) displaced the Almoravid dynasty (1040-1147) as the rulers of the Maghreb and Andalusia in 1147 and created the largest Berber kingdom in history. They conquered the first indigenous rulers of the Maghreb by aggregating the Masmuda tribes from the High Atlas Mountains and enlisting the Zenata and Arab tribes from the Northern Maghreb. The Almohad rule built upon the existing Almoravid infrastructure; however, their cultural, administrative, and military approach entailed a more integrated tribal organization, centralized authority, and an original Islamic ideology. In creating this empire they envisioned the Maghreb as a consolidated political center and not ...


A Land Of Poets And Warriors: The Connection Between Warrior Culture And Bardic Culture In Medieval Wales C. 1066-1283, Sarah Lynn Alderson Aug 2020

A Land Of Poets And Warriors: The Connection Between Warrior Culture And Bardic Culture In Medieval Wales C. 1066-1283, Sarah Lynn Alderson

Dissertations and Theses

Wales in the Middle Ages was a region both divided by war and united by culture. Frequent raids from the Hiberno-Irish, Scandinavians, and Flemish threatened Wales from the outside, while the kings within the borders of Wales fought for supremacy. During the late eleventh century, William the Conqueror made his way to the Welsh border in an attempt to secure his fledging kingdom. Under the premise of protecting his borders, William established the first March of Wales on the eastern border of Wales in 1087. This started the slow process of Anglo-Norman expansion and colonization into Wales.

The Welsh maintained ...


The Defense Of Principates: The English Appropriation Of Marsilius Of Padua's 'Defensor Pacis', Nathan Harkey Jul 2020

The Defense Of Principates: The English Appropriation Of Marsilius Of Padua's 'Defensor Pacis', Nathan Harkey

Theses and Dissertations

Marsilius of Padua’s Defensor pacis is widely thought to be one of the most important texts to emerge in late medieval Europe. Initially purposed as a defense of Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig IV’s rights against the claim of the papacy’s claim to possess a ‘plenitude of power’, Defensor pacis is one of the most sophisticated arguments against the centuries of abuse of papal authority. Marsilius, though condemned as a heretic during his lifetime, remains a pivotal figure for medieval and early modern European historians, and is perhaps best remembered by the ways that his ideology influenced subsequent ...


Christine De Pizan's Passive Heroines: Recoding Feminine Identities In Le Livre De La Cité Des Dames And Le Ditié De Jehanne D'Arc, Evelyn Ives Mills Jun 2020

Christine De Pizan's Passive Heroines: Recoding Feminine Identities In Le Livre De La Cité Des Dames And Le Ditié De Jehanne D'Arc, Evelyn Ives Mills

Dissertations and Theses

Over the course of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Christine de Pizan has resurfaced in the academic and literary spheres as a paragon of proto-feminist thought. This modern fascination with the fifteenth-century writer is largely grounded in her surprisingly progressive views on a woman's right to receive an education, to govern and achieve financial freedom. More recently, scholars have lauded Christine's later works for their reinterpretation of what it meant to be a woman in fifteenth-century Europe. The present study examines this latter goal of Christine de Pizan's writing specifically in the context of the heroic feminine ...


The Aftermath Of The Black Death In England: Edward Iii's Economic Policies To Repress The Peasantry, Leah Diciesare Jun 2020

The Aftermath Of The Black Death In England: Edward Iii's Economic Policies To Repress The Peasantry, Leah Diciesare

Undergraduate Theses, Capstones, and Recitals

The Black Death caused a mass mortality in England, drastically affecting society. However, it was the aftermath of the plague that had the greatest impacts. The loss of life removed pressure on the economy due to population density, which gave the peasants opportunities to improve their lives. But that was a short-lived phenomenon; the peasantry ultimately remained repressed, as they had been prior to the plague. Edward III meddled in the English economy in the wake of the Black Death by introducing price and wage regulations. These efforts were to maintain the status quo in English society so that the ...


