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Medieval History

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1866

Full-Text Articles in History

Modern Intolerance And The Medieval Crusades [Excerpted From Whose Middle Ages?], Nicholas L. Paul Oct 2019

Modern Intolerance And The Medieval Crusades [Excerpted From Whose Middle Ages?], Nicholas L. Paul

History

Whose Middle Ages? is an interdisciplinary collection of short, accessible essays intended for the non-specialist reader and ideal for teaching at an undergraduate level. Each of twenty-two essays takes up an area where humans have dug for meaning into the medieval past and brought something distorted back into the present: in our popular entertainment; in our news, our politics, and our propaganda; and in subtler ways that inform how we think about our histories, our countries, and ourselves. Each author teases out the stakes of a history that has refused to remain past and uses the tools of the academy ...


Whose Middle Ages?: Teachable Moments For An Ill-Used Past [Table Of Contents], Andrew Albin, Mary C. Erler, Thomas O'Donnell, Nicholas L. Paul, Nina Rowe Oct 2019

Whose Middle Ages?: Teachable Moments For An Ill-Used Past [Table Of Contents], Andrew Albin, Mary C. Erler, Thomas O'Donnell, Nicholas L. Paul, Nina Rowe

History

Whose Middle Ages? is an interdisciplinary collection of short, accessible essays intended for the nonspecialist reader and ideal for teaching at an undergraduate level. Each of twenty-two essays takes up an area where digging for meaning in the medieval past has brought something distorted back into the present: in our popular entertainment; in our news, our politics, and our propaganda; and in subtler ways that inform how we think about our histories, our countries, and ourselves. Each author looks to a history that has refused to remain past and uses the tools of the academy to read and re-read familiar ...


Pirates, Merchants, And A Small Battle On The Island Of Kythira In The Later Middle Ages, David D. Terry Aug 2019

Pirates, Merchants, And A Small Battle On The Island Of Kythira In The Later Middle Ages, David D. Terry

The Hilltop Review

Merchants in the later medieval Mediterranean crossed boundaries both geographical and moral. In November 1327 two Mallorcan investors complained to the king’s court that their ship, which they had sent to the eastern Mediterranean laden with tradable goods, had been ransacked by the violent natives of Kythera, an Aegean island at that time ruled by Venice. The Venetians, always conscious of maintaining good trade relations, sent representatives to the island and conducted a full investigation. After interviewing the islanders, the duke of the island sent his conclusions back to Venice: the Catalan “merchants” had come ashore on the island ...


Royalist Propaganda: Fabrication Of Magna Farta, Daniel R. Palthe Aug 2019

Royalist Propaganda: Fabrication Of Magna Farta, Daniel R. Palthe

The Hilltop Review

This paper examines the perception and usage of Magna Carta in interregnum England. The central question is whether or not Oliver Cromwell ever referred to this royal document as the "Magna Farta." While one of the most common posthumous charges against him was a disdain for Magna Carta and English rights, accounts of his calling it a "Magna Farta" are questionable. The ways in which the Magna Carta was actually used under Cromwell rather seems to indicate a different opinion. Essentially, this paper compares royalist propaganda with the Commonwealth's accounts.


Love, Sex, And Marriage In Ibn Battuta's Travels, Rachel Singer Jun 2019

Love, Sex, And Marriage In Ibn Battuta's Travels, Rachel Singer

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

Abu ‘Abdallah ibn Battuta was a Muslim legal scholar who traveled nearly 73,000 miles in the mid-fourteenth century and wrote a popular rihla, or travel diary, of his experiences. The rihla was a public and impersonal genre that traditionally contained little, if any, biographical material about its author. However, Ibn Battuta’s rihla includes detailed narratives about its author’s marriages, concubines, and sexual exploits. Although discussion of these themes is virtually unseen in other contemporary rihlas, few historians have discussed why Ibn Battuta breaks tradition to include this material.

This paper argues that Ibn Battuta describes his marital ...


