Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Arts and Humanities Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 4313

Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

"He Didn't Mean It": What Kubrick's, Kelley O'Brien Mar 2018

"He Didn't Mean It": What Kubrick's, Kelley O'Brien

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With Second Wave Feminism and the Women’s Rights Movement, 1970’s Americans began to see a shift in gender norms affecting how we relate to one another, particularly within a family structure. Scholars have noted an anxiety permeating the decade over the potential negative ramifications of such a drastic cultural shift. We see these issues of gender politics played out in numerous popular films from the 1970s and into the 1980s. Kubrick’s The Shining, like many horror films of the time, preys upon the societal fear for the family, due to these shifting gender norms, by featuring a ...


Performing "Hurt" : Aging, Disability, And Popular Music As Mediated Product And Lived-Experience In Johnny Cash's Final Recordings, Adam Davidson Mar 2018

Performing "Hurt" : Aging, Disability, And Popular Music As Mediated Product And Lived-Experience In Johnny Cash's Final Recordings, Adam Davidson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sitting at a rarely examined intersection between aging, disability, and popular culture, this project explores how the aging body becomes the disabled body in the context of popular music. In what follows, I trouble the distinction between bodies and mediation, between lived-experience and cultural product, and I argue that the voice of the aging artist engages with his lived-experience even as he performs socially-constructed conceptions of aging and disability.

I read Johnny Cash’s 2002 cover of Trent Reznor’s “Hurt” on American IV: The Man Comes Around as a performance of the singer’s age and disabled condition. Through ...


Failing To Move Forward: Journalism, Media, And Affect In David Fincher's, Nicholas Orlando Mar 2018

Failing To Move Forward: Journalism, Media, And Affect In David Fincher's, Nicholas Orlando

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Zodiac (David Fincher, 2007) offers a critique of the mass media’s efforts to restore American valiance with heroic narratives of ordinary people in the aftermath of 9/11. Amending prior scholarly readings of Zodiac as a serial killer narrative, I reconfigure my analysis by taking Fincher at his word and treating it as a journalism film. Borrowing a term from political theorist Elisabeth Anker, I argue that, unlike other contemporary journalism films, Zodiac is constructed as a “melodrama of failure” that, rather than seeking mastery, unveils the instability of evidence and the obsessive uncertainty of procedure.

With his film ...


The Echoes Of Buddha, Jesus Christ, And Fredrich Nietzsche In Cormac Mccarthy’S The Sunset Limited, Hee-Seong Lim Jan 2018

The Echoes Of Buddha, Jesus Christ, And Fredrich Nietzsche In Cormac Mccarthy’S The Sunset Limited, Hee-Seong Lim

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As many of Cormac McCarthy scholars have agreed, McCarthy’s film adaptations as well as published novels conspicuously have engaged in religious themes. The purpose of this thesis is to explore religious aspects of the film adaptation of McCarthy’s The Sunset Limited (2011) from Buddhist, Christian, and atheist perspectives. This thesis’ Buddhist reading of The Sunset Limited is the first attempt among religious interpretations of McCarthy’s text, and this is expected to open a new horizon in the religious analysis of McCarthy’s film. The Sunset Limited shows a tension between Black and White, and the tension represents ...


Evaluation Of Consumer Perceptions And Acceptance Of Sustainable Fashion Products Made Of Bacterial Cellulose, Armine Ghalachyan Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Consumer Perceptions And Acceptance Of Sustainable Fashion Products Made Of Bacterial Cellulose, Armine Ghalachyan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to tremendous contributions of the fashion industry to environmental degradation, novel sustainable materials and practices are becoming increasingly important. The purpose of this research was to investigate consumer perceptions of fashion products made from bacterial cellulose (BC), a novel sustainable material. Research objectives were to: (a) understand how consumers perceive and characterize BC material based on the senses of touch, sight, smell, and hearing; (b) identify areas for material improvement and potential barriers and motivations for consumer acceptance of products made of BC; and (c) evaluate the acceptability of BC, from a consumer perspective, as a novel material for ...


