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Full-Text Articles in Art and Design

Non-Traditional Lightweight Polypropylene Composites Reinforced With Milkweed Floss, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang Jul 2010

Non-Traditional Lightweight Polypropylene Composites Reinforced With Milkweed Floss, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Lightweight composites are preferred for automotive applications due to the weight restrictions and also due to the presence of inherent voids that can enhance the sound absorption of these composites. The density of the reinforcing materials plays a crucial role in such lightweight composites. Milkweed is a unique natural cellulose fiber that has a completely hollow center and low density (0.9 g cm−3) unlike any other natural cellulose fiber. The low density of milkweed fibers will allow the incorporation of higher amounts of fiber per unit weight of a composite, which is expected to lead to lightweight composites ...


Structure And Properties Of Ultrafine Silk Fibers Produced By Theriodopteryx Ephemeraeformis, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang Jan 2010

Structure And Properties Of Ultrafine Silk Fibers Produced By Theriodopteryx Ephemeraeformis, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Theriodopteryx ephemeraeformis commonly known as bag worms produce ultrafine silk fibers that are remarkably different than the common domesticated (Bombyx mori) and wild (Saturniidae) silk fibers. Bag worms are considered as pests and commonly infect trees and shrubs. Although it has been known that the cocoons (bags) produced by bag worms are composed of silk, the structure and properties of the silk fibers in the bag worm cocoons have not been studied. In this research, the composition, morphology, physical structure, thermal stability, and tensile properties of silk fibers produced by bag worms were studied. Bag worm silk fibers have considerably ...


Developing Water Stable Gliadin Films Without Using Crosslinking Agents, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang Jan 2010

Developing Water Stable Gliadin Films Without Using Crosslinking Agents, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Abstract For the first time, gliadin films with excellent strength and water stability have been developed without using any crosslinking agents. So far, it has not been possible to obtain water stable gliadin films even after crosslinking. In this research, a novel method of using aqueous urea and ethanol has been developed to obtain highly water stable gliadin films without using crosslinking chemicals. The effects of concentrations of gliadin, urea and ethanol on the strength of the films and the stability of the films in water at high temperatures and various pH conditions has been studied. Gliadin films developed in ...


Structure And Properties Of Cocoons And Silk Fibers Produced By Hyalophora Cecropia, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang Jan 2010

Structure And Properties Of Cocoons And Silk Fibers Produced By Hyalophora Cecropia, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

This paper shows that silk fibers produced by cecropia (Hyalophora cecropia) have similar tensile properties but different amino acid composition than that of mulberry (Bombyx mori) silk. The cecropia fibers are also much finer and have better strength and modulus than tasar silk, the most common non-mulberry silk. Cecropia is one of the largest silk producing moths and has similar lifecycle to that of mulberry silk but is easier to grow and produces larger cocoons than mulberry silk. In this study, we have characterized the composition, morphology, physical and tensile properties, and thermal behavior of the cecropia silk. Cecropia cocoons ...


Citric Acid Cross-Linking Of Starch Films, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang Jan 2009

Citric Acid Cross-Linking Of Starch Films, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

This paper shows that citric acid can cross-link starch and improve the tensile strength, thermal stability and decrease the dissolution of starch films in water and formic acid. The poor mechanical properties and water stability of starch have restricted its industrial applications. Although cross-linking is a common approach to improve the properties of starch products, current starch cross-linking methods are either expensive, toxic or do not impart the desired properties to the cross-linked materials. In this research, the possibility of cross-linking starch films using citric acid to improve their strength and stability was examined. Citric acid cross-linked starch films show ...


Rural Consumers’ Online Shopping For Food And Fiber Products As A Form Of Outshopping, Sharon J. Lennon, Young Ha, Kim K. P. Johnson, Cynthia R. Jasper, Mary Lynn Damhorst, Nancy Lyons Jan 2009

Rural Consumers’ Online Shopping For Food And Fiber Products As A Form Of Outshopping, Sharon J. Lennon, Young Ha, Kim K. P. Johnson, Cynthia R. Jasper, Mary Lynn Damhorst, Nancy Lyons

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

The purpose of the research was to longitudinally investigate rural consumers’ online shopping for food and fiber products as a function of satisfaction with local retailing and outshopping. Innovation diffusion theory was used to guide the research. Eight hundred seventy-nine rural consumers from 11 states completed surveys twice (in 2000 and 2003). Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling and analyses of variance. Dissatisfaction with local retailing in 2000 was a powerful driver of outshopping, beliefs about online shopping, and online shopping (both in 2000 and in 2003). Outshopping was positively related to online shopping at both points in time ...