The Teutonic Order And The Baltic Crusades, Alex Eidler Jun 2019

The Teutonic Order And The Baltic Crusades, Alex Eidler

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

When people think of Crusades, they often think of the wars in the Holy Lands rather than regions inside of Europe, which many believe to have already been Christian. The Baltic Crusades began during the Second Crusade (1147-1149) but continued well into the fifteenth century. Unlike the crusades in the Holy Lands which were initiated to retake holy cities and pilgrimage sites, the Baltic crusades were implemented by the German archbishoprics of Bremen and Magdeburg to combat pagan tribes in the Baltic region which included Estonia, Prussia, Lithuania, and Latvia. The Teutonic Order, which arrived in the Baltic region in ...


Förgörning To Trolldom: A History Of Danish Witchcraft And Magic, Cole M. Robert Jun 2019

Förgörning To Trolldom: A History Of Danish Witchcraft And Magic, Cole M. Robert

Honors Theses

Numerous historical texts have evaluated European witchcraft trials and beliefs to discover the political, social, theological, economic, and cultural factors that led to the persecution of accused witches. These texts largely focus on the trials in Continental Europe, predominantly Southwestern Germany, with scant mentions of the trials in northern Europe. The Danish witchcraft trials in the early seventeenth century are significant to the greater history of witchcraft because they were highly concentrated yet resulted in relatively few executions. This paper seeks to determine the origins of the Danish witch trials and to explain why the death toll was restrained, with ...


Words Speak Louder Than Actions: The Power Of Vocality And Oral Communication In Medieval Viking Literature, Yasmine Abdel-Jawad May 2019

Words Speak Louder Than Actions: The Power Of Vocality And Oral Communication In Medieval Viking Literature, Yasmine Abdel-Jawad

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This paper examines the nature of oral communication within medieval Nordic societies, specifically focusing on the usage of various speech acts in classic Viking literary texts. This essay explores the language employed by Viking characters, noting the ways in which they could demonstrate their power/authority through words as well as the way in which verbal ability could either elevate or diminish one’s social status.


Searching For Medieval Lesbianism And "Lesbianistic Intimacy" Within Asexual Christian Religious Orders Of The Middle Ages: G. Unice Sue Rose And C. Super Mel Et Favum Dulciori, Isabelle Paylor May 2019

Searching For Medieval Lesbianism And "Lesbianistic Intimacy" Within Asexual Christian Religious Orders Of The Middle Ages: G. Unice Sue Rose And C. Super Mel Et Favum Dulciori, Isabelle Paylor

Young Historians Conference

From an era characterized by piety and a fierce hostility towards sexuality, the field of medieval lesbianism asserts that evidence of medieval 'lesbians' exist within women’s music, art, texts, and literature despite the phallocentric and theological refutations of medieval theologians and historians. Yet, even within the highly controversial and complex field, clerical lesbianism is "twice marginalized" and egregiously simplified. Where does evidence of medieval women-identified relationships within religious orders exist, what constitutes this religious lesbianism, and how should scholarship discuss medieval lesbianism? This paper answers these questions first analyzing the anonymous, 12th century love-letters G. unice sue rose and ...


The Examination Of Inconsistencies Among The Misconception, Ideology, And Reality Of The Punishment Of Male And Female Adulterers Through Letters And Court Records, Julie Ho Lely May 2019

The Examination Of Inconsistencies Among The Misconception, Ideology, And Reality Of The Punishment Of Male And Female Adulterers Through Letters And Court Records, Julie Ho Lely

Young Historians Conference

Due to the misogynistic roots of history, many scholars believe that female adulterers were punished more harshly than male adulterers; however, the wholistic examination of religion, gender norms, and medieval law reveal that despite the church’s ideology of equal condemnation of male and female adulterers, in reality, male adulterers were punished more frequently than women. By addressing the misconceptions, ideologies, and realities relating to adultery, this enables us to comprehend how social norms, law, and religion mutually influence each other while also revealing inconsistencies between the different fields. This paper focuses on adultery cases in the medieval times and ...