Swagger Like Us: Black Millennials’ Perceptions Of 1990s Urban Brands, Courtney Danielle Johnson Jan 2018

Swagger Like Us: Black Millennials’ Perceptions Of 1990s Urban Brands, Courtney Danielle Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Hip-hop is a significant cultural and artistic phenomenon that was created in the Black community and has since spread around the world (Aldridge & Stewart, 2005). Hip-hop culture has a unique and authentic clothing style, music style, and language (McLeod, 1999). The relationship between hip-hop culture, rap music, and fashion has global appeal (Power & Hauge, 2008). This research is centered around the evolution of this cultural fashion movement in Black history as it relates to Black millennials today and their experiences fashioning their bodies. There is not a significant amount of literature on urbanwear brands that came out of hip-hop culture or the owners of these fashion brands. The purpose of this study is to examine Black millennials attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) about their perceptions and knowledge of prominent, Black-owned, urban fashion brands that emerged in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s during the hip-hop fashion revolution. Black millennials currently attending or who are alumni of HBCU’s were specifically chosen as the focus of this study because of the heightened immersion in Black culture that a HBCU environment provides. Throughout history, Black individuals have contributed significantly to American society, and hip-hop culture is one of those contributions as it was a major cultural revolution. While Black appearance and clothing has been under scrutiny in America since slavery, urbanwear fashion was a way for Black individuals to express themselves and represent their community. Ethnic dress, such as urban styles of dress, are clothing worn by individuals to express their belonging to a community with a common heritage (Kaiser, 2012; Eicher & Sumberg, 1995). The participants in this study explained their experiences with urban fashion brands, support of Black-owned brands, stereotypes associated with urban fashion, and how hip-hop and urbanwear still inspires their style today. The narratives and perceptions from Black individuals has changed over time and viewing urban fashion through the lens of various social science theories such as Critical Race Theory, Afrocentric theory, and symbolic interaction will further explain the relationship between Black millennials and 1990s ...


Korean Fashion Media, Beauty Ideals, And Colorism: Examining The Prominence Of Whiteness Between 2013 And 2017 In CãƒÂ©Ci Magazine, Eunji Choi Jan 2018

Korean Fashion Media, Beauty Ideals, And Colorism: Examining The Prominence Of Whiteness Between 2013 And 2017 In CãƒÂ©Ci Magazine, Eunji Choi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to critically examine fashion magazines targeting Korean women to examine to what degree White or European beauty ideals permeate Korean cultural outlets. To analyze beauty ideal representations in these fashion magazines, I used the content analysis method and examined issues of Céci, the most popular and widely circulated fashion magazine published in Korea, from 2013 to 2017. Each individual pictured in the magazine was coded in five categories: race, skin tone, hairstyle, hair color, and facial characteristics. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-square, and independent samples t-tests were used to analyze the data ...


Distinguishing Patterns Of Utopia And Dystopia, East And West, Huai-Hsuan Huang Dec 2017

Distinguishing Patterns Of Utopia And Dystopia, East And West, Huai-Hsuan Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Before Sir Thomas More published Utopia and defined his ideal world with this fictional land, humans had been looking for their ideal society for centuries based on various religions and cultures. Yet, there are a few studies focusing on Utopia and Dystopia in cross-cultural contexts. This thesis will explore the two main questions: 1) can Utopia and Dystopia be separated? and 2) how does the utopian concept in the West involve in Eastern culture during the postwar period in postcolonial perspective?

Phoenix in Japan and THX 1138 in U.S. are two well-known works during the post-World War II period ...


Measuring Up: Standardized Testing And The Making Of Postwar American Identities, 1940-2001, Keegan J. Shepherd Oct 2017

Measuring Up: Standardized Testing And The Making Of Postwar American Identities, 1940-2001, Keegan J. Shepherd

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Standardized testing is a defining feature of contemporary American society. It not only governs how people are channeled through their schooling; it amplifies existing social disparities. Nonetheless, standardized testing endures, namely because it has served as a vital tool for the post-1945 American state. The postwar state prioritized, on the one hand, the cultivation of intellects resilient enough to sustain American geopolitical supremacy through scientific discovery and technological innovation and, on the other hand, the maintenance of an obedient population that would not disrupt existing social hierarchies. Standardized testing helped the postwar state solve this mind-body dilemma. As a function ...


