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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Hans Staden's Warhaftige Historia: How A Tale Of Brazilian Captivity Affirmed Staden's Protestant Identity, Joy Zanghi May 2021

Hans Staden's Warhaftige Historia: How A Tale Of Brazilian Captivity Affirmed Staden's Protestant Identity, Joy Zanghi

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Hans Staden’s Warhaftige Historia detailed his experience as a captive to the Tupinambá in Brazil in the 1550s. The text serves as a gateway into the minds of Europeans in Brazil during this time period. After spending years working for the Catholic Portuguese in Brazil and nine months as a captive, native Hessians viewed Staden as a “foreigner” upon his return to his homeland. Staden used his text as a way to confirm his identity as a staunch Protestant and a devoted Hessian through a dedication to Prince Philipp and numerous allusions to his faith. In addition to solidifying ...


The Complex Relationship Between Jews And African Americans In The Context Of The Civil Rights Movement, Hannah Labovitz May 2021

The Complex Relationship Between Jews And African Americans In The Context Of The Civil Rights Movement, Hannah Labovitz

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

The Civil Rights Movement occurred throughout a substantial portion of the twentieth century, dedicated to fighting for equal rights for African Americans through various forms of activism. The movement had a profound impact on a number of different communities in the United States and around the world as demonstrated by the continued international attention marked by recent iterations of the Black Lives Matter and ‘Never Again’ movements. One community that had a complex reaction to the movement, played a major role within it, and was impacted by it was the American Jewish community. The African American community and the Jewish ...


From Georgian England To The Arctic: Gender And Cultural Transformation In The Samuel Hearne Expeditions (1769-1772), Bridget B. Kennedy May 2021

From Georgian England To The Arctic: Gender And Cultural Transformation In The Samuel Hearne Expeditions (1769-1772), Bridget B. Kennedy

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

From 1769 to 1772, Samuel Hearne embarked on the first European overland expedition to the Arctic under orders from the Hudson’s Bay Company. In search of copper reserves and sites for future company forts, the Hudson’s Bay Company outfitted Hearne with a group of Chipewyan and Cree guides that would take him to the lands past the Arctic Circle where no other European had been. As the only European in his expedition party, Hearne had to quickly adapt to the Athabascan way of life and found his English and imperialist cultural ideas challenged by his native travel companions ...


The Extraordinary Chambers In The Courts Of Cambodia: An Extraordinary Success Or An Ordinary Failure?, Vamika Jain May 2021

The Extraordinary Chambers In The Courts Of Cambodia: An Extraordinary Success Or An Ordinary Failure?, Vamika Jain

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

This paper will examine the effectiveness of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia at providing some measure of transitional justice to the victims of the Khmer Rouge regime. It delves into an expanded role of tribunals that extends beyond the courtroom and seeks to highlight faults and success of the ECCC as lessons for future iterations of international courts and tribunals.


From Uneven Bars To Uneven Barriers: The Marginalization Of Black Women In Gymnastics, Chinaza K. Asiegbu May 2021

From Uneven Bars To Uneven Barriers: The Marginalization Of Black Women In Gymnastics, Chinaza K. Asiegbu

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Especially in sports that are societally regarded as feminine, such as gymnastics and figure skating, Eurocentric beauty standards are an unspoken feature of the game. Undergirded in ethnic disparities within gymnastics are financial and aesthetic barriers for black women, specifically. This essay will explore the sport of gymnastics as a case study to demonstrate the ways in which black women have historically been excluded from ‘feminine sports.’ I argue that black female gymnasts have been historically marginalized from mainstream gymnastics on the basis of finances and white conceptions of femininity, both two components crucial to success in the gymnastics realm.


Featured Pieces, Michael Birkner, Ian A. Isherwood May 2021

Featured Pieces, Michael Birkner, Ian A. Isherwood

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

This year’s feature pieces were written by Michael J. Birkner and Ian A. Isherwood, both professors in the History Department. Prof. Birkner’s research focuses on nineteenth- and twentieth-century America, especially the life and career of Dwight Eisenhower, as well as on the history of Gettysburg College. Prof. Isherwood specializes in memory studies and the history of World War I, and directs a digital history project on First World War letters.


Letter From The Editors, Lillian Shea, Christopher T. Lough May 2021

Letter From The Editors, Lillian Shea, Christopher T. Lough

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Even amid the Covid-19 pandemic, The Gettysburg Historical Journal has not forgotten its commitment to publishing the best of undergraduate research. We are heartened to witness students’ continued dedication to excellent work in an array of historical topics. Despite the difficulties we still face—mental and emotional exhaustion, shuttered archives, limited in-person research opportunities—we received a particularly high volume of submissions this year. We are proud to present work from our peers at Gettysburg and around the world in this twentieth edition of our journal. Through the stories we encounter in the past, we gain insight into the human ...


