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2002

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

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Historical Buddhist Kesa Robes As Inspiration For Contemporary Fiber Art, Betsy Sterling Benjamin Jan 2002

Historical Buddhist Kesa Robes As Inspiration For Contemporary Fiber Art, Betsy Sterling Benjamin

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The Japanese kesa or kasaya in Sanskrit, originated in India in 4th century BC as a robe for the devotees of Buddha Sakyamuni. Created in the brick-like pattern of the Asian rice-field, the original kasaya were constructed of discarded fabric that was cleansed, (redyed and stitched together with prayers as a devotional act. When Buddhism came to ( Japan in the 6th century AD the kesa followed, a treasured manifestation of the Buddhist dharma. One of the earliest extant Japanese kesa, composed of seven layers of silk, in nine vibrant colors, bound together with tiny stitches belonged to Emperor Shomu (701 ...


From The Village House To The Urban Markets: The Evolution Of Silk Production In Laos, Linda S. Mcintosh Jan 2002

From The Village House To The Urban Markets: The Evolution Of Silk Production In Laos, Linda S. Mcintosh

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

This paper examines the development of silk textile production in Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic). Silk textiles have important sociocultural roles in Lao society, as markers of identity and wealth in contemporary Lao society as they had in the past. The various Tai ethnic groups, including the Lao, who have been the political majority of Laos since the 14th century CE, are the producers of silk textiles in Laos. Women are historically the producers of textiles for domestic consumption and exchange at the village level and beyond. Silk textiles signify special occasions such as weddings, religious events, and funerals ...


Hand Spinning And Cotton In The Aztec Empire, As Revealed By The Codex Mendoza, Susan M. Strawn Jan 2002

Hand Spinning And Cotton In The Aztec Empire, As Revealed By The Codex Mendoza, Susan M. Strawn

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

At a lecture titled “Growing Up Aztec,” art historian Jill Furst illustrated Aztec childhood with images from the Codex Mendoza, an extraordinary, post- Hispanic pictorial manuscript from central Mexico. The Mendoza specified the lessons, punishments, and even the number of tortillas appropriate for boys and girls during each year of childhood. Interestingly, the Codex Mendoza showed spinning as the only instruction given to Aztec girls between the ages of four and thirteen years. In 1992, the University of California Press published a full color facsimile of the Codex Mendoza with a translation into English and with extensive interpretation in four ...


Preface, Marjorie Senechal, Pamela Parmal Jan 2002

Preface, Marjorie Senechal, Pamela Parmal

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Silk Roads, Other Roads, the Eighth Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, was held September 26-28, 2002 at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. Anthropologists, archeologists, artists, art historians, conservators, curators, designers, historians, and other professionals contributed to the rich and varied program featuring silk and other textiles around the world and through time. Topics included archaeology along the silk road; textile artisans and sustainable development; textiles along the spice routes; acculturation; silk in medieval Europe; silk production in mainland Southeast Asia; the American silk industry and, more generally, its textile industry; Andean textiles; silk traditions in Japan; new ...


Clothing Styles From A Provincial Inca Outpost, Grace Katterman Jan 2002

Clothing Styles From A Provincial Inca Outpost, Grace Katterman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

My recent study of Inca Period clothing has involved textile collections from three south coastal areas of Peru (Figure 1): Pachacamac, a large Inca center and temple complex just south of Lima (Uhle 1903/1991: Ch XXI: 89-96); Rodadero, a storage facility overlooking the Inca center of Tambo Viejo in the Acari Valley (Katterman and Riddell (1992:141-167); and Burial House #2, the western hillside cemetery affiliated with the Inca outpost of Quebrada de La Vaca in the Chala Drainage (Katterman 2003b). From the burial house (Figure 6), Dorothy Menzel and Francis Riddell collected and documented 120 burials plus an ...


