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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Opportunities To Mainstream Gender In Water And Wastewater Infrastructure Projects: A Case Study In Barbados, Wainella Isaacs Mar 2017

Opportunities To Mainstream Gender In Water And Wastewater Infrastructure Projects: A Case Study In Barbados, Wainella Isaacs

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

According to the World Resources Institute, Barbados is one of seven Caribbean countries ranked as being the most water stressed territories in the world. Prevailing drought conditions for the period 2010-2016 further compromised its water security while confirming predictions of a drier regional Caribbean climate. The simultaneous failing of at least 50-year-old water infrastructure at many points in the distribution network adds to these water stress conditions, and presents a financial burden to the local water utility in the form of lost revenues, and increased energy consumption for pumping.

Climate change and its impacts are not gender-neutral, and water infrastructure ...


A Life Cycle Assessment Of A Uranium Mine In Namibia, Janine Lambert Jun 2016

A Life Cycle Assessment Of A Uranium Mine In Namibia, Janine Lambert

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Uranium mining and nuclear power is a controversial topic as of late, especially in light of the recent Fukushima event. Although the actual use of nuclear fuel has minimal environmental impact, its issues come at the very beginning and end of the fuel’s life cycle in both the mining and fuel disposal process. This paper focuses on a life cycle analysis (LCA) of uranium mine in the desert nation of Namibia in Southern Africa. The goal of this LCA is to evaluate the environmental effects of uranium mining. The LCA focuses on water and energy embodiment such that they ...


Environmental Implications Of Pavements: A Life Cycle View, Bin Yu Jan 2013

Environmental Implications Of Pavements: A Life Cycle View, Bin Yu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Environmental aspect of pavement, unlike its economic counterpart, is seldom considered in the theoretical study and field practices. As a highly energy and material intensive infrastructure, pavement has great potential to contribute to the environment protection, which, in root, depends on the in-depth understanding of the environmental impacts, holistically and specifically. A life cycle assessment (LCA) model is used to fulfill the goal.

This research firstly carried out extensive literature review of LCA studies on pavement to identify the major research gaps, including: incompleteness of the methodology, controversy of the functional unit, and unawareness of feedstock energy of asphalt, etc ...


Modeling And Design Of Photocatalytic Reactors For Air Purification, Yangyang Zhang Jan 2013

Modeling And Design Of Photocatalytic Reactors For Air Purification, Yangyang Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Photocatalysis is a promising technique for the remediation of indoor air pollution. Photocatalysis utilizes semiconductor photocatalysts (such as TiO2 or ZnO) and appropriate light to produce strong oxidizing agents (OH*) that are able to break down organic compounds and inactivate bacteria and viruses. The overall goal of the research is to develop an efficient photocatalytic reactor based on mass transfer for indoor air purification. This study has focused on the enhancement of the effectiveness of the photocatalytic process by the introduction of artificial roughness on the reactor catalyst surface. The major effect of artificial roughness elements on the catalytic ...


Surface Mass Transfer In Large Eddy Simulation (Les) Of Langmuir Turbulence, Cigdem Akan Jan 2012

Surface Mass Transfer In Large Eddy Simulation (Les) Of Langmuir Turbulence, Cigdem Akan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the past century the study of gas exchange rates between the atmosphere and the ocean has received increased attention because of concern about the fate of greenhouse gases such as CO2 released into the atmosphere. Of interest is the oceanic uptake of CO2 in shallow water coastal regions as biological productivity in these regions is on average about three times larger than in the open ocean. It is well-known that in the absence of breaking surface waves, the water side turbulence controls gas transfer of sparingly soluble gases such as CO2 from the air to the ...


Rainwater Harvesting Storage Methods And Self Supply In Uganda, Jonathan Peter Blanchard Jan 2012

Rainwater Harvesting Storage Methods And Self Supply In Uganda, Jonathan Peter Blanchard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Self supply is an emerging approach to water supply which focuses on fostering household investment in incremental improvements to their water sources. When successful, it can lower costs and increase sustainability by offering users a larger share

of ownership in their own supply, and harnessing the already existing strengths of a community rather than trying to impose an external perspective. In addition to well upgrading and source protection, one of the key self supply areas is rainwater harvesting.

Uganda has a diverse selection of rainwater storage options, but many of them are scattered and disparate.

The objective of this study ...


