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Rapport: A System Designed To Limit Digital Distraction Within Romantic Relationships, Alexandria Collins Jan 2018

Rapport: A System Designed To Limit Digital Distraction Within Romantic Relationships, Alexandria Collins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Technology continues to take a more prominent role within our relationships. Although the Internet allows for more connectivity, it also disconnects people from family and friends in face-to-face situations. As mobile digital technologies continue to advance, they create more and more opportunities for distraction and overuse. With an ever-growing market of smart devices with enhanced abilities, it's important that partners are aware of the implications of their use.

To develop a deeper understanding of how digital technology impacts romantic relationships, a digital survey and two data collection studies were administered. Vital information was collected to further develop an understanding ...


Effects Of Income And Education Levels On Diurnal Cortisol In Black And White American Youth Transitioning Into Adulthood, Shannin Nicole Moody Jan 2018

Effects Of Income And Education Levels On Diurnal Cortisol In Black And White American Youth Transitioning Into Adulthood, Shannin Nicole Moody

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cortisol patterns differ across both socioeconomic status and racial minority groups. Yet, whether the underlying constructs that are used to measure socioeconomic status impacts the output of cortisol differentially across racial groups is unclear. Using a secondary data analysis from the Parents Who Care longitudinal study, which integrated the biomarker cortisol as youth entered emerging adulthood, the goal of this thesis is to parse apart the common conflation of income and education into a single catchall variable.

The following data was collected in 2 waves from a group of youth who were (M=20.24; R=18.51-22.89) years ...


Computer Detection Of Spatial Visualization In A Location-Based Task, Georgi Iliev Batinov Jan 2017

Computer Detection Of Spatial Visualization In A Location-Based Task, Georgi Iliev Batinov

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

An untapped area of productivity gains hinges on automatic detection of user cognitive characteristics. One such characteristic, spatial visualization ability, relates to users’ computer performance. In this dissertation, we describe a novel, behavior-based, spatial visualization detection technique. The technique does not depend on sensors or knowledge of the environment and can be adopted on generic computers. In a Census Bureau location-based address verification task, detection rates exceeded 80% and approached 90%.


Female Power Portrayals In Ads: Dimensions And Consequences, Melika Kordrostami Jan 2017

Female Power Portrayals In Ads: Dimensions And Consequences, Melika Kordrostami

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stereotypical female portrayals are still common in advertisements while the role of women in society has progressed. In recent years, it appears there has been a move toward portraying women in power positions in ads. The first part of this research focuses on this new trend of female portrayals in ads. Power is defined as the capability to change others’/self behavior. Building on theories of social power and feminine power, a new typology for different types of female power in ads is proposed. This typology includes five types of female power in ads including sexual power, athletic power, expert ...


Trajectories In Religious Development Among African American Young Adults, Yuk C. Pang Jan 2017

Trajectories In Religious Development Among African American Young Adults, Yuk C. Pang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Religiosity and spirituality have been an important component within the African American culture throughout U.S. history. Previous research has documented the importance of religion to African Americans, particularly in terms of coping with the negative experiences they face in the U.S. While many studies have focused on the positive impact of religiosity and spirituality on African American’s mental health, fewer studies have addressed change in African American’s religiosity over time, especially during the period when they transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence is a crucial developmental transition and can disclose a tremendous amount of knowledge ...


How To Engage European-American Participants In Racial Dialogue: The Role Of Dialogue Structure And Mixed Race Groups, Meredith Tittler Jan 2017

How To Engage European-American Participants In Racial Dialogue: The Role Of Dialogue Structure And Mixed Race Groups, Meredith Tittler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One effective strategy for combatting racism and promoting understanding across racial lines is group dialogue (e.g., Nagda, 2006). Previous research of racial dialogues has used a self-selecting participant pool of individuals who are motivated to participate in racial dialogues (e.g., Gurin, Nagda & Zuniga, 2013). Research up to this point has not investigated the portion of the population who do not willingly participate in racial dialogues. Previous research suggests that European-Americans may be a portion of the population especially avoidant of racial dialogues (e.g., Sue, 2013). Understanding the reasons European-Americans are avoidant of racial dialogues is an important prerequisite to creating interventions to increase participation. In the current study, I examined factors that affect European-American participants’ interest and willingness to participate in a racial dialogue. The specific factors are: facilitator structuring of the dialogue with ground rules (structured condition) vs. a facilitator who does no structuring beyond introducing the conversation topic (not-structured condition), as well as the effect of being in an inter-group dialogue (mixed race group) vs. an intra-group dialogue (all-European-American group). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions of a racial dialogue vignette varying across the two variables (structured vs. not-structured; inter-group vs. intra-group).