Creative Methods Of Reproduction: Two Japanese Weaving Innovations Developed In Imitation Of Complex Foreign Textiles, Keiko Kobayashi Jan 2002

Creative Methods Of Reproduction: Two Japanese Weaving Innovations Developed In Imitation Of Complex Foreign Textiles, Keiko Kobayashi

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

When a certain effect in textiles can be achieved on two different weaving apparatuses, it is common practice to assume the simpler method to be the more primitive and thus antecedent to the more advanced technique. This paper will discuss two unique Japanese weaving methods that testify to the fact that simple techniques do not always predate their more sophisticated counterparts. In these examples, the simpler weaving methods were actually created in imitation of preexisting textiles from other regions that had been woven on more complex looms. The first of these examples is the Japanese method for voided velvet; the ...


Entrepreneurship And Control In Eighteenth Century Silk Manufacture: The Case Of Philippe Lasalle, Lyonnais Silk Designer Extraordinaire, Lesley Ellis Miller Jan 2002

Entrepreneurship And Control In Eighteenth Century Silk Manufacture: The Case Of Philippe Lasalle, Lyonnais Silk Designer Extraordinaire, Lesley Ellis Miller

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

As early as 1787, the abbe Bertolon lauded the achievements of the Lyonnais designer and manufacturer Philippe de Lasalle (1723-1804). In the course of this now oft-cited eulogy, Bertolon called Lasalle variously designer, manufacturer, and businessman, three terms that Lasalle himself was happy to adopt from the late 1740s onwards. In the 1770s. Lasalle added to these social descriptors, those of inventor and Chevalier de I 'Ordre de Saint Michel, having been rewarded for his improvements to the drawloom, one of a long list of services and inventions for which he sought State subsidies from the late 1750s. While Lasalle ...


Threads Of Resistance: Unraveling The Meanings Of!9ih Century Tlingit Beaded Regalia, Megan A. Smetzer Jan 2002

Threads Of Resistance: Unraveling The Meanings Of!9ih Century Tlingit Beaded Regalia, Megan A. Smetzer

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Although not the first to make the connection, Ensign Albert Niblack of the U.S. Navy wrote most succinctly in 1888: "There seems nothing unreasonable in tracing the origin of much of the dance and ceremonial paraphernalia to customs originating in war." Since that time, numerous scholars have suggested and disputed links between Tlingit carved and painted armor and ceremonial regalia. Beaded regalia, on the other hand has been almost entirely neglected in Northwest Coast ethnographic literature due to notions of authenticity and cultural degeneration. In 1945, anthropologist Erna Gunther for example, explained beaded dance collars as a mere disguise ...


A Tradition Of Weft-Oriented Silk Weaving In Japan: Samit And “Post-Samit” From Japanese Temple And Shrine Collections In American Museums, Yuko Fukatsu Jan 2002

A Tradition Of Weft-Oriented Silk Weaving In Japan: Samit And “Post-Samit” From Japanese Temple And Shrine Collections In American Museums, Yuko Fukatsu

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

During the twentieth century, American museums acquired rare ancient and medieval textiles derived from Japanese temple collections. Among them, several types of weft-oriented polychrome silks from the eighth to fourteenth centuries can be identified.

Polychrome silks brought to Japan through the Silk Road had been treasured among the Japanese aristocracy, and mainly preserved in Hōryuji temple, and the Shōsoin of Tōdaiji temple. They contained a specific group of early weft-oriented silk textiles called ‘samit,’ a type of weft-compound weave that was dominant in China as well as in the Byzantine world. The weaving technique was introduced to Japan from China ...


Hausa Hand-Embroidery And Local Development In Northern Nigeria, Elisha P. Renne Jan 2002

Hausa Hand-Embroidery And Local Development In Northern Nigeria, Elisha P. Renne

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Introduction

The Hausa people of Northern Nigeria have long been known for their production of voluminous robes known as babban riga (Heathcote 1972; Kriger 1988; Lamb and Holmes 1980; Perani and Wolff 1999; Picton and Mack 1979), which are handembroidered in a range of embroidery stitches, materials (mainly cotton and silk), styles, and designs (e.g., fig.l). Until recently, the embroidery of these robes was primarily done by men (Heathcote 1972, 1979). However, women have taken up this work (fig. 2) in the past twenty years, as men have turned to machine embroidery and other occupations, though women generally ...