Self-Crosslinked Gliadin Fibers With High Strength And Water Stability For Potential Medical Applications, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang Oct 2008

Self-Crosslinked Gliadin Fibers With High Strength And Water Stability For Potential Medical Applications, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

For the first time, protein fibers with excellent mechanical properties and water stability have been produced from gliadin for potential use in tissue culture and other medical applications. Biomaterials developed from plant proteins such as zein and soyproteins are preferred for several medical applications over synthetic polymers such as polylactic acid. However, the plant protein based biomaterials developed so far have poor mechanical properties and hydrolytic stability even after crosslinking. This study aims to develop biomaterials from gliadin with excellent mechanical properties and water stability without using any crosslinking agents. A novel gliadin fiber production method was used to self ...


Structure And Properties Of Chicken Feather Barbs As Natural Protein Fibers, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang Jan 2007

Structure And Properties Of Chicken Feather Barbs As Natural Protein Fibers, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

The structure and properties of chicken feather barbs makes them unique fibers preferable for several applications. The presence of hollow honeycomb structures, their low density, high flexibility and possible structural interaction with other fibers when made into products such as textiles provides them unique properties unlike any other natural or synthetic fibers. No literature is available on the physical structure and tensile properties of chicken feather barbs. In this study, we report the physical and morphological structure and the properties of chicken feather barbs for potential use as natural protein fibers. The morphological structure of chicken feather barbs is similar ...


The Ultraviolet Protection Factor Of Naturally-Pigmented Cotton, Patricia Cox Crews, Gwendolyn Hustvedt Jan 2005

The Ultraviolet Protection Factor Of Naturally-Pigmented Cotton, Patricia Cox Crews, Gwendolyn Hustvedt

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Textile Technology: The sun-blocking properties of a textile are enhanced when a dye, pigment, delustrant, or ultraviolet absorber finish is present that absorbs ultraviolet radiation and blocks its transmission through a fabric to the skin. For this reason, dyed fabrics provide better sun protection than bleached fabrics. Since naturally-colored cottons contain pigments that produce shades ranging from light green to tan and brown, it seemed reasonable to postulate that they would provide better sun protection than conventional bleached cotton, and that natural pigments might prove more durable to laundering and light exposure than dyes, but there is no published research ...


Biofibers From Agricultural Byproducts For Industrial Applications, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang Jan 2005

Biofibers From Agricultural Byproducts For Industrial Applications, Narendra Reddy, Yiqi Yang

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Lignocellulosic agricultural byproducts are a copious and cheap source for cellulose fibers. Agro-based biofibers have the composition, properties and structure that make them suitable for uses such as composite, textile, pulp and paper manufacture. In addition, biofibers can also be used to produce fuel, chemicals, enzymes and food. Byproducts produced from the cultivation of corn, wheat, rice, sorghum, barley, sugarcane, pineapple, banana and coconut are the major sources of agro-based biofibers. This review analyses the production processes, structure, properties and suitability of these biofibers for various industrial applications.


Effects Of Accelerated Heat And Light Aging On Textiles Marked With Fabric Marking Pens, Janet Evenson, Patricia Cox Crews Apr 2004

Effects Of Accelerated Heat And Light Aging On Textiles Marked With Fabric Marking Pens, Janet Evenson, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Despite reasonable concerns that fabric marking pen inks may prove damaging over time, some quilters use them to temporarily mark quilting designs on quilt tops. Unfortunately, no published results concerning long-term effects of these products exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether marking pen inks contribute to degradation or discoloration over time. Samples were marked with one of three brands of marking pen and subjected to ink removal treatments, followed by heat or light aging. Changes in color and breaking strength were measured before and after heat or light aging. Results showed that a water immersion ink ...