Necessity Rather Than Influence: The Use Of Satirical Elements By Dante Alighieri And Geoffrey Chaucer As A Result Of The Social Conditions During The Middle Ages, Kendra Makenzie Carter May 2019

Necessity Rather Than Influence: The Use Of Satirical Elements By Dante Alighieri And Geoffrey Chaucer As A Result Of The Social Conditions During The Middle Ages, Kendra Makenzie Carter

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis compares the modes of satire utilized by Dante in the Divine Comedy and Chaucer in theCanterbury Tales, and considers the direct and indirect historical and religious influencers which impacted each author’s satirical style.


Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson May 2019

Children Of A One-Eyed God: Impairment In The Myth And Memory Of Medieval Scandinavia, Michael David Lawson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Using the lives of impaired individuals catalogued in the Íslendingasögur as a narrative framework, this study examines medieval Scandinavian social views regarding impairment from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Beginning with the myths and legends of the eddic poetry and prose of Iceland, it investigates impairment in Norse pre-Christian belief; demonstrating how myth and memory informed medieval conceptualizations of the body. This thesis counters scholarly assumptions that the impaired were universally marginalized across medieval Europe. It argues that bodily difference, in the Norse world, was only viewed as a limitation when it prevented an individual from fulfilling roles that ...


Queen Eleanor Of Aquitaine: Political Motherhood In The Middle Ages, Sherry Lynn Mason May 2019

Queen Eleanor Of Aquitaine: Political Motherhood In The Middle Ages, Sherry Lynn Mason

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Historians have frequently written on the life of Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) although few have studied her role as an affectionate, devoted, dutiful mother. This work is an attempt to address this situation through the study of available primary sources on Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. Even though she was Queen of France (1137-1152) and England (1137-1189) she was considered less important than any man of her class because of the societal norms of the time. In reality she played an important part in the Angevin Empire for the power and influence she wielded in her own right. She used this ...


Front Matter, Medieval Feminist Forum, V.54, No.2, Winter 2018 May 2019

Front Matter, Medieval Feminist Forum, V.54, No.2, Winter 2018

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


Cristalian De Espana, Ana Grinberg May 2019

Cristalian De Espana, Ana Grinberg

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


The Wealth Of Wives: A Fifteenth-Century Marriage Manual, Olympia Pelosi May 2019

The Wealth Of Wives: A Fifteenth-Century Marriage Manual, Olympia Pelosi

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


Afterlives Of Rape In Medieval English Literature, Nicole Nyffenegger May 2019

Afterlives Of Rape In Medieval English Literature, Nicole Nyffenegger

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


The Encyclopedia Of Medieval Literature In Britain, Alexandra Reider May 2019

The Encyclopedia Of Medieval Literature In Britain, Alexandra Reider

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


Anglo-Saxon Literary Landscapes: Ecotheory And The Environmental Imagination, Renee R. Trilling May 2019

Anglo-Saxon Literary Landscapes: Ecotheory And The Environmental Imagination, Renee R. Trilling

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


Monastic Women And Religious Orders In Late Medieval Bologna, Margaret Aziza Pappano May 2019

Monastic Women And Religious Orders In Late Medieval Bologna, Margaret Aziza Pappano

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


A Revelation Of Purgatory, Barbara Zimbalist May 2019

A Revelation Of Purgatory, Barbara Zimbalist

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


Approaches To Teaching Behn's Oroonoko, Laura Saetveit Miles May 2019

Approaches To Teaching Behn's Oroonoko, Laura Saetveit Miles

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


The Book Of The Mutability Of Fortune By Christine De Pizan, Roberta Krueger May 2019

The Book Of The Mutability Of Fortune By Christine De Pizan, Roberta Krueger

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


Back Matter, Medieval Feminist Forum, V.54, No.2, Winter 2018 May 2019

Back Matter, Medieval Feminist Forum, V.54, No.2, Winter 2018

Medieval Feminist Forum: A Journal of Gender and Sexuality

No abstract provided.