Silk In Ancient Nubia: One Road, Many Sources, Nettie K. Adams, William S. Webb Jan 2002

Silk In Ancient Nubia: One Road, Many Sources, Nettie K. Adams, William S. Webb

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Silk in ancient Africa? Most of us think of ancient Africans as members of a tribe, living by subsistence farming or herding, in villages of grass houses. But Nubia, the ancient Kush, located along the Nile in southern Egypt and the northern part of the Sudan, (Fig.l) was inhabited by an African people who, by 1800 BC, had developed their own high civilization. The Kushites were suppliers of ivory, ebony, gold, ostrich feathers, animal skins, and slaves to ancient Egypt and elsewhere in the Mediterranean world. In exchange they received a wide variety of manufactured goods.

By the fourth ...


Ribbons Around The Silk Road---Before Silk (Toward A Pre-History Of Band Weaving), E.J.W. Barber Jan 2002

Ribbons Around The Silk Road---Before Silk (Toward A Pre-History Of Band Weaving), E.J.W. Barber

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The salty sands of the Tarim Basin, along the route of the later "Silk Road", have produced masses of textiles, splendidly preserved with all their colors, from 2000 BC down to the recent past. In 1995 Irene Good and I had the privilege of being invited to study some of the earliest textiles from this region--those preceding the Chinese entry into the area about 110 BC. I was particularly struck by the prevalence of textile bands, the subject I now wish to explore.

The earliest textiles there come from around Loulan, the dry, salty, and desolate northeast corner of the ...


Woven Bands, Medicines And Recipes: Cod. Pal. Germ. 551. The Adventures, Provenance And Contents Of A 15th Century Manuscript Held At The Library Of Heidelberg University In Germany., Ute Bargmann Jan 2002

Woven Bands, Medicines And Recipes: Cod. Pal. Germ. 551. The Adventures, Provenance And Contents Of A 15th Century Manuscript Held At The Library Of Heidelberg University In Germany., Ute Bargmann

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Today, we are going to visit Heidelberg, the city where the earliest German University was founded in 1386. On account of its romantic setting, it became one of the internationally popular institutions in the 19th century. Here, we will visit the University Library, where the manuscript we are to discuss today is housed. It is on the shelf in the Department of Manuscripts, bound in a modest working cover of the 19th century.

History

We shall embark on a journey of more than 500 years into the past and through some very trying times that helped shape present-day Central Europe ...


Expressions In Silk: Embroidered Miniatures On Historic Textiles From The Armenian Apostolic Churches Of Istanbul, Marlene Breu, Ronald T. Marchese Jan 2002

Expressions In Silk: Embroidered Miniatures On Historic Textiles From The Armenian Apostolic Churches Of Istanbul, Marlene Breu, Ronald T. Marchese

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

"The perfection of execution, the rendering of figures, garments and faces is as magnificent as the best embroidery work of any period and any nation." (Kouymjian 1992, 59)

Introduction

The assessment of Armenian embroidery offered by Kouymjian in his publication The Arts of Armenia is reflected in a collection of textile objects housed in the treasuries of the 33 Armenian Apostolic Churches and the Patriarchate (the official residence of the Patriarch) in Istanbul, Turkey. The textiles, many donated by devout members of the Church community, are still used in celebrations of the Divine Liturgy. The collections contain examples of the ...