The main findings from this study include a significant interaction between the racial make-up of the dialogue group and the structure of the group on participants’ willingness to share their honest thoughts. It was found that participants were more willing to share their thoughts in structured, mixed-race groups than structured all- European-American groups ...


I Can So I Will, Now We Must: A Creative Response To Selfie Culture, Eric Andren Jan 2016

I Can So I Will, Now We Must: A Creative Response To Selfie Culture, Eric Andren

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social Media and Online Social Networks have become increasingly integrated into our every day lives. Digital technologies have progressed from an extension of body to an extension of self. With this integration may come unintended consequences that we are often unaware of. Who would have thought that posting an update on Facebook or browsing your Instagram feed might have an effect on your well-being?

The digital world–traditionally–is not a tangible one, but it is most definitely connected to the life experience of those who are part of it. This connection gives it influence, the ability to inform our ...


The Role Of Fit Information In Consumer Online Reviews And Individual Characteristics In Consumer's Online Purchase Decisions, Eonyou Shin Jan 2016

The Role Of Fit Information In Consumer Online Reviews And Individual Characteristics In Consumer's Online Purchase Decisions, Eonyou Shin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a scale of problems in finding a good fit and (2) to explore the role of fit information in online consumer reviews (OCR) in the consumer decision-making process. In Study 1, three steps were involved in developing the scale. For Step 1, twenty items were generated based on the findings of Shin’s (2013) thesis. In Step 2, the preliminary testing of reliability and validity was performed using data collected from male and female participants in the US, and 14 items were retained. Reliability and validity (convergent and discriminant) were confirmed ...


Tokens Of Kindness: Explorations In Design As A Bridge For Societal Gaps, Calee Himes Jan 2016

Tokens Of Kindness: Explorations In Design As A Bridge For Societal Gaps, Calee Himes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Graphic design has long been considered a profession for people interested in creating glossy magazines, posters, and other ephemera. Can graphic design do more for society? Through analysis of social design, wicked problems, and gift economies, this study aims to begin to understand graphic design as a method to bridge societal gaps. This study uses principles of social design, behavior change theory, and immersive community research to experiment within the local communities of Ames and Des Moines, Iowa. Several experimental methods are explored, such as the use of design to create pockets of kind acts through a pseudo-gift economy, and ...


Toward Comprehension: Improving Informed Consent In Behavioral Genetic Research, Zachary Robert Batchelder Jan 2016

Toward Comprehension: Improving Informed Consent In Behavioral Genetic Research, Zachary Robert Batchelder

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This applied experimental study examined components of informed consent documents created to enhance awareness, retention, and recall of information. It was conducted as an online study of 216 research pool participants who were considering participation in a behavioral genetic study. Following completion of the IPIP-NEO personality measure, posed as a screening procedure for participation in a study of genetic influences on personality, participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions (27 per condition). They were presented with one of eight experimenter-constructed informed consents with requested potential participation, during the following week, in a genetic study that involved donation of ...


Mental Health Stigma In Religious Communities: Development Of A Quantitative Measure, Lily A. Mathison Jan 2016

Mental Health Stigma In Religious Communities: Development Of A Quantitative Measure, Lily A. Mathison

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While mental health stigma is a burgeoning field of research, little work has been done on whether mental health stigma in different subcultures is the same or different as the general population. There is qualitative evidence that beliefs about the etiology and effective treatments for mental illness differ in religious communities as compared to the general population, but efforts to quantify this difference have been sparse and reflect poor methodology. The purpose of the present study is to create and validate a measure of mental health stigma in religious communities. Items will be generated using extant literature and revised after ...


Not All Word Stress Errors Are Created Equal: Validating An English Word Stress Error Gravity Hierarchy, Monica Grace Richards Jan 2016

Not All Word Stress Errors Are Created Equal: Validating An English Word Stress Error Gravity Hierarchy, Monica Grace Richards

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spoken language has no spaces between its words. Therefore, one of the major tasks facing listeners of any language is determining from the largely continuous stream of speech where the invisible word boundaries lie. Although English is not a language where the position of a word's stressed syllable is reliably fixed, its lexical stress is nevertheless fixed enough that L1 English listeners initially apply the heuristic that strong syllables mark the first syllable of a new word, attempting alternative resegmentations only when this heuristic fails to identify a viable word string (Cutler & Butterfield, 1992; Cutler & Carter, 1987). Thus, English word stress errors can severely disrupt listener processing. This study uses auditory lexical decision and delayed word identification tasks to test a hypothesized English Word Stress Error Gravity Hierarchy synthesizing previous research that has identified vowel quality (Bond, 1979, 1999; Bond & Small, 1983; Cutler, 2012, 2015) and direction ...