Con Su Propia Voz: Un Estudio De Cinco Mujeres Mexicanas, Matthew Steven Wilkinson Mar 2017

Con Su Propia Voz: Un Estudio De Cinco Mujeres Mexicanas, Matthew Steven Wilkinson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Este estudio se centra en las vidas de cinco mujeres mexicanas—Malintzin, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Leona Vicario, Rosario Castellanos y Julieta Venegas—de cinco etapas históricas diferentes de México—la Conquista, el Virreinato de Nueva España, la lucha por la independencia, la modernidad y lo contemporáneo—al estudiar el uso que cada figura hace de su “Voz” según la época. Empieza presentando y descomponiendo el concepto de “malinchismo” revisando los detalles reconocidos de la vida de Malintzin/doña Marina/la Malinche. Después, continúa con un resumen de ciertos aspectos interesantes de las vidas de cada figura, empezando ...


Get Ye A Copper Kettle: Appalachia, Moonshine, And A Postcolonial World, Christopher David Adkins Mar 2017

Get Ye A Copper Kettle: Appalachia, Moonshine, And A Postcolonial World, Christopher David Adkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

For little over a century, the American region of Appalachia was an internal mineral colony of the United States. This internal colonization produced innumerable negative environmental and economic effects, as well as – most insidious of all – the constructed stereotype of the Hillbilly that even in the Twenty-First Century refuses to die. Yet part and parcel of that same stereotype is something found all over Appalachia, representing a freedom, an identity, and an heritage so long denied to Appalachia and the Appalachian people on its own terms: moonshine, the colorless, unaged corn whiskey long produced both in Appalachia and its Celtic ...


Seamless Knitted Sports Bra Design: A Responsive System Design Exploration, Adriana Carmen Gorea Jan 2017

Seamless Knitted Sports Bra Design: A Responsive System Design Exploration, Adriana Carmen Gorea

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The transition of sports bras’ uses, from an active lifestyle to resting activities, requires dynamic and adaptable comfort properties of the design, as well as adequate breast support, fit, and comfort. Thus, the two-fold purpose of this study was to: (a) analyze the use of current materials and processes in the product development process of seamless sports bras, via industry interview and observation, and (b) propose a design solution for a seamless sports bra that offers variable breast support during running versus resting activities.

Using a case study approach, an in-depth interview with a Santoni seamless knitting technician provided ...


Fashioning High-Heeled Identity: Material Culture And Identity Formation In Maya Angelou’S Autobiographies, Sonia Marie Del Hierro Jan 2017

Fashioning High-Heeled Identity: Material Culture And Identity Formation In Maya Angelou’S Autobiographies, Sonia Marie Del Hierro

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Maya Angelou’s autobiographies, "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and "Gather Together in My Name," require an interdisciplinary lens to understand her self-formation and cultural identity. This thesis analyzes the previously overlooked material objects that are tokens of the class structure Angelou wishes to escape. My aim is to increase discussion concerning the significance of clothing, shoes, and cosmetics as they relate to Angelou’s identity.


Black Fashion Designers Matter: A Qualitative Study Exploring The Experiences Of Black Female Fashion Design Entrepreneurs, Samii Lashanta Kennedy Benson Jan 2017

Black Fashion Designers Matter: A Qualitative Study Exploring The Experiences Of Black Female Fashion Design Entrepreneurs, Samii Lashanta Kennedy Benson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences of Black female fashion design entrepreneurs by examining how they launched, financed and successfully maintained their businesses. Fifteen female fashion designers, ages 25 to 50 years old, who identified as Black or African American, participated in this study. The participants also met three out of the following criteria: (a) have completed a fashion design certificate or degree program, (b) design and produce a line at least twice a year, (c) participate in at least two fashion shows a year, (d) rely on their fashion design business as their primary source ...


