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1990

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University of Massachusetts Boston

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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Remarks Made At The Second Circuit Judicial Conference, September 8, 1989, Thurgood Marshall Sep 1990

Remarks Made At The Second Circuit Judicial Conference, September 8, 1989, Thurgood Marshall

Trotter Review

For many years, no institution of American government has been as close a friend to civil rights as the United States Supreme Court. Make no mistake: I do not mean for a moment to denigrate the quite considerable contributions to the enhancement of civil rights by presidents, the Congress, other federal courts, and the legislatures and judiciaries of many states. It is now 1989, however, and we must recognize that the Court's approach to civil rights cases has changed markedly. The most recent Supreme Court opinions vividly illustrate this changed judicial attitude. In Richmond v. Croson, the Court took ...


Recent Changes In The Structure And Value Of African-American Male Occupations, Jeremiah P. Cotton Sep 1990

Recent Changes In The Structure And Value Of African-American Male Occupations, Jeremiah P. Cotton

Trotter Review

The occupational structure of black men has undergone major changes in recent years, shifting from largely blue-collar to white-collar and service occupations. At the same time there has been a decline in both the relative and absolute value of black male occupations. Moreover, it appears that labor-market discrimination still plays a significant role in the disparity between black and white male occupational earnings.


The Foundation Of American Racism: Defining Bigotry, Racism, And Racial Hierarchy, James Jennings Sep 1990

The Foundation Of American Racism: Defining Bigotry, Racism, And Racial Hierarchy, James Jennings

Trotter Review

Despite the fact that current surveys reveal a decline in the level of white prejudice towards blacks, however, the number of hate groups and incidents of racial harassment and violence is rapidly increasing. In addition, while black and white Americans seem to be interacting more in the work place, residential segregation continues to be a major problem. Furthermore, there are indications that the political attitudes of blacks and whites are not only different on many philosophical and economic issues, but are becoming increasingly divergent.


Sports Notes: Blacks And Private Golf Clubs, Wornie L. Reed Sep 1990

Sports Notes: Blacks And Private Golf Clubs, Wornie L. Reed

Trotter Review

This past summer racial progress in the United States ran head first into the issue of "freedom of association" in the form of private clubs that prohibit membership to "other" folk, i.e., blacks and women. The specific issue in the case of the Shoal Creek Country Club of Alabama was the appropriateness of holding a Professional Golf Association (PGA) tournament at a club that did not accept blacks as members and was so bold as to say so to the press.


Back Matter: Trotter Review, Vol. 4, Issue 3 Sep 1990

Back Matter: Trotter Review, Vol. 4, Issue 3

Trotter Review

Includes information about the Ph.D. Program in Gerontology at the University of Massachusetts Boston and about the Trotter Institute's six-volume series entitled The Assessment of the Status of African-Americans.


Who Was That Woman I Didn't See You With Last Night?, Norman W. Merrill Sep 1990

Who Was That Woman I Didn't See You With Last Night?, Norman W. Merrill

New England Journal of Public Policy

The 1988 presidential campaign elicited numerous complaints about negative campaigning. But compared to the vicious rhetoric popular at the birth of the republic the rhetoric of the latest campaign was quite mild. Invective rhetoric was employed by the Founding Fathers, men like John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, and James Callender. The partisan press of the time contributed greatly to the harsh tone of politics. All participants felt free to make acerbic remarks directed at the man rather than the issue, a tradition that continued throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth. Many of the charges made by American politicians were ...


Jfk: The Education Of A President, Nigel Hamilton Sep 1990

Jfk: The Education Of A President, Nigel Hamilton

New England Journal of Public Policy

What goes into the making of a president? To what extent are the mind and character of the American commander in chief determined by his background, his family — and his education? This article represents a transcript of two lectures Nigel Hamilton presented in the spring and fall of 1989 at the Massachusetts State Archives. They were derived from the preliminary sketches for the author's full-scale biography of John F. Kennedy, to be published by Houghton Mifflin in 1992 on the anniversary of the birth of the thirty-fifth president.


The Vision Thing, Shaun O'Connell Sep 1990

The Vision Thing, Shaun O'Connell

New England Journal of Public Policy

In "The Vision Thing," Shaun O'Connell reviews a number of books whose subject matter is not merely the presidential election of 1988, but the impact of image politics in the age of the thirty-second sound bite. He quotes Neil Postman in Amusing Ourselves to Death: "Just as the television commercial empties itself of authentic product information so that it can do its psychological work of [pseudotherapy], image politics empties itself of authentic political sustenance for the same reason."