Citizen Competence And Its Effect On Citizen Satisfaction With Normative Ideals In American Democracy, Brett M. Daley Jan 2015

Citizen Competence And Its Effect On Citizen Satisfaction With Normative Ideals In American Democracy, Brett M. Daley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Citizen competence--though not always referred to in those exact words--is a common and important topic in political science. This thesis proposes a definition of citizen competence that is heavily, though not entirely, contingent on a person's effort in gathering political information. Using data from the 2012 ANES pre-election survey, an empirical analysis is also conducted. Forty hypotheses are tested using one-way ANOVAs to look at the correlation between citizen competence and citizen satisfaction with common normative ideals held regarding American democracy. Results indicate that there is strong support for the theory that citizen competence is correlated with citizen satisfaction ...


Place As A Positive Reflection Of Self, Cynthia A. Kelly Jan 2015

Place As A Positive Reflection Of Self, Cynthia A. Kelly

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is about the relevance of interior design to our complex and fundamental relationship to place, by defining placeness and its significance to self. Environmental psychology asserts that it is inaccurate to talk about a person outside of his or her context. Designers are essentially striving for a meaningful “person-environment fit” and creating a womb with a view, therefore nurturing and reflecting who we are and our priorities, positively (Gallagher, 2006).

The study of home and place is entwined with several areas including: sociology, anthropology, psychology, human geography, history, architecture, and philosophy (Mallett, 2004). This study is about creating ...


African American Mother's Socialization Of Daughter's Dress And Consumption Of Appearance-Related Products, Laporchia C. Davis Jan 2015

African American Mother's Socialization Of Daughter's Dress And Consumption Of Appearance-Related Products, Laporchia C. Davis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to explore how African American mothers socialize their daughters’ dress and consumption of appearance-related products. This study provides critical insights into how African American mothers serve as purposeful role models and how they employ teaching strategies to cultivate their daughters’ learning about being a Black female in America. Black feminist, Afrocentric, and standpoint theories guided the study to demonstrate how African American mothers are key agents in shaping their daughters development of understanding of social marginalization and how to deal with marginalization through self-presentation.

Sixteen mother–daughter pairs from Pine Bluff, Arkansas, were recruited ...


Reconceptualizing The Role Of Essentialism In Attitudes Toward Gays And Lesbians: The Intersection Of Gender And Sexual Orientation, Vanessa Hettinger May 2014

Reconceptualizing The Role Of Essentialism In Attitudes Toward Gays And Lesbians: The Intersection Of Gender And Sexual Orientation, Vanessa Hettinger

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Social psychology researchers have become increasingly interested in the role of essentialist beliefs in predicting attitudes toward social groups. However, there is little agreement about what the term actually means, whether it means different things for different groups, what endorsement of essentialism (or its sub-components) means for attitudes, and how much this varies depending on the relevant social context. This underlying lack of clarity helps to explain some of the difficulty in understanding the relationships between essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. In the current project, I suggest a fundamental shift in the approach ...


Illness Perceptions Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Elizabeth Baker Jan 2014

Illness Perceptions Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Elizabeth Baker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a chronic illness that affects approximately five million premenopausal women in the United States and is associated with significant cosmetic, reproductive, metabolic, and psychological consequences. Despite its prevalence, few studies have explored the lived experiences and illness perceptions of women living with PCOS. Identifying illness perceptions of women living with (WLW) PCOS is important, because mounting research suggests that a person's perceptions of their chronic illness and its management determine that person's coping behaviors (e.g., adherence, self-management) and, consequently, illness outcomes.

In this dissertation, the Common Sense Model (CSM) is used as ...


We Can Do It, But I Wouldn't Like It: Gender, Interests, And Occupational Perceptions, Cariann Marie Bergner Jan 2014

We Can Do It, But I Wouldn't Like It: Gender, Interests, And Occupational Perceptions, Cariann Marie Bergner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The present study sought to investigate whether individuals continue to view occupations as sex-typed and to examine the relationship between gender traits and perceptions of occupations. Participants assigned Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) adjectives to job descriptions representative of Holland's six RIASEC types and also completed measures of vocational interests, gender identity, and attitudes toward women. Chi-square analyses were utilized to determine the extent to which participants assigned the BSRI adjectives to RIASEC types, while property vector fitting was used to examine whether the order predictions of the RIASEC model were met by the assignment of BSRI adjectives. Multivariate ...