Modeling Travel Time And Reliability On Urban Arterials For Recurrent Conditions, Prony Bonnaire Fils Jan 2012

Modeling Travel Time And Reliability On Urban Arterials For Recurrent Conditions, Prony Bonnaire Fils

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Travel time reliability is defined as the consistency or dependability in travel times during a specified period of time under stated conditions, and it can be used for evaluating the performance of traffic networks based on LOS (Level of Service) of the HCM (Highway Capacity Manual). Travel time reliability is also one of the most understood measures for road users to perceive the current traffic conditions, and help them make smart decisions on route choices, and hence avoid unnecessary delays (Liu & Ma, 2009). Therefore, travel time reliability on urban arterials has become a major concern for daily commuters, business ...


Flexible Urban Drainage Systems In New Land-Use Areas, Jochen Eckart Jan 2012

Flexible Urban Drainage Systems In New Land-Use Areas, Jochen Eckart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Urban drainage systems are influenced by several future drivers that affect the performance as well as the costs of the systems. The uncertainties associated with future drivers and their impact creates difficulties in designing urban drainage systems sustainably. A review of the different future drivers for urban drainage systems illustrates that no sufficient future predictions for the long operational life spans of the systems are possible. This dissertation contends that to deal with future uncertainties, flexibility in urban drainage systems is necessary.

At present, profound insights about defining, measuring, and generating flexible urban drainage systems do not exist. This research ...


Development And Application Of An F/M Based Anaerobic Digestion Model And The Rt-Ribosyn Molecular Biology Method, Matthew Raymond Cutter Jan 2012

Development And Application Of An F/M Based Anaerobic Digestion Model And The Rt-Ribosyn Molecular Biology Method, Matthew Raymond Cutter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A simple anaerobic digestion model has been developed for a continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR), which links the specific biogas production rate to the food/microorganism ratio (F/M). The model treats the various microbial populations involved in the sequential biological processes involved in anaerobic digestion as a composite and links the entire biomass specific growth rate directly to the specific biogas production rate. The model was calibrated by determining the specific gas production rate for a range of F/M values using a municipal wastewater seed sludge. The model predictions for steady-state biogas production rates were compared to observed biogas ...


Technical And Economic Assessment Of Adobe As The Primary Building Material On The Water Yield Of A Single Basin Solar Still, Nathan Daniel Manser Jan 2012

Technical And Economic Assessment Of Adobe As The Primary Building Material On The Water Yield Of A Single Basin Solar Still, Nathan Daniel Manser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

It is estimated that only one percent of global freshwater is available to humans, with nearly three billion people living in water scarce conditions. Populations living in impoverished settings are particularly vulnerable to water related illnesses, with approximately 2.2 million people dying each year from to waterborne illnesses. This research uses modeling and field studies to assess the quantity, quality, and economics of distillate produced for drinking water from a brackish water source using two single-sloped, single-basin distillation reactors. The reactors were constructed from adobe and concrete in an arid rural community in San Luis Potosí, Mexico and tested ...


Understanding Operating Speed Variation Of Multilane Highways With New Access Density Definition And Simulation Outputs, Bing Huang Jan 2012

Understanding Operating Speed Variation Of Multilane Highways With New Access Density Definition And Simulation Outputs, Bing Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Traffic speed is generally considered a core issue in roadway safety. Previous studies show that faster travel is not necessarily associated with an increased risk of being involved in a crash. When vehicles travel at the same speed in the same direction (even high speeds, as on interstates), they are not passing one another and cannot collide as long as they maintain the same speed. Conversely, the frequency of crashes increases when vehicles are traveling at different rates of speed. There is no doubt that the greater speed variation is, the greater the number of interactions among vehicles is, resulting ...


Water Quality Monitoring In A Pilot Marine Integrated Aquaculture System, Alex W. Kruglick Jan 2012

Water Quality Monitoring In A Pilot Marine Integrated Aquaculture System, Alex W. Kruglick

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Land based aquaculture systems are growing in popularity, and there is a drive to improve the efficiency of their energy and water systems for both economic and environmental benefit. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) generally refer to systems that recycle their wastewater streams to be more or less a zero discharge facility. A more sustainable approach is emerging in the form of Integrated Aquaculture Systems (IAS) where maximum utility is realized from the various components so that fresh water use is reduced, water quality is improved, energy use is reduced, and new markets are created or fulfilled. Under a grant from ...


Development Of An Integrated Process Model For Algae Growth In A Photobioreactor, Mehregan Jalalizadeh Jan 2012

Development Of An Integrated Process Model For Algae Growth In A Photobioreactor, Mehregan Jalalizadeh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While understanding the kinetics of algae growth plays an important role in improving algae cultivation technology, none of the existing kinetic models are able to describe algae growth when more than three growth limiting factors are involved. A model was developed in this study to describe algae growth in a photobioreactor. Two expressions were proposed based on the Monod model to relate the specific growth rate of algae to the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, inorganic carbon and light intensity in the culture media. Algal biomass concentration as a function of time was calculated by solving mass and energy balances around ...