Improving Knit Fabric Upf Using Consumer Laundry Products: A Comparison Of Results Using Two Instruments, Jihyun Kim , Janis Stone , Patricia Crews , Mack Shelley Ii, Kathryn L. Hatch Apr 2004

Improving Knit Fabric Upf Using Consumer Laundry Products: A Comparison Of Results Using Two Instruments, Jihyun Kim , Janis Stone , Patricia Crews , Mack Shelley Ii, Kathryn L. Hatch

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

This study investigated the use of two instruments to measure the ultraviolet protective factor (UPF) of T-shirt knit fabrics. After various laundering treatments, specimens were cut and UPF was measured from the wale, course, and bias directions with the ISO MET® UV-Meter and the Cary UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. Similar results were found between the two instruments and among repeated measures. Before UPF measurement, the shirt fabrics were repeatedly laundered using various household detergents and laundering additives commonly available to consumers. Statistically significant effects on the mean UPF values were found related to type of fabric, type of detergent/laundry additives, number ...


Effects Of Light And Heat Aging On Selected Quilting Products Containing Adhesives, Janet Evenson, Patricia Cox Crews Apr 2003

Effects Of Light And Heat Aging On Selected Quilting Products Containing Adhesives, Janet Evenson, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

No published results concerning the long-term performance of adhesive-containing commercial products are available to quilt makers. Consequently, they cannot make informed choices. The purpose of this study was to carry out accelerated light and heat aging on selected quilt basting sprays, fusible webs, and fusible battings to determine whether or not they contribute to discoloration or degradation over time. Selected products were exposed to 40 or 80 AATCC Fading Units of light exposure and 6 or 36 hours of heat aging. Following light exposure and heat aging, changes in color, strength and stiffness were measured. Results of this research show ...


Characteristics Of Fading Of Wool Cloth Dyed With Selected Natural Dyestuffs On The Basis Of Solar Radiant Energy, Kunio Yoshizumi, Patricia Cox Crews Apr 2003

Characteristics Of Fading Of Wool Cloth Dyed With Selected Natural Dyestuffs On The Basis Of Solar Radiant Energy, Kunio Yoshizumi, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Photodegradation characteristics of selected natural dyestuffs were investigated on the basis of solar radiant energy. UVA and UVB fluorescent lamps were also applied to examine wavelength dependencies on the fading characteristics. The natural dyestuffs were observed to have poorer lightfastness in the comparison with AATCC Blue Wool L2. The order of fading susceptibility to solar radiation is as follows: Turmeric > Weld > Madder > L2. Moreover, it was concluded that the natural dyestuffs were strongly sensitive to visible light as well as to UV rays and L2 would be faded by visible light to a small extent. These results provide an important ...


Care Of Quilts-Storage And Display , Shirley Niemeyer, Patricia Cox Crews Jun 2002

Care Of Quilts-Storage And Display , Shirley Niemeyer, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Antique textiles, including quilts, are very fragile. Excessive handling and washing can hasten deterioration. Light quickly fades colors and weakens natural fibers. Careful control of handling, storage, and display conditions can prolong the life of quilts.


Discovering Memory And Meaning In Quilts, Carolyn K. Ducey, Patricia Cox Crews Jun 2002

Discovering Memory And Meaning In Quilts, Carolyn K. Ducey, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

After an extensive search Ardis and Robert James, quilt collectors from Chappaqua, New York, chose the University of Nebraska–Lincoln (UNL) as the home for their collection of almost a thousand quilts. They also supported the formation of the International Quilt Study Center (IQSC) in 1997 for the interdisciplinary study of quiltmaking traditions through the collection, conservation and exhibition of quilts and related materials. Carolyn Ducey and Patricia Crews, the Center’s curator and director, respectively, write about some of the work they do.


Care Of Quilts-Cleaning , Shirley Niemeyer, Patricia Cox Crews Jun 2002

Care Of Quilts-Cleaning , Shirley Niemeyer, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Quilts need special care in cleaning, but even professionals don't always agree on the best methods for cleaning quilts or even whether it should be done. No two quilts are alike. Methods suited for cleaning one quilt may not be best for another. The fiber content, dyes, and construction make each one unique. Sometimes it may be advisable to clean a quilt. Usually it is best to leave it as is.