The Participation Of Women Believers And The Family In Later Languedocian Catharism, 1300-1308, William Grant Edmundson May 2020

The Participation Of Women Believers And The Family In Later Languedocian Catharism, 1300-1308, William Grant Edmundson

Theses and Dissertations

This master’s thesis means to contribute to scholarship on the nature of lived Catharism in later medieval Languedoc. The study uses depositions from the inquisition registers of Jacques Fournier and Geoffroy d’Ablis, as well as Bernard Gui’s Liber sententiarum (book of sentences) to examine and compare how men, women, and families who were friends, relatives, accomplices, believers, and defenders of Cathar perfecti (the Cathar spiritual elite) participated in and supported the sect during the “Authié revival” from 1300 to 1308 by means of a case study on the Benet family from Montaillou and Ax.

The study argues ...


The Aesthetics Of Storytelling And Literary Criticism As Mythological Ritual: The Myth Of The Human Tragic Hero, Intertextual Comparisons Between The Heroes And Monsters Of Beowulf And The Anglo-Saxon Exodus, Daniel Stoll May 2020

The Aesthetics Of Storytelling And Literary Criticism As Mythological Ritual: The Myth Of The Human Tragic Hero, Intertextual Comparisons Between The Heroes And Monsters Of Beowulf And The Anglo-Saxon Exodus, Daniel Stoll

Undergraduate Honors Theses

For thousands of years, people have been hearing, reading, and interpreting stories and myths in light of their own experience. To read a work by a different author living in a different era and setting, people tend to imagine works of literature to be something they are not. To avoid this fateful tendency, I hope to elucidate what it means to read a work of literature and interpret it: love it to the point of wanting to foremost discuss its excellence of being a piece of art. Rather than this being a defense, I would rather call it a musing ...


Non-Muslim Integration Into The Early Islamic Caliphate Through The Use Of Surrender Agreements, Rachel Hutchings May 2020

Non-Muslim Integration Into The Early Islamic Caliphate Through The Use Of Surrender Agreements, Rachel Hutchings

History Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this honors thesis, I discuss the role of surrender agreements in the early Islamic caliphate and their evolution through the ninth century. Seen as a window into the developing relations between Muslims and non-Muslims, surrender agreements shed considerable light on the evolving conceptualization of non-Muslims’ place in dar al-Islam from the point of view of Islamic legal tradition and political theory. By defining the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in a framework that was agreed on by all parties and one that preserved the basic rights of non-Muslims, these agreements were remarkably effective in facilitating the incorporation of non-Muslims ...


Between The Judean Desert And Gaza: Asceticism And The Monastic Communities Of Palestine In The Sixth Century, Austin Mccray Apr 2020

Between The Judean Desert And Gaza: Asceticism And The Monastic Communities Of Palestine In The Sixth Century, Austin Mccray

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The dissertation focuses on the religious culture of Christian monasticism in sixth-century Palestine. Rather than see the monastic communities of the Judean Desert, just to the east of Jerusalem, and those around Gaza as two independent monastic regions, as much scholarship has done, the dissertation focuses on the common threads that can be seen in the monastic teachings and idealized ascetic practices in the literature of the area. This dissertation reveals ways to redefine the boundaries between the monastic communities of Palestine during the sixth century as well as emphasizes the continuities between the monks of the Judean Desert and ...


Hell Hath No Appetite Like A Woman: Food Imagery In The Lives Of The Wife Of Bath And Margery Kempe, Rhone O'Hara Apr 2020

Hell Hath No Appetite Like A Woman: Food Imagery In The Lives Of The Wife Of Bath And Margery Kempe, Rhone O'Hara

Senior Theses and Projects

This thesis focuses on the medieval texts of Chaucer’s “Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale” and The Book of Margery Kempe. Specifically it analyzes The Wife of Bath, as one of Chaucer’s most famous literary characters in The Canterbury Tales written in 1387 and Margery Kempe, a medieval mystic whose story is known as the first autobiography written in English in the 1432. Furthermore, this thesis explores how the Wife of Bath and Margery Kempe's relationships with literal and figurative food define their experiences as middle-class medieval wives. It is through food that the Wife of ...


The Rise And Fall Of South Carolina College, Robert D. Cathcart Iii Apr 2020

The Rise And Fall Of South Carolina College, Robert D. Cathcart Iii

Senior Theses

Through a thorough examination of the underpinnings of Classical education, as well as the history of South Carolina College, it is clear that the classical system is superior to the later University system imposed upon the College during the Reconstruction period. Classical education began in the Greek philosophic schools, such as the Academy and the Lyceum, and was intended to enrich the soul of its students, as well as to equip them for leadership in the future. But the most important aspect of this education was its universality. It is highly ironic that the original concept of the University began ...