Willingness-To-Pay For Maintenance And Improvements To Existing Sanitation Infrastructure: Assessing Community-Led Total Sanitation In Mopti, Mali, Justin Vern Meeks Jan 2012

Willingness-To-Pay For Maintenance And Improvements To Existing Sanitation Infrastructure: Assessing Community-Led Total Sanitation In Mopti, Mali, Justin Vern Meeks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, much focus has been put on the sustainability of water and sanitation development projects. Experts in this field have found that many of the projects of the past have failed to achieve sustainability because of a lack of demand for water and sanitation interventions at a grassroots level. For years projects looked to create this demand through various subsidy schemes, with the "software" of behavior change and education taking a backseat to the "hardware" of infrastructure provision. Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is a fairly new way of looking at the issues of increasing basic sanitation coverage, promoting ...


Estimation Of The Impact Of Single Airport And Multi-Airport System Delay On The National Airspace System Using Multivariate Simultaneous Models, Nagesh Nayak Jan 2012

Estimation Of The Impact Of Single Airport And Multi-Airport System Delay On The National Airspace System Using Multivariate Simultaneous Models, Nagesh Nayak

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Airline delays lead to a tremendous loss of time and resources and cost billions of dollars every year in the United States (U.S.). At certain times, individual airports become bottlenecks within the National Airspace System (NAS). To explore solutions for reducing the delay, it is essential to understand factors causing flight delay and its impact on airports in the NAS. Major causal factors of flight delay at airports include over-scheduling, en-route convective weather, reduced ceiling and visibility around airports, and upstream delay propagation. Delay at one airport can be passed on to other airports in the NAS, in another ...


Field And Laboratory Comparison Of The Hydraulic Performance Of Two Ceramic Pot Water Filters, Duncan Peabody Jan 2012

Field And Laboratory Comparison Of The Hydraulic Performance Of Two Ceramic Pot Water Filters, Duncan Peabody

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently 884 million people worldwide are living without access to an improved source of drinking water (WHO/UNICEF, 2011). Piped-water on premises is the ultimate goal of World Health Organization (WHO) due to the ability to treat all of the water and distribute it safely in pressurized pipes. However, Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS) is an option for improving the quality of drinking water where that infrastructure is not yet developed, especially where there is a risk of recontamination between point of collection and point of use (Clasen, 2006).

This study analyzed one such HWTS, the ceramic pot ...


On The Development Of The Extradosed Bridge Concept, Steven Lynn Stroh Jan 2012

On The Development Of The Extradosed Bridge Concept, Steven Lynn Stroh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Extradosed Prestressed Bridge represents a relatively new bridge type. The first of this type bridge was constructed in Japan in 1994, and Japan has since built at least 29 examples of this bridge type. Throughout the rest of the world, another 34 of this bridge type have been built, with most countries having only one, or at most a few, examples. A broader application of this bridge type has been hampered by lack of design information and in particular lack design criteria for the stay cables. The purpose of this dissertation is to progress the understanding and application of ...


Analysis And Remediation Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons In Environmental Media, Jonathan Ticknor Jan 2012

Analysis And Remediation Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons In Environmental Media, Jonathan Ticknor

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The two objectives of this work were to develop a simplified method for the analysis of chlorinated organics in water samples and to improve an existing soil remediation technology. The contaminants considered for these studies were chlorinated hydrocarbons because of their relative frequency of appearance at contaminated sites. The first half of this study involved the analysis of chlorinated ethenes by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). I tested the hypothesis that the FID response factor is the same for all chlorinated ethene compounds. The rationale for this investigation is that if the hypothesis is correct, a single calibration ...


Advances In Fiber Reinforced Polymer Repair Incorporating Cathodic Protection, Julio Ivan Aguilar Jan 2011

Advances In Fiber Reinforced Polymer Repair Incorporating Cathodic Protection, Julio Ivan Aguilar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents findings from two disparate research projects relating to the cathodic protection (CP) of piles supporting bridge elements. The first was a proof of concept study for developing a new hybrid pile repair system incorporating embedded sacrificial zinc anodes within a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) wrap. The second was to develop and remotely monitor the performance of magnesium anodes protecting steel H-piles supporting two bridges in Florida.