Interaction Design Strategies For Open-Ended Play, Michael Tschampl Jan 2014

Interaction Design Strategies For Open-Ended Play, Michael Tschampl

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Open-ended play is initiated by the child where he/she is in full control of the entire play experience, without imposed rules or external structure. This play experience is rewarding, engaging and desirable for children. It is also valued by parents, educators, and psychologists as it aids healthy development of the child, both cognitively and physically. Despite its proven value, children have been initiating open-ended play less often while their use of digital media devices has become more common. There is an opportunity to encourage open-ended play through interaction design. However, designing for open-ended play is difficult due to its ...


Ethical Judgments Of Deception In Psychological Research, Paul Lawrence Ascheman Jan 2013

Ethical Judgments Of Deception In Psychological Research, Paul Lawrence Ascheman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This quantitative study assessed the applicability of a Social Contract Theory (Kimmel, Smith & Klein, 2011) that proposes a social contract, potential agreement between researchers and participants, as a means of addressing and potentially diminishing ethical dilemmas associated with use of deception in psychological research. The responses of 212 undergraduate research participants were obtained and compared with those of 189 graduate student or faculty psychological researchers by examining within-and between-group consensus in agreement (> 80% of each sample) for a set of ten Social Contract Statements.

While there was consensus for the five fundamental statements (similar to the APA Code of Ethics), only two of five more specific principle statements garnered support from both groups. Statements that expressed a preference for non-deceptive methods, and general disclaimers to participants by researchers that deception could be used, were supported solely by researchers and participants, respectively. Between-group equivalence in ratings of agreement was predicted; however, meaningful equivalence (< 10% difference) was found only for the prohibition of physical pain in deception research.

This study also extended the applicability of the social contract to selected examples of published deception studies described in twelve brief vignettes. Participant and researcher equivalences and differences in perceived ethicality ratings of the twelve vignettes were obtained. Prior research indicated that researchers perceived deceptions as less ethical compared to participants (e.g., Schreier & Stadler, 1992); however, this study found researchers and participants made equivalent ratings for all but four vignettes. Similar results were obtained for hypothetical consent to participate in a vignette study. Consent was ...


Designing Features That Influence Decisions About Sustainable Products, Jinjuan She Jan 2013

Designing Features That Influence Decisions About Sustainable Products, Jinjuan She

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Engineers make continuous effort to improve the sustainability of products, such as using sophisticated manufacturing approaches, conducting rigorous sustainability analysis, and including materials that decrease environmental impact. However, thoughtful sustainability efforts are sometimes hidden from customers, which are wasted sales features if customers do not know or value them. As green marketing messages are not always trusted, another approach is to communicate sustainability to the customer through the product's visible features. This research proposes and tests a newly-created design technique that helps product designers communicate sustainability in the products they design and, in turn, helps customers to think about ...


Religious And Spiritual Issues In Group Counseling: Beliefs And Preferences Of University Counseling Center Clients And Therapists, Brian Christopher Post Jan 2013

Religious And Spiritual Issues In Group Counseling: Beliefs And Preferences Of University Counseling Center Clients And Therapists, Brian Christopher Post

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past three decades research on addressing religious and spiritual issues in individual counseling has blossomed, but group counseling has been virtually ignored. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the beliefs and preferences of group counseling clients and therapists regarding the discussion of religious and spiritual concerns, and the appropriateness of religious and spiritual interventions. Participants were 164 clients and 54 therapists participating in counseling groups at nine university counseling centers nationwide. The majority of clients and therapists indicated that religious concerns are an appropriate topic for group counseling, and the majority of clients reported ...


A Study Comparing Table-Based And List-Based Smartphone Interface Usability, Patrick M. Finley Jan 2013

A Study Comparing Table-Based And List-Based Smartphone Interface Usability, Patrick M. Finley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Never before has society seen a technology or medium advance as quickly as the smartphone. With advancements of smartphone technology, many daily tasks can be accomplished easier and faster with smartphone devices, which require more and more people from numerous backgrounds to use a variety of interface layouts. This study hopes to contribute in building a framework for conducting usability studies to assist in creating a foundation for smartphone interface development by evaluating the effectiveness of two commonly used mobile website interfaces. Since smartphone usability studies are relatively new, there is no smartphone software to record or track this kind ...


Opportunity For Success: Website Evaluation And Scanning By Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Hannah Joy Deering Jan 2013

Opportunity For Success: Website Evaluation And Scanning By Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Hannah Joy Deering

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are becoming more prevalent, both in the US and the world. As the Internet becomes necessary to fully participate in today's society, it is critical for people with ASD to be able to access and use online content and services. While there is a plethora of anecdotal evidence to indicate successful outcomes, there is currently little scientific research that examines Internet usage of people with ASD.

