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Full-Text Articles in History

In And Outside City Walls: Medieval Jewish Communities And Rulership In German Cities, Zoe K. Schwartz Nov 2020

In And Outside City Walls: Medieval Jewish Communities And Rulership In German Cities, Zoe K. Schwartz

The Macksey Journal

As one would expect, Jewish life within the German Kingdom in the high middle ages (1000-1300 CE) was fraught with instability. The micro-history of specific Jewish communities has been undertaken by historians in the past, but the Jewish experience within multiple cities has yet to be compared. Due to the diversity of German city authority structures, the restrictions and privileges put upon the community were diverse. How these laws effect the daily life of the Jewish community was subject to the gentile authority of bishops, for those inhabiting bishop-cities, or the Emperor directly, for those living in free imperial states ...


Gísli’S Súrsson’S Saga: A Conversion Case Study, Sarah S. Penney Nov 2020

Gísli’S Súrsson’S Saga: A Conversion Case Study, Sarah S. Penney

The Macksey Journal

This paper examines an Icelandic Saga, Gísli Súrsson’s Saga, with the aid of key readings in liminal space theory, medieval Christian philosophy, and The King’s Two Bodies by Ernst Kantorowicz. Building on prior scholarship by William I. Miller and other scholars of medieval outlawry, the paper focuses on Gísli's symbolic status as a break from Iceland’s pagan background due to his liminal state, outlawry, apparent belief systems and values, and suggested relation to medieval Christian philosophy. Gísli is an outlier, but he is also a precursor to Iceland’s eventual conversion to Christianity because of his ...


Art, Anatomy, And Political Theory In The Late Renaissance: Creating An Image Of The Renaissance Body, Isabel Lauren Gheytanchi Oct 2020

Art, Anatomy, And Political Theory In The Late Renaissance: Creating An Image Of The Renaissance Body, Isabel Lauren Gheytanchi

The Macksey Journal

Universal access to the human body allows the body to serve as a common standard to which all things are measured against; an accessible analog. Societies cling to the comfort and stability of the universal human body when approaching new ideas. So naturally by the end of the European Renaissance (1450-1650) the prevalence of the human body in intellectual and artistic circles reflected the chaos brought on by new, unsettling Renaissance ideas. But with these new ideas and discoveries came a new understanding of embodiment: The Renaissance’s cultural construction of the human body. Previous historians have emphasized the advancement ...


“She Is A Boy, Or If Not A Boy, Then A Boy Resembles Her”: Cross-Dressing, Homosexuality And Enslaved Sex And Gender In Umayyad Iberia, India Kotis Sep 2020

“She Is A Boy, Or If Not A Boy, Then A Boy Resembles Her”: Cross-Dressing, Homosexuality And Enslaved Sex And Gender In Umayyad Iberia, India Kotis

The Macksey Journal

This paper will interrogate the cultural origins and social consequences of three non-normative sex and gender categories in medieval Islamic Spain during the 9th-11th centuries: Eunuchs, ghumaliyyat, and homosexuality. I pay special attention to Christian eunuchs, who came to occupy an important social and political role as caliphs' preferred type of enslaved servant, and to ghumaliyyat, a term used to describe a young enslaved woman who would masculinize herself in order to appeal to men. When Islamic Umayyads conquered al-Andalus during the 8th century, they brought with them a bevy of cultural practices that were disruptive to native Iberian Christians ...


Does The Painter Know The Bridle And Bit?: Monastic Art And Literature As Sources For The History Of Maritime Technology, 750-1200, Angus C.B. Warren Jul 2020

Does The Painter Know The Bridle And Bit?: Monastic Art And Literature As Sources For The History Of Maritime Technology, 750-1200, Angus C.B. Warren

The Macksey Journal

Recent studies of northern European ships and shipping in the Middle Ages have treated manuscript illuminations as reliable sources of technical information concerning vessel construction. On the strength of apparent correlation between the fragmentary archaeological record and the much fuller corpus of illustrations, Dr. Joe Flatman has argued that monastic artists of the tenth through thirteenth centuries interacted closely with ships and understood their form and function. However, the illuminations do not support this view: instead, there is strong evidence that manuscript painters derived their maritime compositions from imitation of earlier illustrations. Similarly, monastic literature exhibits no familiarity with either ...