The hybrid FRP-CP system involved a proof-of-concept laboratory study to refine pressure / vacuum bagging systems for pile repair and to quantify the improvement in the FRP concrete bond. Two different FRP ...


Use Of Innovative Computer Technology And Optical Texture Properties In The Analysis Of Pavement Digital Images, Saumya Priyadari Amarasiri Jan 2011

Use Of Innovative Computer Technology And Optical Texture Properties In The Analysis Of Pavement Digital Images, Saumya Priyadari Amarasiri

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Digital image based automated pavement crack detection and classification technology has seen vast improvements in the recent years. In spite of these developments, although pavement crack lengths and widths can be evaluated using state-of-the-art software with a reasonable accuracy, no reported evidence is found in extending this technology to evaluate crack depths. Hence a preliminary study was carried out to model the digital image formation of cracked concrete pavements based on the Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function. It was revealed that a definitive theoretical relationship exists among the crack widths and depths and the maximum pixel intensity contrasts in the images ...


Thermal Integrity Profiling Instrumentation Development, Byron Keith Anderson Jan 2011

Thermal Integrity Profiling Instrumentation Development, Byron Keith Anderson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

This thesis has shown that the development of the instrumentation necessary to provide in-situ thermal imaging for the determination of homogeneity of concrete is theoretically sound.

Drilled shafts are large diameter underground cast-in-place columns that necessarily rely on sound integrity to properly withstand imposed loadings. As a by-product of the most common construction techniques, the entire process is often completely blind whereby the excavation and concreting processes are conducted beneath the surface of the water table (or slurry level). This results in an inability to inspect the final product and in many cases allows anomalous inclusions (soil cave-ins, slurry ...


Restoration Of Displaced Cast-In-Place Concrete Slabs On Grade With The Use Of The Isb-07 Subsurface Support Bracket, Jose Carlos Busquets Jan 2011

Restoration Of Displaced Cast-In-Place Concrete Slabs On Grade With The Use Of The Isb-07 Subsurface Support Bracket, Jose Carlos Busquets

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The restoration of foundations of residential and light commercial structures that have been affected by differential displacement resulting from problematic soil conditions has been an ongoing issue since early times. In Florida, the issue of structures being affected by subsidence of soils related to sinkhole activity has been a problem that has gained more interest and exposure within the last 20 years. Structures affected by sinkholes have been historically addressed by remediating the soil mechanism which caused the structure to displace and then structurally addressing the portions of the structure that have displaced with steel underpins installed on the foundation ...


Modeling Roadside Safety Hazards To Predict Annual Crash Cost To Encroaching Vehicles In Rural Road Networks, Isidro Delgado Jan 2011

Modeling Roadside Safety Hazards To Predict Annual Crash Cost To Encroaching Vehicles In Rural Road Networks, Isidro Delgado

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Roadside crashes account for a large portion of total fatal crashes that occur annually in the United States. About 30% of those fatalities are the result of single vehicle run-off-road crashes. A large proportion of these fatal crashes occur in rural roads when vehicles depart from the travel lane and collide with trees or other roadside safety hazards. Many of these run-off-road accidents occur in local roads that carry traffic volumes between 1,000 and 20,000 vehicles per day. Many of these roads are part of the jurisdiction of county authorities faced with the dilemma of having too many ...


Mechanistic Modeling Of Photocatalytic Water Disinfection, Omatoyo Kofi Dalrymple Jan 2011

Mechanistic Modeling Of Photocatalytic Water Disinfection, Omatoyo Kofi Dalrymple

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The main goal of this research was to develop a mechanism-based model for photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria in water using suspended catalyst pthesiss in batch reactors. The photocatalytic disinfection process occurs as a semiconductor photocatalyst, most commonly titanium dioxide (TiO2), is irradiated with light of wavelength less than 380 nm to produce hydroxyl radicals and other highly reactive oxidants which can inactivate microorganisms. Photocatalytic disinfection involves a complex interaction of many fundamental mechanisms such as light absorption and scattering by semiconductor pthesiss, electrochemical surface reactions, and heterogeneous colloidal stability. Current models, based largely on chemical reacting systems, do not ...


Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (Anmbr) For Treatment Of Landfill Leachate And Removal Of Micropollutants, Anh Tien Do Jan 2011

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (Anmbr) For Treatment Of Landfill Leachate And Removal Of Micropollutants, Anh Tien Do

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

To date, most studies on the fate and removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater focus on their fate in municipal wastewater treatment plants, and mostly under aerobic condition. There are limited studies related to anaerobic condition and (to our knowledge) no study on the removal of EDCs in landfill leachate by AnMBR. Moreover, for most studies under anaerobic condition, the removal of EDCs was only reported in the liquid phase; solid phase extraction was not reported, thereby preventing mass balance in the studies.