The works discussed in this article include: All by Myself: The Unmaking of a Presidential Campaign, by Christine M. Black and ...


In Appreciation Of Birago I. Diop: A Subtle Advocate Of Négritude, Winston E. Langley Jun 1990

In Appreciation Of Birago I. Diop: A Subtle Advocate Of Négritude, Winston E. Langley

Trotter Review

The closing weeks of the last decade brought with them the death of three distinguished world figures: Samuel Beckett, the Irish-French playwright, novelist, and poet; Andrei D. Sakharov, the Soviet nuclear physicist, human rights advocate, and leader in the international disarmament movement; and Birago I. Diop, the Senegalese poet, storyteller, and statesman. In the case of the former two, leading U.S. newspapers and other media paid merited tribute in the amplest of proportions; in case of the last, however, it was as if he had either never lived or had gained no standing of importance worthy of much attention ...


Stratification And Subordination: Change And Continuity In Race Relations, E. Yvonne Moss, Wornie L. Reed Jun 1990

Stratification And Subordination: Change And Continuity In Race Relations, E. Yvonne Moss, Wornie L. Reed

Trotter Review

One of the measures used to gauge progress made by African-Americans in gaining equal opportunity has been to compare and contrast the status of black Americans to that of white Americans using various social indices. Historically, the status of blacks relative to whites has been one of subordination; race has been a primary factor in determining social stratification and political status. Relations between white and black Americans were established during slavery and the Jim Crow era of segregation. In the infamous Dred Scott (1856) decison, U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Taney articulated the fundamental nature of this system of ...


The Boardroom: Still A Fraternity?, Dell Mitchell Mar 1990

The Boardroom: Still A Fraternity?, Dell Mitchell

New England Journal of Public Policy

Boards of directors of corporations may represent the last fraternity at the top of the economic power structure. Although they represent an important pool of candidates, highly qualified women are grossly underrepresented on such boards. This article describes the strategy behind the ongoing effort in New England to position women for appointment as corporate directors.


Not By Numbers Alone: A New Decade For Women In The Law, Margaret H. Marshall Mar 1990

Not By Numbers Alone: A New Decade For Women In The Law, Margaret H. Marshall

New England Journal of Public Policy

There has been a dramatic increase in both the percentage and the numbers of women who have entered the legal profession in the last fifteen years, but women have not penetrated its higher echelons — partnerships in law firms, general counsel of corporations, and chiefs of government bureaus — in the same percentage that those advances should be reflecting. While entry-level salaries may be equal for male and female attorneys, are women in the legal world discovering the same glass ceilings and barriers to entry at these top levels of economic empowerment that their corporate counterparts have experienced? The author states that ...


Media Images Of Boston's Black Community, Kirk A. Johnson Mar 1990

Media Images Of Boston's Black Community, Kirk A. Johnson

Trotter Review

In their efforts to report on the forces that affect Boston's racial climate, the local media have typically focused on the more obvious institutional actors: businesses, city hall, school boards, churches, the courts, neighborhood groups. Rarely have the media themselves been subjected to the same scrutiny. This study represents one such effort. It is an analysis of the images of Boston's black community that are conveyed through the local news media. It asks the question: If a Bostonian relied solely on the local news for information about local blacks, what impressions would he or she be left with ...


Reel Blacks: A Kinder, Gentler Fbi, Patricia A. Turner Mar 1990

Reel Blacks: A Kinder, Gentler Fbi, Patricia A. Turner

Trotter Review

Revisionist interpretations of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) role in enforcing civil rights legislation and its monitoring of black activists have proliferated during the last decade. Agents of Repression: The FBI's Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement by Ward Churchill and Jim Vander Wall, Racial Matters by Kenneth O'Reilly, and The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. by David Garrow are just a few of the numerous books to chronicle the FBI's somewhat embarrassing record on race-related issues. Given this wealth of documentation in print, it is even more ...


Introduction, Wornie L. Reed Mar 1990

Introduction, Wornie L. Reed

Trotter Review

The mass media can be a positive or negative force in the struggle for racial progress. Unfortunately, the black community faces media that provide many negative influences. Consequently, there is a continuing need to address this issue.

In the articles in this issue of the Trotter Review we examine the current representation of blacks in the news media and representations of blacks in history through the entertainment media.