Religious Culture Of The Crusader Kingdoms, Veronica Eva Szoke Jan 2020

Religious Culture Of The Crusader Kingdoms, Veronica Eva Szoke

Honors Program Theses

The geography of the crusader states cultivated their unique religious culture, which developed from the mix of Catholic and Holy Land traditions into a distinct combination that did not exist anywhere else in the medieval world.


Beer And Spirit: A Confluence Of Medieval Traditions In Brewing And Monasticism, Benjamin Louviere Jan 2020

Beer And Spirit: A Confluence Of Medieval Traditions In Brewing And Monasticism, Benjamin Louviere

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

This essay argues that the famed beer brewed by the Trappist order of Catholic monks today is a reflection of two abundantly rich traditions: brewing and monasticism. Initial examination of these two traditions finds their linkage a conceptual paradox, and my essay proposes that their reconciliation lies in a legacy of the Middle Ages, in which a uniquely spiritual ambition defined the labor practices of these brewing monks. Over the course of history, Benedictine thought has imbued the lives of a sizable demographic with practical meaning – that is, the men and women of prayer who have taken the monastic vocation ...


Severus Of Antioch And The Anti-Chalcedonian Movement, Benjamin Kimball Jan 2020

Severus Of Antioch And The Anti-Chalcedonian Movement, Benjamin Kimball

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

The Importance of Severus of Antioch in shaping the Anti-Chalcedonian Movement is hard to overstate, as his thought was vital in unifying the theology of the once disparate and divided Anti-Chalcedonians . His role extends even beyond the realm of theology and into politics where his activities played a major role in shaping the politics and policies of the last decade of the reign ofthe EmperorAnastasius. Even after his exile following the ascension of Justinian to power, Severus’s influence continued to be felt through the Anti-Chalcedonian movement, most especially in Syria. Where his legacy intellectual, culturalandpolitical was reshaped and redefined ...


Synchrony: An Aspect Of The Abilities Of Steppe Horse Archers In Eurasian Warfare (525 Bce – 1350 Ce), Chris Hanson Jan 2020

Synchrony: An Aspect Of The Abilities Of Steppe Horse Archers In Eurasian Warfare (525 Bce – 1350 Ce), Chris Hanson

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Animals moving in unison as a group are quite intriguing to observe. Horses can run across terrain and change directions without jostling each other. They appear to move as if they know how to avoid crashing into others and run fluidly through their environment. This ability to maneuver without hindering herd is called synchrony and also extends to other animals including fish in schools and birds in flocks. Humans, on the other hand, need to create orderly formations in battle to move without interfering with adjacent warriors. For example, the Romans, Greeks, Persians, Chinese, and Byzantines trained their infantry and ...


“Distance Learning” In The Ninth Century?: Micro-Cluster Analysis Of The Epistolary Network Of Alcuin After 796, William James Mattingly Jan 2020

“Distance Learning” In The Ninth Century?: Micro-Cluster Analysis Of The Epistolary Network Of Alcuin After 796, William James Mattingly

Theses and Dissertations--History

Scholars of eighth- and ninth-century education have assumed that intellectuals did not write works of Scriptural interpretation until that intellectual had a firm foundation in the seven liberal arts.This ensured that anyone who embarked on work of Scriptural interpretation would have the required knowledge and methods to read and interpret Scripture correctly. The potential for theological error and the transmission of those errors was too great unless the interpreter had the requisite training. This dissertation employs computistical methods, specifically the techniques of social network mapping and cluster analysis, to study closely the correspondence of Alcuin, a late-eighth- and early-ninth-century ...


How The Franks Became Frankish: The Power Of Law Codes And The Creation Of A People, Bruce H. Crosby Jan 2020

How The Franks Became Frankish: The Power Of Law Codes And The Creation Of A People, Bruce H. Crosby

Honors College Theses

During the fifth century, many Germanic peoples in Roman service assumed control over vast swathes of the Western Empire. Among these peoples were the Franks, who lend their name to the modern European nation of France. Thus, a question arises regarding how this came to be: how did illiterate tribes from Germania create a culture of their own that supplanted the Romans? Through an analysis of Frankish legal texts like the Lex Salica and the Capitularies of Charlemagne, this paper argues that the Franks forged their own identity by first formalizing their Germanic customs in the early sixth century and ...