Peacock Alley: Highway 41 And The Growth Of The Chenille Bedspread Industry, Ashley Callahan Jan 2002

Peacock Alley: Highway 41 And The Growth Of The Chenille Bedspread Industry, Ashley Callahan

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

In the fall of 1935, a newspaper editor traveled from Oklahoma City to Atlanta to attend a baseball game, and along the way encountered a stretch of road near Dalton, Georgia known as Bedspread Boulevard. He recorded his experiences in his daily column: “Twisting through northern Georgia late Saturday afternoon, dodging cotton wagons and trying to get an eyeful of the gorgeous tints that glorified the turning trees in the mountains, I thought I saw a washing strung on a line by the roadside. Soon another flashed past. Then they followed in regular succession. . . . Is it possible they get no ...


Copyright Jan 2002

Copyright

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Silk Roads, Other Roads

Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Symposium of the Textile Society of America, Inc.

Copyright remains the property of the individual authors.

All rights reserved. Published 2003. Printed in the United States of America

The papers are unedited and reproduced as submitted. No part of this book may bereproduced in any form or by any means without written permission from the author. Students and researchers wishing to cite specific authors are encouraged to contact those individuals, as many of these papers represent work in progress, or work which has been committed for publication elsewhere. This volume contains ...


Textiles As Image, Virginia Davis Jan 2002

Textiles As Image, Virginia Davis

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

I am an artist who has a strong interest in color theory and theories of perception and I have the power to weave my own canvas. I want to emphasize the importance for me of the study of textile history, and the privilege of viewing museum collections. Although I began weaving with silk, now I literally weave painter's linen canvas similar to the sort that can be purchased from artists' materials suppliers. Formally, the work explores optical aspects of vision and nuances of value contrast. Ikat and weave structure give special effects. Ikat technique, dyeing and painting the yarn ...


“Dichotomies In Silk: Shrinking And Stretching”, Genevieve Dion Jan 2002

“Dichotomies In Silk: Shrinking And Stretching”, Genevieve Dion

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Shibori processes can be used to generate highly-textured surface designs for the production of pure silk garments that permanently retain their form and elasticity. Fabric is first shaped using a variety of traditional stitch-resist shibori techniques on greige goods (untreated fabric) of Japanese Gunma silk, a special fabric with highly over-spun silk filaments. Next, fabric is scoured, causing it to shrink – an effect of the high-twist yarns. In unprotected areas, the textile is permanently pleated, whereas the remaining stitch-resisted and protected areas of the fabric become permanently textured. Texture can further be enhanced 0through shibori dyeing.

A major consideration ...


A Study Of Fashionable Silk Veiling, Maline, And Tulle From 1904, Joanne Dolan Jan 2002

A Study Of Fashionable Silk Veiling, Maline, And Tulle From 1904, Joanne Dolan

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

A group of silk net, veiling, tulle, and maline, all sheer draping fabrics produced in unique patterns and colors is the subject of this paper. They form part of a larger collection of materials in a variety of fabrications consisting of raffia, feathers, paper, horsehair, sequins, and chenille. The amassed group is contained in a sample book dated Printemps 1904, and suggests that it may have served as a millinery swatch service book. I intend to focus only on the silk draping materials and examine their fabrication, design, and use in millinery during the first decade of the twentieth century ...


The Haskell Silk Company: Manufacturers Of Staple Silks Recognized As A "Standard" In The Trade, Jacqueline Field Jan 2002

The Haskell Silk Company: Manufacturers Of Staple Silks Recognized As A "Standard" In The Trade, Jacqueline Field

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Haskell Silk Company founder, James Haskell, was a native of the Cape Anne, area of Massachusetts. In this locale his early career included service in numerous public and business capacities, not least as agent for The Rockport Steam Cotton Company, and as a State Senator. He was a man experienced in politics, finance and textile production. He moved to Maine in 1858 when he acquired the cotton mill at Saccarappa Falls, Westbrook. Under his management the mill, renamed The Westbrook Manufacturing Company, flourished and expanded.

In 1874, his elder son, Frank Haskell, assumed the role of agent. At the same ...