Tainted Glory: Truth And Fiction In Contemporary Hollywood, Patricia A. Turner Mar 1990

Tainted Glory: Truth And Fiction In Contemporary Hollywood, Patricia A. Turner

Trotter Review

In the earliest days of cinema, the image of the African American on screen matched the off-screen image. When a 12-minute version of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1903) was filmed, "Tom" shows were the most popular stage shows, the Stowe novel was still a top-seller, and the notion that white southerners were the real victims of the peculiar institution was gaining increasing acceptance in academic circles. When D.W. Griffith's epic and revolutionary Birth of a Nation (1915) depicted a set of stock African-American movie characters — the subservient overweight domestic servant; the indifferent, coquettish mulatto; the savage, sexually driven ...


Consequences Of Racial Stereotyping, Wornie L. Reed Mar 1990

Consequences Of Racial Stereotyping, Wornie L. Reed

Trotter Review

What are the consequences of negative portrayals of blacks? As mentioned in the previous articles, the media help to provide definitions of social reality, of social situations. Attendant upon such definitions is an implicit action orientation, a recommendation as to action appropriate to the situation.

The media are a significant factor in the ongoing battle for racial progress. While some of the battles take place in official forums (i.e., governmental institutions), other battles take place in unofficial forums such as newspapers, television, radio, movies, books, and magazines. These should not be taken lightly; there is ample evidence that individuals ...


Women And Power: Women In Politics, Cathleen Douglas Stone Mar 1990

Women And Power: Women In Politics, Cathleen Douglas Stone

New England Journal of Public Policy

Are women making progress in the political arena, or are their frustrations at access to elective office severe enough to warrant their own political party? This article examines the statistics and argues that women should seize political power by voting as a bloc. As loyalty to traditional parties declines while their interest in and sensitivity to social issues grows, the moment is right for a real increase in women's political power.


A Critique Of "Women And Philanthropy: New Voices, New Visions", Micho F. Spring Mar 1990

A Critique Of "Women And Philanthropy: New Voices, New Visions", Micho F. Spring

New England Journal of Public Policy

The debate is classic: should women work within existing institutional systems and organizations to help shape them, or should they establish their own? Micho Spring offers her own views about Marcy Murninghan's study of alternative philanthropies.


Women And Philanthropy: New Voices, New Visions, Marcy Murninghan Mar 1990

Women And Philanthropy: New Voices, New Visions, Marcy Murninghan

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article examines the growing presence and influence of women in American contemporary philanthropy. Based in part upon structured interviews conducted with leaders in the women's funding movement, it identifies how the voices and visions of women — within older, more traditional foundations as well as newer "women's funds" — are having an impact on the way the needs of human community are met. It also sheds light on how these voices and visions serve to reconceive the connections among morality, money, and power, thereby contributing to an understanding of economic morality.


Providing Access To Power: The Role Of Higher Education In Empowering Women Students, Margaret A. Mckenna Mar 1990

Providing Access To Power: The Role Of Higher Education In Empowering Women Students, Margaret A. Mckenna

New England Journal of Public Policy

Access to education opens the doors to future economic power — but are opportunities for women limited by the very way that institutions of higher education think about women students? Women comprise the majority of college students today, but the institutions they attend may not be serving their educational needs. This article explains that women's needs are different from those of men and illustrates how educators can respond to that difference, offering a "feminist environment" in which female students can meet their own educational goals.


Foreword, Rosabeth Moss Kanter Mar 1990

Foreword, Rosabeth Moss Kanter

New England Journal of Public Policy

Two significant facts are apparent from reading this volume. First, the authors are themselves examples of women overcoming barriers, breaking into formerly all-male domains, succeeding against the odds, and exercising economic, political, and educational leadership — on behalf of other women as well as on behalf of the institutions they serve. Thus their own lives are eloquent rebuke to anyone who still thinks that women cannot manage effectively in any realm, or that women must always take second place to men, or that family responsibilities make women less serious about public responsibilities, or that women fail to help one another; none ...


Why Not A Fifty-Fifty Goal? Increasing Female Leadership In Higher Education, Sherry H. Penney, Nancy Kelly Mar 1990

Why Not A Fifty-Fifty Goal? Increasing Female Leadership In Higher Education, Sherry H. Penney, Nancy Kelly

New England Journal of Public Policy

One of the key factors determining the economic status and success of women is their level of education. Women have been turning to education in ever increasing numbers, and they now comprise the majority of students in our institutions of higher education. Yet women hold only 10 percent of the most senior positions — college and university presidencies. Clearly if institutions are to be responsive to the needs of all students, that percentage must change. Those who make up the ranks of this elite achieved their professional standing by overcoming inequities that linger in the academy even as we enter the ...