The Tournament And Chivalry As Represented By Chrétien De Troyes, Marie De France, And Geoffrey Chaucer., Hailey Michelle Brangers Dec 2019

The Tournament And Chivalry As Represented By Chrétien De Troyes, Marie De France, And Geoffrey Chaucer., Hailey Michelle Brangers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is a common belief among historians that the tournament was the ultimate expression of chivalry, as a place where knights could openly display their prowess, courtoisie, and largesse. A knight’s relationship with ladies was also crucial to measuring his chivalrousness. Despite the importance of both within chivalric knighthood, little has been done to explore their interrelation. With romance literature being the most tangible source for understanding both the tournament and a lady’s role in it, this thesis explores the relationship between the two. I begin with a brief introductory history of the tournament, establishing its war-centric foundations ...


Förgörning To Trolldom: A History Of Danish Witchcraft And Magic, Cole M. Robert Jun 2019

Förgörning To Trolldom: A History Of Danish Witchcraft And Magic, Cole M. Robert

Honors Theses

Numerous historical texts have evaluated European witchcraft trials and beliefs to discover the political, social, theological, economic, and cultural factors that led to the persecution of accused witches. These texts largely focus on the trials in Continental Europe, predominantly Southwestern Germany, with scant mentions of the trials in northern Europe. The Danish witchcraft trials in the early seventeenth century are significant to the greater history of witchcraft because they were highly concentrated yet resulted in relatively few executions. This paper seeks to determine the origins of the Danish witch trials and to explain why the death toll was restrained, with ...


Words Speak Louder Than Actions: The Power Of Vocality And Oral Communication In Medieval Viking Literature, Yasmine Abdel-Jawad May 2019

Words Speak Louder Than Actions: The Power Of Vocality And Oral Communication In Medieval Viking Literature, Yasmine Abdel-Jawad

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This paper examines the nature of oral communication within medieval Nordic societies, specifically focusing on the usage of various speech acts in classic Viking literary texts. This essay explores the language employed by Viking characters, noting the ways in which they could demonstrate their power/authority through words as well as the way in which verbal ability could either elevate or diminish one’s social status.


The Great Heathen Failure: Why The Great Heathen Army Failed To Conquer The Whole Of Anglo-Saxon England, Ryan Macneill May 2019

The Great Heathen Failure: Why The Great Heathen Army Failed To Conquer The Whole Of Anglo-Saxon England, Ryan Macneill

Graduate Theses

In the year 865 CE, a coalition of Viking forces combined to form an army aimed at the conquest and settlement of England. Known as The Great Heathen Army, these Vikings managed to capture most of the territory that today constitutes England with the notable exception of the English kingdom of Wessex. And so, despite many successes, they failed to conquer all of English territory. Though these events, which transpired throughout the 860s and 870s, are well documented, the Viking perspective is rarely taken into account and there has yet to have been an argument that pinpoints how and why ...


Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson May 2019

Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the lives of impaired individuals catalogued in the Íslendingasögur as a narrative framework, this study examines medieval Scandinavian social views regarding impairment from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Beginning with the myths and legends of the eddic poetry and prose of Iceland, it investigates impairment in Norse pre-Christian belief; demonstrating how myth and memory informed medieval conceptualizations of the body. This thesis counters scholarly assumptions that the impaired were universally marginalized across medieval Europe. It argues that bodily difference, in the Norse world, was only viewed as a limitation when it prevented an individual from fulfilling roles that ...


Queen Eleanor Of Aquitaine: Political Motherhood In The Middle Ages, Sherry Lynn Mason May 2019

Queen Eleanor Of Aquitaine: Political Motherhood In The Middle Ages, Sherry Lynn Mason

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Historians have frequently written on the life of Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) although few have studied her role as an affectionate, devoted, dutiful mother. This work is an attempt to address this situation through the study of available primary sources on Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. Even though she was Queen of France (1137-1152) and England (1137-1189) she was considered less important than any man of her class because of the societal norms of the time. In reality she played an important part in the Angevin Empire for the power and influence she wielded in her own right. She used this ...


