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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Sports Notes, Wornie L. Reed Sep 1991

Sports Notes, Wornie L. Reed

Trotter Review

In the Winter/Spring 1991 issue of the Trotter Institute Review I reported that a black dentist from Boston, Dr. George F. Grant, invented and patented the golf tee in 1899. However, in the May 1991 issue of Golf Digest, a white man, Dr. William Lowell of New Jersey, another dentist, is credited with having invented the golf tee. Having read in a number of reputable publications that Dr. Grant had invented the golf tee, I was interested in finding out how a second man could have been credited so readily with the development of the tee. So I contacted ...


Blacks In Golf, Wornie L. Reed Jan 1991

Blacks In Golf, Wornie L. Reed

Trotter Review

From 1961 until the mid-1980s a weekend ritual was repeated by many African Americans who follow golf. For these individuals, each weekend morning included a peek at the standings of the weekly Professional Golf Association (PGA) tournament printed in the newspaper to see how the black golfers were doing and whether any one of them was the tournament leader or was close enough to the lead to win the tournament. As the 1980s came to an end anyone still practicing the old ritual was doing so in vain. No blacks were winning tournaments on the regular PGA Tour, nor were ...


Sports Notes: Blacks And Private Golf Clubs, Wornie L. Reed Sep 1990

Sports Notes: Blacks And Private Golf Clubs, Wornie L. Reed

Trotter Review

This past summer racial progress in the United States ran head first into the issue of "freedom of association" in the form of private clubs that prohibit membership to "other" folk, i.e., blacks and women. The specific issue in the case of the Shoal Creek Country Club of Alabama was the appropriateness of holding a Professional Golf Association (PGA) tournament at a club that did not accept blacks as members and was so bold as to say so to the press.


Sports Notes, Wornie L. Reed Mar 1989

Sports Notes, Wornie L. Reed

Trotter Review

The recent conviction of sports agents Norby Walters and Lloyd Bloom on charges of racketeering and fraud may hasten the day when college sports will be seen as the businesses they are, and college athletes will be seen as “subminimum-wage” em ployees of these businesses. Certainly, Bloom and Walters are unsavory characters; they are guilty of several criminal activities, including extortion. But what should not go unnoticed is the fact that they were found guilty of committing fraud against colleges because they signed athletes to contracts before their college eligibility was up.

In other sports news, after nine years on ...