The Adaptability Of Women’S Captivity Narratives In American Literature, Ellen Campbell Rhodes Jan 2017

The Adaptability Of Women’S Captivity Narratives In American Literature, Ellen Campbell Rhodes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this analysis, I explore several women’s captivity texts to show how the captivity narrative genre has adapted to the cultural needs of its readers and authors as well as what the creation of a captivity narrative means to those involved. To examine the scope of the captivity narrative throughout time and across genres in American literature, I focus my analysis on a variety of captivity texts, written by both men and women, comprising of both fictional and true accounts of captivity: James E. Seaver’s 1824 Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison, Sarah F. Wakefield’s ...


Women’S Motivations To Sew Clothing For Themselves, Addie Martindale Jan 2017

Women’S Motivations To Sew Clothing For Themselves, Addie Martindale

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to understand why women are choosing to sew clothing for themselves as a leisure activity in the age of fast fashion. Resurgence in home sewing participation, specifically an increased interest in personal garment sewing, has prompted the need to explore these women’s perceived benefits and their consumer behavior as they operate outside of typical consumer culture. Due to the lack of current home sewing research, a grounded theory approach was used to reveal the reasons for this phenomenon through the experiences of the female sewers. An ethnically diverse sample of 15 female middle-class ...


The Apatow Aesthetic: Exploring New Temporalities Of Human Development In 21st Century Network Society, Michael D. Rosen Dec 2016

The Apatow Aesthetic: Exploring New Temporalities Of Human Development In 21st Century Network Society, Michael D. Rosen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis offers a critical examination of what I call the “Apatow aesthetic” in order to analyze the social processes of growing up in contemporary neoliberal network society. While doctors, psychologists and social scientists still proffer a model of mid- 20th century human development centered around a chronologically-determined life cycle, the Apatow aesthetic imagines a non-linear reality where traditional life events and social practices don’t always correspond to specific age groups. Specifically, I argue, the Apatow aesthetic subjects the spectator to the pleasures and pains of these life-cycle disruptions, and reveals the unfolding of a new cultural shift which ...


Longshoremen's Negotiation Of Masculinity And The Middle Class In 1950s Popular Culture, Tomaro I. Taylor Nov 2016

Longshoremen's Negotiation Of Masculinity And The Middle Class In 1950s Popular Culture, Tomaro I. Taylor

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis considers mid-20th century portrayals of working-class longshoremen’s masculinity within the context of emerging middle-class gender constructions. I argue that although popular culture presents a roughly standardized depiction of longshoremen as “manly men,” these portrayals are significantly nuanced to demonstrate the difficulties working-class men faced as they attempted to navigate socio-cultural and socio-economic shifts related to class and the performance of their male gender. Specifically, I consider depictions of longshoremen’s disruptive masculinity, male identity formation, and masculine-male growth as reactions to paradigmatic shifts in American masculinity. Using three aspects of longshoremen’s non-work lives presented in ...


The Apocalypse Narrative And The Internet: Divided Relationships In New Natures, Brooks Scott Benadum Nov 2016

The Apocalypse Narrative And The Internet: Divided Relationships In New Natures, Brooks Scott Benadum

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project proposes that one factor of growing societal interest in the apocalypse narrative is rooted in these stories reflection on our new landscape of telecommunication flows embodied in the Internet. The apocalypse narrative has steadily been growing in popularity, and many academics have offered potential explanations. While other analyses predominately focus on the actual apocalyptic event itself as representative of various societal fears, this project aims to focus on aspects of how we adapt to being in the new apocalyptic landscape, and how this reflects on our own adaptation to being in the new landscape of the Internet. This ...