Deciding whether to clean a quilt involves careful thought. What is the fiber content? How is the quilt constructed? Can it withstand movement or agitation? Will the colors ...


Influence Of Nitrogen Gas And Oxygen Scavengers On Fading And Color Change In Dyed Textiles, Judy J. Brott Buss, Patricia Cox Crews Apr 2000

Influence Of Nitrogen Gas And Oxygen Scavengers On Fading And Color Change In Dyed Textiles, Judy J. Brott Buss, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Unexpected and undesired color changes in paper materials following the use of anoxic treatments for killing insects that infest col­lections have been reported. This observation and attendant concerns prompted this research. This study examined the influence of a nitrogen gas purge and oxygen scavengers on color stability of dyed textiles in the presence and absence of light. Earlier studies showed that while most dyed tex­tiles exhibit less fading and color change when oxygen is removed from the atmosphere via a nitrogen purge, a small number of dyes exhibit greater amounts of fading and color change in the presence ...


Conservation Of Textile Items, Shirley Niemeyer, Patricia Cox Crews Apr 1994

Conservation Of Textile Items, Shirley Niemeyer, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Textile heirlooms and keepsakes require special care to preserve them for future use. Conserving textile keepsakes and heirlooms involves an understanding of light, temperature, humidity, insects, storage, display, and cleaning.


Influence Of Shade Depth On The Effectiveness Of Selected Ultraviolet Absorbers In Reducing Fading, Wendelin Marie Rich, Patricia Cox Crews Apr 1993

Influence Of Shade Depth On The Effectiveness Of Selected Ultraviolet Absorbers In Reducing Fading, Wendelin Marie Rich, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

This study evaluates the ability of seven ultraviolet (UV) absorbers to reduce fading of nylon colored with nine synthetic acid dyes applied at 0.5% and 0.05% owf concentrations. By including two concentrations, we could evaluate the influence of depth of shade on the absorbers’ effectiveness. Specimens were treated with UV absorbers using one of two application methods: an exhaust bath at 100°C or an immersion treatment at room temperature. After treatment, specimens were exposed to 160 AFUs of light in a xenon-arc Weather-Ometer, then evaluated instrumentally to determine the amount of color change. The UV absorbers examined ...


Climate For Change In Extension: Different Perspectives Make A Difference, Rose Marie Tondl Sep 1991

Climate For Change In Extension: Different Perspectives Make A Difference, Rose Marie Tondl

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

The 1990s are ushering in major changes for Cooperative Extension as National Initiatives become the foundation for program planning, replacing some of the traditional discipline-based programs. As new ideas for program operations are introduced, a natural consequence is human resistance to change. Throughout the system, we're being forced to cope with fundamental changes in the way we do business. The possibility of upsetting the balance of power exists. Individuals will take action based on their perception of how changes will affect their relative power position in the organization. New knowledge, varying economic conditions, pressures of competition, evolution of new ...


Evaluation Of Milkweed Floss As An Insulative Fill Material&#;, Patricia Cox Crews, Shiela A. Sievert, Lisa T. Woeppel, Elizabeth A. Mccullough Apr 1991

Evaluation Of Milkweed Floss As An Insulative Fill Material&#;, Patricia Cox Crews, Shiela A. Sievert, Lisa T. Woeppel, Elizabeth A. Mccullough

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Milkweed, a perennial plant that can adapt to adverse soil conditions, is being developed as an alternative crop. Fiber characterization and potential market identification are critical to its development. The most promising commercial use for milkweed floss is as a loose fill for jackets and comforters. The purpose of this research was to evaluate milkweed floss as an insulative fill material and to compare its performance to other insulators. Seven identical jackets were constructed using different fill materials matched on a per unit weight basis. The insulation (clo) values for the jackets were measured using a standing, heated manikin in ...