Front Matter May 2021

Front Matter

The Gettysburg Historical Journal

Front Matter of the Gettysburg Historical Journal 2021


From The Yellow Springs To The Land Of Immortality, Sam Arkin, Georgia E. Benz, Allie N. Beronilla, Hailey L. Dedrick, Sophia Gravenstein, Alyssa G. Gubernick, Elizabeth C. Hobbs, Jennifer R. Johnson, Emily Lashendock, Georgia P. Morgan, Amanda J. Oross, Deirdre Sullivan, Margaret G. Sullivan, Hannah C. Turner, Lyndsey J. Winick, Yan Sun Apr 2021

From The Yellow Springs To The Land Of Immortality, Sam Arkin, Georgia E. Benz, Allie N. Beronilla, Hailey L. Dedrick, Sophia Gravenstein, Alyssa G. Gubernick, Elizabeth C. Hobbs, Jennifer R. Johnson, Emily Lashendock, Georgia P. Morgan, Amanda J. Oross, Deirdre Sullivan, Margaret G. Sullivan, Hannah C. Turner, Lyndsey J. Winick, Yan Sun

Schmucker Art Catalogs

The Yellow Springs is a vivid metaphorical reference to the final destination of a mortal being and the dwelling place of a departed one in ancient China. In the writings of philosophers, historians, and poets during the long period of Chinese history, the Yellow Springs is not only considered as an underground physical locus where a grave is situated, but also an emotionally charged space invoke grieving, longing, and memory for the departed loved ones.The subterranean dwelling at the Yellow Springs is both a destination for a departed mortal being and an intermediary place to an ideal and imaginative ...


Change Happens Here, Musselman Library, Gettysburg College Apr 2021

Change Happens Here, Musselman Library, Gettysburg College

Other Exhibits & Events

The posters in this series focus on parts of the Gettysburg College story that have been minimized or neglected altogether in previous histories – particularly with respect to underrepresented groups, issues, and activisms. Based on sometimes incomplete sources, they represent imperfect knowledge and are not comprehensive. They are a beginning, not an ending.

For that reason, we invite your feedback – corrections, additional information, people and events not pictured. We also invite contributions of relevant documents, photos, etc. to the College Archives, or via our digital repository, “What We Did Here: Activism at Gettysburg College.”

The story of change at Gettysburg is ...


Friends Of Musselman Library Newsletter Spring 2021 - Special Supplement, Musselman Library Apr 2021

Friends Of Musselman Library Newsletter Spring 2021 - Special Supplement, Musselman Library

Friends of Musselman Library Newsletter

What Does the Library Mean to You? (Robin Wagner)

The Library: A Keystone Place (Daniel DeNicola)

Teaching with Rare Books (Joanne Myers)

Libraries Are "Sacred Spaces" for Writers (Jen Bryant)

Students Learn Editorial Skills (Ryan Nadeau)

Science Research Begins and Ends in the Library (Shelli Frey)

Planning Assignments That Promote Information Literacy (Kevin Moore)

Librarians and Social Justice: Co-creating a Better World (Sarah Appedu)

What's on Your Reading List? (Kerri Odess-Harnish)

Public Libraries Serve the Community (Jessica Laganosky)

Student Partners Enhance Service (Clinton Baugess)

My Internship at the Library (Melanie Fernandes McKenzie)

Interns and Mentors Reflect

  • Abigail Major '19 ...


Friends Of Musselman Library Newsletter Spring 2021, Musselman Library Apr 2021

Friends Of Musselman Library Newsletter Spring 2021, Musselman Library

Friends of Musselman Library Newsletter

From the Dean (Robin Wagner)

Library News

  • DEI Read & Learn
  • Library and Gallery Collaborate on Grant
  • Research 101 Connects with First-year Students
  • Exhibit: Change Happens Here
  • Exhibit: From Mud Hole to Musselman
  • Exhibit: Stargazing
  • Library Cookies

History of Library Locations

First Library

Flashback: Quarantine

Witness Books (Beth Carmichael)

Flashback: Censorship

Schmucker Library Memories (Michael J. Birkner)

Library Leadership

  • John H. Knickerbocker (1929-1959) (Amy Lucadamo)
  • Lillian Smoke (1959-1974) (Sallie Harris Kahler '72)
  • James Richards (1974-1983) (David T. Hedrick)
  • Willis Hubbard (1983-1994) (Robin Wagner)

Hugh Newell Jacobsen: Traditionalist and Innovator (Devin McKinney)

Move In Memories

  • Meaningful Community Building Event (Ron Couchman)
  • Amazing ...