Negotiating The Delta: Dr. T.R.M. Howard In Mound Bayou, Mississippi, William Jackson Southerland Oct 2016

Negotiating The Delta: Dr. T.R.M. Howard In Mound Bayou, Mississippi, William Jackson Southerland

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper examines the racially segregationist practices and the integrationist, inclusionist formation of African American leader Dr. T.R.M. Howard during his tenure as a surgeon and entrepreneur in the all-black Mississippi Delta community of Mound Bayou, 1942-1956. The paper analytically investigates the careful racial negotiations that were required of Howard as he advanced a separatist but egalitarian economic and social plan for Delta blacks. This separatist plan, it is argued, is grounded in the racial pragmatism of the Seventh-day Adventist church which provided a bibliocentric, Tuskegee-inspired education to Howard from youth through medical school and beyond. Howard’s ...


Heavy South: Identity, Performance, And Heavy Music In The Southern Metal Scene, Michael A. Mcdowell Jun 2016

Heavy South: Identity, Performance, And Heavy Music In The Southern Metal Scene, Michael A. Mcdowell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Southern Metal scene depends heavily on the performance of a Southern Identity. While considerable research has been done on other musical genres and scenes from the American South (country music, blues, gospel music), less attention has been given to the extreme metal scene of Southern Metal. Using scholarship of Nadine Hubbs, Philip Auslander, Jefferey C. Alexander, and Keith Kahn Harris, among others, I analyze two films, Slow Southern Steel (2010) and NOLA: Life, Death, and Heavy Blues from the Bayou (2014), and one song, Down’s “Eyes of the South” as cultural productions of this Southern Metal scene. In ...


What’S In Your Toolbox? Examining Tool Choices At Two Middle And Late Woodland-Period Sites On Florida’S Central Gulf Coast, Lori L. O'Neal Jun 2016

What’S In Your Toolbox? Examining Tool Choices At Two Middle And Late Woodland-Period Sites On Florida’S Central Gulf Coast, Lori L. O'Neal

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The examination of the tools that prehistoric people crafted for subsistence and related practices offers distinctive insights into how they lived their lives. Most often, researchers study these practices in isolation, by tool type or by material. However, by using a relational perspective, my research explores the tool assemblage as a whole including bone, stone and shell. This allows me to study the changes in tool industries in relation to one another, something that I could not accomplish by studying only one material or tool type. I use this broader approach to tool manufacture and use for the artifact assemblage ...


A Tourist Performance: Redefining The Tourist Attraction, Brandy Lee Kinkade Mar 2016

A Tourist Performance: Redefining The Tourist Attraction, Brandy Lee Kinkade

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this paper is to examine the intersection of tourism and memoirs in the United States specifically how specific travel memoirs function as tourist attractions. This investigation employs performer-centered analysis as a method of inquiry in order to gain insight on tourist experience as well as concepts of travel, imagination and embodiment. The paper also employs MacCannell’s Semiotics of Attraction as a framework to illustrate the presence of the following categories: tourist, sight, and marker. The presence and the relationships established between these categories establish Into Thin Air and Almost Somewhere: Twenty-eight Days on the John Muir ...


To Utopianize The Mundane: Sound And Image In Country Musicals, Siyuan Ma Mar 2016

To Utopianize The Mundane: Sound And Image In Country Musicals, Siyuan Ma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many consider music, songs, and dance performance as utopian signifiers for cinema, but few has entered the utopian discourse of country musicals, a small genre of cinema usually known as country music films. By closely scrutinizing Pure Country (1992), this thesis aims to reveal how country music—as music numbers and as background cues— integrate and connect the fragmented on-screen world for the country musicals so as to offer audiences a fullness of utopian experience, and how this utopian effect are culturally significant for American audiences due to country music’s unique mechanism of constructing utopia and nostalgia in its ...


Constructing The West: The Hired Hand And Mccabe & Mrs. Miller And The Challenge Of Public Space, Eric Ward Ross Mar 2016

Constructing The West: The Hired Hand And Mccabe & Mrs. Miller And The Challenge Of Public Space, Eric Ward Ross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Western has been an important and iconic part of American culture since the opening of the frontier. However, very few scholars have looked closely at the way the genre constructs the past through public and private spaces like frontier towns and settlements.