Necessity Rather Than Influence: The Use Of Satirical Elements By Dante Alighieri And Geoffrey Chaucer As A Result Of The Social Conditions During The Middle Ages, Kendra Makenzie Carter May 2019

Necessity Rather Than Influence: The Use Of Satirical Elements By Dante Alighieri And Geoffrey Chaucer As A Result Of The Social Conditions During The Middle Ages, Kendra Makenzie Carter

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis compares the modes of satire utilized by Dante in the Divine Comedy and Chaucer in theCanterbury Tales, and considers the direct and indirect historical and religious influencers which impacted each author’s satirical style.


"We Are Strangers In This Life": Theology, Liminality, And The Exiled In Anglo-Saxon Literature, Nathan John Haydon May 2019

"We Are Strangers In This Life": Theology, Liminality, And The Exiled In Anglo-Saxon Literature, Nathan John Haydon

Theses and Dissertations

In “‘We Are Strangers in this Life’: Theology, Liminality, and the Exiled in Anglo-Saxon Literature,” I analyze the theme of exile in the theological literature of the Anglo-Saxon era as a way of conveying the spiritual condition of eschatological separation. The anthropological theory of liminality will be applied in this dissertation as a way of contextualizing the existence of the exiled, and the multiple ways in which exile is enacted. The intervention of the theory of liminality in this dissertation offers a methodology and vocabulary for assessing what exile means in terms of a spiritual identity, how it operates in ...


Economies Of Salvation In English Anchoritic Texts, 1100-1400, Joshua Edward Britt Apr 2019

Economies Of Salvation In English Anchoritic Texts, 1100-1400, Joshua Edward Britt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the different ways medieval authors conceived of anchoritism and solitary life by focusing on three important phases of the movement which are represented by Wulfric of Haselbury, Christina of Markyate, and fourteenth-century mystics. It is grounded in the medieval English anchoritic literature that was produced by religious scholars between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries. Initially, lacking a tradition of their own and a language to articulate the anchoritic experience, medieval hagiographers borrowed the desert imagery from the story of the early fathers who lived in the Syrian and Egyptian deserts, which they viewed as a place of ...


Weaponizing Ordinary Objects: Women, Masculine Performance, And The Anxieties Of Men In Medieval Iceland, Steven T. Dunn Mar 2019

Weaponizing Ordinary Objects: Women, Masculine Performance, And The Anxieties Of Men In Medieval Iceland, Steven T. Dunn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis unravels the deeper meanings attributed to ordinary objects, such as clothing and food, in thirteenth-century Icelandic literature and legal records. I argue that women weaponized these ordinary objects to circumvent their social and legal disadvantages by performing acts that medieval Icelandic society deemed masculine. By comparing various literary sources, however, I show that medieval Icelandic society gradually redefined and questioned the acceptability of that behavior, especially during the thirteenth-century. This is particularly evident in the late thirteenth-century Njal’s Saga, wherein a woman named Hallgerd has been villainized for stealing cheese from a troublesome neighbor. If Hallgerd were ...


Mortality And Meals: The Black Death’S Impact On Diet In England, Jessica Cordova Mar 2019

Mortality And Meals: The Black Death’S Impact On Diet In England, Jessica Cordova

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper investigates the role of the Black Death in developing England’s eating habits and culinary traditions. The mid-fourteenth century saw a marked change in English cuisine, change that traversed the classes. This change correlates with the timing of the Black Death, an episode of extreme mortality cause by bubonic plague. Notorious as the greatest single source of death across medieval Europe, the Black Death looms in modern minds as an unparalleled tragedy. Between 1348 to 1350, the Black Death swept across Europe and killed between one third and one half of the population. England endured an average of ...


Uncovering The Sources: Historical Characters In Dante's Divine Comedy, Vanessa Dimaggio Jan 2019

Uncovering The Sources: Historical Characters In Dante's Divine Comedy, Vanessa Dimaggio

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A lack of citation of Dante’s specific source material for historical characters who appear in the Divine Comedy is widespread throughout the commentary tradition. I performed a close textual analysis of the Divine Comedy’s historical characters, comparing them with the chronicles, annals and histories of Dante’s time, using both archival research and secondary histories to do so, and interpreted those primary historical texts as potential sources consulted by Dante. The historical characters I focused on fell into three categories: 1) characters involved in the battles of Montaperti and Colle Val d’Elsa, 2) characters belonging to or ...