Silk Bedcoverings In The Early Chesapeake Region: Interpreting Documentary Evidence, Gloria Seaman Allen Jan 2002

Silk Bedcoverings In The Early Chesapeake Region: Interpreting Documentary Evidence, Gloria Seaman Allen

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Eighteenth-century legal documents from the Chesapeake region occasionally refer to silk bed coverings—blankets, rugs, quilts, and counterpanes—yet very few of these bed coverings have survived in museum and private collections. It is important, therefore, to closely analyze documentary evidence, particularly probate inventories, for clues as to the appearance, construction, commonality, and possible origin of these objects that were used in Chesapeake homes and were readily identifiable by men charged with assigning values to the chattels of a decedent.

Probate inventories, taken shortly after death as part of the process of settling an estate, are rich and tantalizing documents ...


“Dichotomies In Silk: Crisp And Soft”, Ana Lisa Hedstrom Jan 2002

“Dichotomies In Silk: Crisp And Soft”, Ana Lisa Hedstrom

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Shibori, a compression resist dyeing technique, has increasingly become part of our textile vocabulary and for over 25 years, I have explored these techniques in my own production of fabrics for clothing and interior wall pieces. The opportunity to work with silk greige goods (untreated fabric) and the possibilities with shibori – together, this combination expands the shibori vocabulary with exciting possibilities for the studio artist and designer.

In my application, I use arashi shibori, itajime clamp resist, and nui-shibori stitch resist on the raw yardage. The cloth is simmered in a solution of l0% (of dry weight of silk ...


Clothing Styles From A Provincial Inca Outpost, Grace Katterman Jan 2002

Clothing Styles From A Provincial Inca Outpost, Grace Katterman

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

My recent study of Inca Period clothing has involved textile collections from three south coastal areas of Peru (Figure 1): Pachacamac, a large Inca center and temple complex just south of Lima (Uhle 1903/1991: Ch XXI:89-96); Rodadero, a storage facility overlooking the Inca center of Tambo Viejo in the Acari Valley (Katterman and Riddell (1992:141-167); and Burial House #2, the western hillside cemetery affiliated with the Inca outpost of Quebrada de La Vaca in the Chala Drainage (Katterman 2003b). From the burial house (Figure 6), Dorothy Menzel and Francis Riddell collected and documented 120 burials plus an ...


Marketplace Handwork Of India: Impacts On Artisan Capabilities, Mary A. Littrell, Marsha A. Dickson Jan 2002

Marketplace Handwork Of India: Impacts On Artisan Capabilities, Mary A. Littrell, Marsha A. Dickson

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

At the 1998 TSA Symposium in New York City, we presented a paper that documented the work of three textile artisan enterprises. All embraced a fair trade approach to their work. Known as Alternative Trade Organizations (ATOs), these enterprises are deeply committed to a mission of sustainable, people-centered development (Littrell and Dickson 1997). More specifically, this fair trade partnership between textile artisans and retailers involves joint commitment to:

• paying fair wages within a local context,

• providing healthy and safe working conditions,

• sustaining the environment,

• promoting capacity building through business and technical training, and

• honoring cultural identity as a stimulus for ...


Creative Methods Of Reproduction: Two Japanese Weaving Innovations Developed In Imitation Of Complex Foreign Textiles, Keiko Kobayashi Jan 2002

Creative Methods Of Reproduction: Two Japanese Weaving Innovations Developed In Imitation Of Complex Foreign Textiles, Keiko Kobayashi

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

When a certain effect in textiles can be achieved on two different weaving apparatuses, it is common practice to assume the simpler method to be the more primitive and thus antecedent to the more advanced technique. This paper will discuss two unique Japanese weaving methods that testify to the fact that simple techniques do not always predate their more sophisticated counterparts. In these examples, the simpler weaving methods were actually created in imitation of preexisting textiles from other regions that had been woven on more complex looms. The first of these examples is the Japanese method for voided velvet; the ...