The 1971 films, The Hired Hand and McCabe & Mrs. Miller are two texts that revitalized, and in the process revised, the Western genre in the early 1970s. My paper examines the ways in which conflicts between public and private spaces in the films reflect the social and cultural conflicts in America at the time. Both films feature ...


Church Dress: Oral Narratives Of African American Women, Beverly Ann Kemp Gatterson Jan 2016

Church Dress: Oral Narratives Of African American Women, Beverly Ann Kemp Gatterson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Abstract:

This study explored church dress of African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons why African American women today wear church dress and the significance of this dress. Through an oral history approach, ten participants ranging in age from 70 to 100 years old provided narrative which revealed major influencers on their style and what they have worn throughout their life span. The study explored the women’s experiences within the African American church and the importance it played in the lives of the community providing social, political, and educational support. Oral narratives ...


The Role Of Fit Information In Consumer Online Reviews And Individual Characteristics In Consumer's Online Purchase Decisions, Eonyou Shin Jan 2016

The Role Of Fit Information In Consumer Online Reviews And Individual Characteristics In Consumer's Online Purchase Decisions, Eonyou Shin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a scale of problems in finding a good fit and (2) to explore the role of fit information in online consumer reviews (OCR) in the consumer decision-making process. In Study 1, three steps were involved in developing the scale. For Step 1, twenty items were generated based on the findings of Shin’s (2013) thesis. In Step 2, the preliminary testing of reliability and validity was performed using data collected from male and female participants in the US, and 14 items were retained. Reliability and validity (convergent and discriminant) were confirmed ...


Hair And Beauty Choices Of African American Women During The Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1974, Ashley R. Garrin Jan 2016

Hair And Beauty Choices Of African American Women During The Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1974, Ashley R. Garrin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examined the Civil Rights Movement, specifically focusing on hair and beauty choices of African American women who were emerging adults (ages 18-25), between the years 1960-1974, which bridges both the classical period of the Civil Rights Movement and that of Black Power politics (Wilson, 2013). The specific time period corresponds with the adoption of African American hairstyles that were more Afrocentric, following the social climate of Black Pride (Walker, 2007). To achieve understanding of African American women's perspectives, seven participants were interviewed using Seidman's (2013) protocol for which a three-part, in-depth interview series was conducted. The ...


Displaced Heroism In 18th And 19th Century American Literature, Imelda Corazon Wistey Jan 2016

Displaced Heroism In 18th And 19th Century American Literature, Imelda Corazon Wistey

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I argue that heroism requires displacement. This notion of heroism applies to a majority of hero tales because this displacement happens physically, mentally, or even psychologically. To analyze the displaced hero, certain 18th and 19th century American texts encapsulate instances of displaced heroism: women’s Indian captivity narratives, Charles Brockden Brown’s Edgar Huntly, and Life of Black Hawk. Focusing on displaced heroism in these specific texts allows for further commentary on the discussion of Americanness and the issues America faced when encountering the Native Americans in what they perceived to be a wilderness. This study compares ...


Female Bike Riders’ Clothing Needs With The Incorporation Of Wearable Technology: Design And Evaluation Of Wearers’ Perception Of Smart Clothing Within The Cradle-To-Cradle Design Framework, Kyung Eun Lee Jan 2016

Female Bike Riders’ Clothing Needs With The Incorporation Of Wearable Technology: Design And Evaluation Of Wearers’ Perception Of Smart Clothing Within The Cradle-To-Cradle Design Framework, Kyung Eun Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The overall purpose of this study was to increase a general understanding of the mechanisms that determine how female bike riders’ clothing needs are met through the use of smart clothing, by empirically testing new smart clothing designs that incorporate wearable devices developed by the researcher within the cradle-to-cradle design framework. The specific objectives of this study were: (1) to identify important design criteria of bike wear for female bike riders under the frame of consumers’ functional-expressive-aesthetic needs along with their needs and desires for wearable technology; (2) to design and develop smart clothing for female bike riders in accordance ...