"We Are Strangers In This Life": Theology, Liminality, And The Exiled In Anglo-Saxon Literature, Nathan John Haydon May 2019

"We Are Strangers In This Life": Theology, Liminality, And The Exiled In Anglo-Saxon Literature, Nathan John Haydon

Theses and Dissertations

In “‘We Are Strangers in this Life’: Theology, Liminality, and the Exiled in Anglo-Saxon Literature,” I analyze the theme of exile in the theological literature of the Anglo-Saxon era as a way of conveying the spiritual condition of eschatological separation. The anthropological theory of liminality will be applied in this dissertation as a way of contextualizing the existence of the exiled, and the multiple ways in which exile is enacted. The intervention of the theory of liminality in this dissertation offers a methodology and vocabulary for assessing what exile means in terms of a spiritual identity, how it operates in ...


The Great Heathen Failure: Why The Great Heathen Army Failed To Conquer The Whole Of Anglo-Saxon England, Ryan Macneill May 2019

The Great Heathen Failure: Why The Great Heathen Army Failed To Conquer The Whole Of Anglo-Saxon England, Ryan Macneill

Graduate Theses

In the year 865 CE, a coalition of Viking forces combined to form an army aimed at the conquest and settlement of England. Known as The Great Heathen Army, these Vikings managed to capture most of the territory that today constitutes England with the notable exception of the English kingdom of Wessex. And so, despite many successes, they failed to conquer all of English territory. Though these events, which transpired throughout the 860s and 870s, are well documented, the Viking perspective is rarely taken into account and there has yet to have been an argument that pinpoints how and why ...


Englands Happie Queene: Female Rulers In Early English History, Emily Benes Apr 2019

Englands Happie Queene: Female Rulers In Early English History, Emily Benes

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This paper examines the historical records and later literature surrounding three early mythic and historical British queens: Albina, mythic founder of Albion; Cordelia, pre-Roman queen regnant in British legend; and Boudica, the British leader of a first-century CE rebellion against the Romans. My work focuses on who these queens were, what powers they were given, and the mythos around them. I examine when they appear in the historical record and when their stories are expanded upon, and how those stories were influenced by the political culture of England through the early seventeenth century. In particular, I examine English attitudes toward ...


Ms- 241: Harry Dravo Parkin Wwi Memoir, Joy Zanghi Apr 2019

Ms- 241: Harry Dravo Parkin Wwi Memoir, Joy Zanghi

All Finding Aids

This small collection includes five bound volumes of a memoir written by Harry Dravo Parkin. The collection contains information regarding his experience in WWI as a wounded prisoner of war as well as everyday life as a major.

Special Collections and College Archives Finding Aids are discovery tools used to describe and provide access to our holdings. Finding aids include historical and biographical information about each collection in addition to inventories of their content. More information about our collections can be found on our website https://www.gettysburg.edu/special-collections/collections/.


Women In The First Crusade And The Kingdom Of Jerusalem, Maria Carriere Apr 2019

Women In The First Crusade And The Kingdom Of Jerusalem, Maria Carriere

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

An overview of the actions of women in the first crusade.


Mortality And Meals: The Black Death’S Impact On Diet In England, Jessica Cordova Mar 2019

Mortality And Meals: The Black Death’S Impact On Diet In England, Jessica Cordova

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper investigates the role of the Black Death in developing England’s eating habits and culinary traditions. The mid-fourteenth century saw a marked change in English cuisine, change that traversed the classes. This change correlates with the timing of the Black Death, an episode of extreme mortality cause by bubonic plague. Notorious as the greatest single source of death across medieval Europe, the Black Death looms in modern minds as an unparalleled tragedy. Between 1348 to 1350, the Black Death swept across Europe and killed between one third and one half of the population. England endured an average of ...