Challenging Patterns, Rose Marie Tondl Apr 1990

Challenging Patterns, Rose Marie Tondl

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

In "Challenging Patterns" you can build on basic construction skills you learned in Sewing for Fun and Clothing Level 1 and Clothing Level 2. You will practice new skills by working with more detailed and intricate pattern designs. You will learn more about:
* Wardrobe building
* Selecting challenging patterns
* Coordinating pattern and fabric
* Design elements - line, color, texture
* Design principles - proportion, balance, rhythm, emphasis and harmony
* Face shapes - hair styles, necklines and accessories
* Selecting accessories
* Serger sewing
* Western wear
* Careers in textiles and clothing


Evaluating Uv Absorbers , Patricia Cox Crews, David J. Clark Mar 1990

Evaluating Uv Absorbers , Patricia Cox Crews, David J. Clark

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

UV absorbers and antioxidants topically applied to upholstery fabrics to reduce fading, separately and in conjunction with soil repellent finish formulations containing UV absorbers, were evaluated in this study. Over fifty upholstery fabrics were initially evaluated and fourteen were selected for further study. The fabrics were then topically treated with commercially available soil repellent finishes (a fluorocarbon and a silicone finish) containing UV absorbers or immersion-treated with one of thirteen UV absorbers or antioxidants. Following light exposure, color changes were evaluated visually and instrumentally. The results showed that neither the fluorocarbon nor silicone-based soil repellent finishes containing UV absorbers significantly ...


A Comparison Of Selected Uv Filtering Materials For The Reduction Of Fading, Patricia Cox Crews Jan 1989

A Comparison Of Selected Uv Filtering Materials For The Reduction Of Fading, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

The effectiveness of a UV filtering material of flexible polyester film containing a silver reflective coating was compared to the widely used UV absorbing filters that are almost colorless or have a strong yellow tint. The silver-coated polyester filters caused almost no distortion of color rendition when used as a filter for fluorescent lamps and provided greater protection of artifacts than did the almost colorless filters. The use of UV filters of polyester film with a reflective silver coating is recommended when filters with a strong yellow tint distort color to an objectionable degree and yet greater protection of artifacts ...


Ultraviolet Absorbers: A Treatment To Reduce Fading And Degradation Of Textiles, Patricia Cox Crews, Barbara M. Reagan Apr 1987

Ultraviolet Absorbers: A Treatment To Reduce Fading And Degradation Of Textiles, Patricia Cox Crews, Barbara M. Reagan

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Fiber artists, as well as museum personnel, have attempted to reduce fading and/or deterioration in textiles by 1) using lower levels of lighting, 2) using incandescent lights instead of fluorescent lights, and 3) using ultraviolet filters on fluorescent lights. However, in many public buildings and in some daylighted museum galleries, textiles may be displayed without protection from light by any of the above measures. Therefore, many contemporary textiles are subjected to unusually high levels of lighting because most North American buildings are well lighted by fluorescent lamps and/or daylight through large expanses of window glass that emit or ...


Clothing - Level 1, Rose Marie Tondl May 1986

Clothing - Level 1, Rose Marie Tondl

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

WHAT YOU'LL DO IN THIS PROJECT
In Sewing For Fun, you did some simple sewing projects. Now you are ready to use a commercial pattern and learn to sew clothes you can wear. In this project you will learn:
More about the sewing machine.
How to select a pattern for yourself.
How to select fabric and notions for your pattern.
New construction skills:
facings
casings
kimono or raglan sleeves
hand hemming
Modeling skills.
How to take care of your clothes.
How to keep a healthy, attractive appearance.
To keep 4-H records using the Home Economics Project Planning Form.


The Influence Of Mordant On The Lightfastness Of Yellow Natural Dyes, Patricia Cox Crews Jan 1982

The Influence Of Mordant On The Lightfastness Of Yellow Natural Dyes, Patricia Cox Crews

Faculty Publications - Textiles, Merchandising and Fashion Design

Wool specimens were premordanted with alum, chrome, copper, iron, or tin mordants and dyed with 18 yellow natural dyes. The dyed specimens were then exposed to a xenon-arc lamp for 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 AATCC Fading Units. The color changes were evaluated instrumentally with a color difference meter and visually by trained observers. Color differences in CIE L*a*b* units, gray scale classifications, and lightfastness ratings were reported. Turmeric, fustic, and marigold dyes faded significantly more than any of the other yellow dyes. However, dyes applied with tin and alum mordants faded significantly more than dyes mordanted ...