Issues In The Corporate Workplace, Carol R. Goldberg, Aileen P. Gorman, Kathleen B. Hansen Mar 1990

Issues In The Corporate Workplace, Carol R. Goldberg, Aileen P. Gorman, Kathleen B. Hansen

New England Journal of Public Policy

Workforce supply and demand has catapulted "women's issues" to the forefront of the business agenda. These issues will continue to be the poor stepsisters of other corporate needs, however, unless they are recognized as broad-based workforce issues of the 1990s. The dynamics of women's entrance into the labor market have dramatically changed the structure of the family and consequently the needs of both men and women in the business community. The corporate challenge for the next decade will be to solve creatively the work/family puzzle and establish an environment that supports the full utilization of women in ...


A Feminized Work Force, A Humanized Workplace, Evelyn Murphy Mar 1990

A Feminized Work Force, A Humanized Workplace, Evelyn Murphy

New England Journal of Public Policy

Enhancing the opportunities for women in the workplace in the next decade will become an economic imperative, not just an issue of social justice. In this article Lieutenant Governor Evelyn Murphy sets forth recommendations for policymakers in both the public and private sector that begin to change our notions of what constitutes a humanized workplace. If the economy is to remain strong, these initiatives will be required to improve business productivity as well as the life of all family members.


Alcoholism: A Barrier To Empowerment For Women, Marion Brink Mar 1990

Alcoholism: A Barrier To Empowerment For Women, Marion Brink

New England Journal of Public Policy

Women's increasing economic power has encouraged the promotion of their drinking as fashionable. However, women are more vulnerable to the impact of alcohol, and the stigma attached to alcoholism is greater for them than it is for men. As a consequence, a woman — and those around her — will deny her alcoholism until she has lost much more than her male counterparts. When, or if, she seeks help for this devastating disease, she finds a lack of woman-specific programs and facilities. This article notes the barriers to recovery for women and offers some suggestions for breaking them down. Two case ...


From The Bar To The Bar: Prevailing Despite Gender Bias, Nancy Woolley Mar 1990

From The Bar To The Bar: Prevailing Despite Gender Bias, Nancy Woolley

New England Journal of Public Policy

The report of the Gender Bias Study of the Supreme Judicial Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was released in May 1989. After a thorough study of the areas of family law, domestic violence and sexual assault, criminal and juvenile justice, civil damage awards, gender bias in courthouse interactions, and court personnel, the study committee concluded that there was significant gender-based bias in the courts. The following article demonstrates how bias affected one woman and her children, and how, in spite of it and with the help of individuals and institutions in the private sector, she has attained empowerment and ...


Women, Politics, And The Nineties: The Abortion Debate, Susan Estrich Mar 1990

Women, Politics, And The Nineties: The Abortion Debate, Susan Estrich

New England Journal of Public Policy

The fight for political empowerment of women may finally break wide open over the issues of reproductive freedom. This article posits that while public attention has focused on courtroom attempts to limit Roe v. Wade, the issues will ultimately be decided in the political arena. Here, Estrich says, the framer of the question may be the ultimate victor. For those on the pro-choice side of the debate, the next election cycle may be their first real opportunity to vote as a bloc and wield real political power.


Protest And Thrive: The Relationship Between Global Responsibility And Personal Empowerment, Sarah A. Conn Mar 1990

Protest And Thrive: The Relationship Between Global Responsibility And Personal Empowerment, Sarah A. Conn

New England Journal of Public Policy

Economic empowerment is intricately linked to personal empowerment, which for many women starts with notions of caring and responsibility. When we care about ourselves, our family, our neighborhood, our community, and our world, we are often moved to action. Examples of women activists abound. This article examines the psychological forces that lead to individual empowerment and social change and warns us that to ignore our reactions to the world around us is to limit our own possibilities for personal growth. Personal power comes from taking responsibility for ourselves in a context of interconnectedness and interdependence. Awareness, understanding, direct experience, and ...


The Third Stage: An Economic Strategy, Dawn-Marie Driscoll Mar 1990

The Third Stage: An Economic Strategy, Dawn-Marie Driscoll

New England Journal of Public Policy

If the first stage of the women's movement raised consciousness, changed statutes, and proposed the Equal Rights Amendment, and the second stage broadened the debate to include family, workplace, and societal issues, the third stage may focus simply on giving women economic power and independence. Issues for women in the 1990s will center on economics; this article suggests strategies for achieving these goals.