This pilot study compared students' cognitive traits associated with ASD, as reported in a survey, to their performance in a lab study that asked them to scan ...


The Role Of Photography In Framing And Creating Personal Narrative: An Analysis Of The 2012 Presidential Candidates, Britta Lynn Mennecke Jan 2013

The Role Of Photography In Framing And Creating Personal Narrative: An Analysis Of The 2012 Presidential Candidates, Britta Lynn Mennecke

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether images located on

Governor Mitt Romney's website and President Barack Obama's website could provided a strong enough narrative to sway voters. The goal of this investigation is not to suggest the causation, but to look for patterns that emerge in the collection of data over the month of October 2012, up to the election. Screenshots are collected on a daily basis, in the morning and at night to check for changes that may occur throughout the day. During the process of categorizing the images, patterns began to emerge suggesting ...


The Harm Of Influence: When Exposure To Homosexuality Elicits Anger And Punishment Tendencies, Timothy Andrew Caswell Jan 2013

The Harm Of Influence: When Exposure To Homosexuality Elicits Anger And Punishment Tendencies, Timothy Andrew Caswell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the current project, I examined the distinct elicitors and behavioral outcomes of anti-gay anger and anti-gay disgust. The CAD triad hypothesis (Rozin, Lower, Imada, & Haidt, 1999) suggests that anger and disgust are elicited by distinct moral violations and cognitive appraisals. A plethora of research has documented the strong link between disgust and sexual prejudice, but very little attention has been given to the role of anger in sexual prejudice. The biocultural framework of stigmatization (Neuberg, Smith, & Asher, 2000) suggests that people who counter-socialize against prevailing social norms are stigmatized by others. If homosexual sexual behavior does not elicit anti-gay ...


Embodying Social Practice: Dynamically Co-Constituting Social Agency, Brian W. Dunst Jan 2013

Embodying Social Practice: Dynamically Co-Constituting Social Agency, Brian W. Dunst

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Theories of cognition and theories of social practices and institutions have often each separately acknowledged the relevance of the other; but seldom have there been consistent and sustained attempts to synthesize these two areas within one explanatory framework. This is precisely what my dissertation aims to remedy. I propose that certain recent developments and themes in philosophy of mind and cognitive science, when understood in the right way, can explain the emergence and dynamics of social practices and institutions. Likewise, the view I construct explains how social practices and institutions shape the character of cognition of their constituent agents. Moreover ...


Learning From Voices Of Diverse Youth: School-Based Practices To Promote Positive Psychosocial Functioning Of Lgbtq High School Students, Troy Nicholas Loker Jan 2013

Learning From Voices Of Diverse Youth: School-Based Practices To Promote Positive Psychosocial Functioning Of Lgbtq High School Students, Troy Nicholas Loker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify school-based practices that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth endorse as ways for high schools to provide social, emotional, and academic support to LGBTQ youth. A diverse sample of LGBTQ high school students (N = 18) from one large urban school district in a southeastern state participated in individual semi-structured interviews and/or small group brainstorming sessions. Eleven individual interviews were conducted to gather detailed accounts of a) supportive behaviors and policies that youth had experienced in their schools, as well as b) supportive behaviors and policies that were suggested as ...


The Strong Black Woman, Depression, And Emotional Eating, Michelle Renee Offutt Jan 2013

The Strong Black Woman, Depression, And Emotional Eating, Michelle Renee Offutt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Eighty percent of all black women are overweight or obese which can lead to greatly increased morbidity and mortality, increasing healthcare costs and loss of healthy years of life. While multiple factors may contribute to obesity in black women, the cultural persona of the Strong Black Woman (SBW), an ideology that promotes unflagging toughness and denial of self-needs, may be the basis for behaviors that contribute to steady state obesity in this group. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the SBW persona, depression, and emotional eating.

Two predominately black churches in Florida were approached ...


The Impact Of Movie Reviews Vs. Word Of Mouth On Post-Viewing Evaluations Of Films, Scott Schrage Jan 2012

The Impact Of Movie Reviews Vs. Word Of Mouth On Post-Viewing Evaluations Of Films, Scott Schrage

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Moviegoers regularly encounter movie reviews and word of mouth (WOM) prior to seeing a film. This thesis examined (1) whether reviews and WOM influence moviegoers' post-viewing opinions of a film and (2) whether this information's influence is moderated by moviegoing frequency. Using a between-subjects factorial design, the study gave participants positive or negative information about a film that they were led to believe came from either professional movie reviews or students at their university. Participants then watched the film and gave their opinions of its quality. The study found that, regardless of valence or source, this information did not ...