Jeweled Islamic Textiles - Imperial Symbols, Louise W. Mackie Jan 2002

Jeweled Islamic Textiles - Imperial Symbols, Louise W. Mackie

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Soon after Islam was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the early 7th century, his followers began spreading the faith. Within one century, Islam had been carried across North Africa to Spain and across the Middle East to Central Asia. Great centers of civilization developed in the political capitals, such as Damascus, Baghdad and Cairo, and later in Istanbul and Isfahan, accompanied by elaborate court ceremonies to promulgate their wealth and power. Imperial ceremonials were equivalent to theatrical settings, usually based on strict hierarchies and rigid protocol, in which luxurious textiles were vital symbols.

Four overt textile symbols ...


The Evolution And Changes Of Moche Textile Style: What Does Style Tell Us About Northern Textile Production?, María Jesús Jiménez Díaz Jan 2002

The Evolution And Changes Of Moche Textile Style: What Does Style Tell Us About Northern Textile Production?, María Jesús Jiménez Díaz

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

Although Moche textiles form part of the legacy of one of the best known cultures of pre-Hispanic Peru, today they remain relatively unknown. Moche culture evolved in the northern valleys of the Peruvian coast (Fig. 1) during the first 800 years after Christ (Fig. 2). They were contemporary with other cultures such us Nazca or Lima and their textiles exhibited special features that are reflected in their textile production. Previous studies of Moche textiles have been carried out by authors such as Lila O'Neale (1946, 1947), O'Neale y Kroeber (1930), William Conklin (1978) or Heiko Pruemers (1995). However ...


Textile And Embroidered Bookbindings Of Medieval England And France, Robin E. Muller Jan 2002

Textile And Embroidered Bookbindings Of Medieval England And France, Robin E. Muller

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

I am a textiles artist who has become interested in book arts, as have many others. In looking for historic precedents, I was amazed to learn that there was a history of books bound in fine fabric dating back to medieval Europe. These are rich, elaborately crafted objects that required binders to collaborate with craft persons skilled in needlework. Beautifully woven fabrics were used, some of which were made for clothing. Other fabrics had been made for smaller, more durable objects like books or perhaps hats and handbags. There are records of milliners making some of the bindings. The appearance ...


The Silk Road Textiles At Birka: An Examination Of The Tabletwoven Bands, Cathy Ostrom Peters Jan 2002

The Silk Road Textiles At Birka: An Examination Of The Tabletwoven Bands, Cathy Ostrom Peters

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

On the Swedish Island of Björkö, that today lies in Lake Mälaren, is the Viking Age (eighth-tenth century) town of Birka. Between 1871 and 1895 Hjalmar Stolpe excavated approximately 1100 graves in the vast grave-fields lying outside the walls of this town. Stolpe's excavations provided not only one of the richest quarries for the archaeological interpretation of the Viking Age but revealed the diversity of the approximately 600-900 inhabitants who lived in this international trading town. Among these approximately 1100 graves, were a group of male graves that contained a various array of splendid silk textiles, embroideries and trimmings ...


Mildred T. Johnstone’S Needlepoint Tapestries Of Bethlehem Steel: A Less Travelled Road, Ruta T. Saliklis Jan 2002

Mildred T. Johnstone’S Needlepoint Tapestries Of Bethlehem Steel: A Less Travelled Road, Ruta T. Saliklis

Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings

The steel mills in Bethlehem are quiet now, but Mildred T. Johnstone's boldly colored needlepoint tapestries vividly remind us of their awesome power in the 1940s and 1950s. Far from being realistic, literal renderings, these abstract and highly textural interpretations use steel making as a metaphor for modern life. The machinery is larger than life, crackling and spewing out the molten steel used to construct oilrigs and skyscrapers. The people in the mill are very small—the anonymous steelworkers in masks, the artist as a bewildered Alice in a Wonderland of Steel. Mildred Johnstone’s needlepoints are personal and ...