This research was conducted to investigate the potential ...


In Situ Biofiltration Of Dissolved Organic Carbon In Reverse Osmosis Membrane Filtration, Russell Rosario Ferlita Jan 2011

In Situ Biofiltration Of Dissolved Organic Carbon In Reverse Osmosis Membrane Filtration, Russell Rosario Ferlita

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Biofouling, or the formation of biofilm on membrane surfaces, can decrease the performance (decreased flux and/or increased operating pressure) of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane system in a water treatment plant. However, biofilms have been used in water treatment systems to remove organic carbon from water via biofilters and successfully reduce biofilm growth downstream. This research investigates the possibility that the heterotrophic biofilm present on membrane surfaces removes nutrients from the treatment water, thereby making it nutrient deprived as it travels along the treatment train. This may potentially be exploited as an in situ biofilter to actively remove dissolved ...


Cactus Mucilage-Assisted Heavy Metal Separation: Design And Implementation, Dawn Iona Fox Jan 2011

Cactus Mucilage-Assisted Heavy Metal Separation: Design And Implementation, Dawn Iona Fox

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Natural contamination of groundwater by arsenic (As) has become a critical public health threat in many parts of the world. The well-known regions associated with As contamination of groundwater are Bangladesh and West Bengal, India where approximately 100 million people are exposed to high levels of arsenic by drinking arsenic-contaminated groundwater and about 35 million are already affected. Long-term drinking of arsenic-contaminated water leads to arsenicosis, which is characterized by cancers of the skin, organ disease and certain other types of cancer. Affected developing communities are at higher risk because they may not have access to conventional water treatment facilities ...


Safety Evaluation Of Roadway Lighting Illuminance Levels And Its Relationship With Nighttime Crash Injury Severity For West Central Florida Region, Enrique Gonzalez-Velez Jan 2011

Safety Evaluation Of Roadway Lighting Illuminance Levels And Its Relationship With Nighttime Crash Injury Severity For West Central Florida Region, Enrique Gonzalez-Velez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The main role of roadway lighting is to produce quick, accurate and comfortable visibility during nighttime conditions. It is commonly known that good lighting levels enable motorists, pedestrians and bicyclists to obtain necessary visual information in an effective and efficient manner. Many previous studies also proved that roadway lighting minimizes the likelihood of crashes by providing better visibility for roadway users.

Appropriate and adequate roadway lighting illuminance levels for each roadway classification and pedestrian areas are essential to provide safe and comfortable usage. These levels are usually provided by national, or local standards and guidelines. The Florida Department of Transportation ...


Embodied Energy Assessment Of Rainwater Harvesting Systems In Primary School Settings On La Peninsula Valiente, Comarca Ngobe Bugle, Republic Of Panama, Kaitlin Elinor Green Jan 2011

Embodied Energy Assessment Of Rainwater Harvesting Systems In Primary School Settings On La Peninsula Valiente, Comarca Ngobe Bugle, Republic Of Panama, Kaitlin Elinor Green

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The United Nations Millennium Development goals aim to make improvements in access to potable water. In the Bocas del Toro region of Panama, rainwater harvesting systems are making that goal more attainable. Rainwater harvesting, especially in rural, difficult access areas, may be a viable water source improvement that will allow a greater population to access improved water. This study uses the Carnegie Mellon University Economic Input-output Life Cycle Assessment tool to assess the embodied energy of plastic and ferrocement rainwater harvesting systems in rural Panama. Rainwater harvesting systems are assessed as source improvement technologies that increase access to potable water ...


Feasibility Of Wastewater Reuse For Fish Production In Small Communities In A Developing World Setting, Joshua James Girard Jan 2011

Feasibility Of Wastewater Reuse For Fish Production In Small Communities In A Developing World Setting, Joshua James Girard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eradicating poverty, malnutrition, and the burden of disease have been included as three of the major issues facing the world. The United Nation member countries, having set forth the Millennium Development Goals, have committed themselves to solving these problems. Two major factors which affect solutions to these problems are increasing water stress and implementing improved sanitation. Integration of tilapia aquaculture and reuse of wastewater has been suggested as a solution which addresses both of these factors. The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility, and explore the benefits and drawbacks, to implementing small community wastewater fed (WWF) aquaculture ...