Digital German-Jewish Futures: Experiential Learning, Activism, And Entertainment., Kerry Wallach Dec 2020

Digital German-Jewish Futures: Experiential Learning, Activism, And Entertainment., Kerry Wallach

German Studies Faculty Publications

The future of the German-Jewish past is, in a word, digital, and not only in the sense of digital humanities or digital history. Future generations of scholars, students, and the general public will engage with the past online in the same ways—and for many of the same reasons—that they engage with everything else. There needs to be something redeeming, enjoyable, or at least memorable about studying history for people to feel that it is worthwhile. For many, the act of learning about the past serves as a kind of virtual travel, even an escape, to another time and ...


La Peste Y El Distanciamiento En "El Ganso De Oro" De Lope De Vega, Christopher C. Oechler Dec 2020

La Peste Y El Distanciamiento En "El Ganso De Oro" De Lope De Vega, Christopher C. Oechler

Spanish Faculty Publications

Despite presenting a widespread threat during the Golden Age, the plague was rarely dramatized in comedias. Lope de Vega’s El ganso de oro serves as a notable exception to this general trend. With its blending of genres, from the pastoral to the palatial with a strong dose of magic, the play provides insight into life during such a time of pestilence. The current COVID-19 health crisis suggests a new reading of the work, which has previously suffered from a lack of critical attention. This article reviews the key role of the plague in El ganso de oro to highlight ...


How Wendy Red Star Decolonizes The Museum With Humor And Play, Salma Monani, Nicole Seymour Oct 2020

How Wendy Red Star Decolonizes The Museum With Humor And Play, Salma Monani, Nicole Seymour

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Museums play a prominent role in crafting racial narratives in the United States, and as evidenced by recent social uprisings, these institutions have come under scrutiny. Take, for example, the statue outside the American Museum of Natural History in New York, which depicts U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt on horseback flanked by a Black man and an American Indian, both unnamed. As National Public Radio reported in June 2020, “The statue was intended to pay homage to Roosevelt as a ‘devoted naturalist and author of works on natural history,’” but, in calling for its removal, Mayor Bill de Blasio’s ...


The Contradictions Of Freedom: Depictions Of Freedwomen In Illustrated Newspapers, 1865-1867, Carolyn Hauk Oct 2020

The Contradictions Of Freedom: Depictions Of Freedwomen In Illustrated Newspapers, 1865-1867, Carolyn Hauk

Student Publications

Between 1865 and 1867, artists working for Northern illustrated newspapers travelled throughout the South to document its transition from slavery to a wage labor society. Perceiving themselves as the rightful reporters of Southern Reconstruction, these illustrators observed communities of newly freed African American men and women defining their vision of freedom. Northern artists often viewed the lives of African Americans through the cultural lens of free labor ideology in their efforts to provide documentary coverage of the South as objective observers. This paper will examine how illustrations of Harper’s Weekly and Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper reveal the contradictions ...


Military Occupation, Sexual Violence, And The Struggle Over Masculinity In The Early Reconstruction South, Cameron T. Sauers Oct 2020

Military Occupation, Sexual Violence, And The Struggle Over Masculinity In The Early Reconstruction South, Cameron T. Sauers

Student Publications

This inquiry centers on the way that sexual violence became the terrain upon which the struggles of the postemancipation and early Reconstruction South were waged. At the start of the Civil War, Confederate discourse played upon the fears of sexual violence engulfing the South with the invasion of Union armies. The nightmare never came to Southern households; rape was infrequently reported. However, Southern women, especially if they were African American, were subjected to sexual violence, which likely increased as the war dragged on. Sexual violence includes, but is not limited to, rape. Destruction of clothing, invasion of domestic spaces, and ...


Feminism, Religion, And Work In The United States, Margaret R. Halpin Oct 2020

Feminism, Religion, And Work In The United States, Margaret R. Halpin

Student Publications

Feminism in the contemporary United States is a diverse field of thought with several strains of ideological leanings, including liberal, neoliberal, and the contested conservative feminism. Each is uniquely situated in the American context due to the heavy influence of American values and culture-specific definitions of justice, success, and progress. Entrenched in the Western conceptions of secularism and advancement, “modern” feminism in the United States prides itself as the example of peak progressivism, yet does so without critically engaging with its definition of modernity or secularism. In particular, the relationship between religion and feminism is complicated in the U.S ...


The Politics Of Dissent: How Living Within The Truth Threatens Autocracy And Catalyzes Democratic Progress, Carter A. Hanson Oct 2020

The Politics Of Dissent: How Living Within The Truth Threatens Autocracy And Catalyzes Democratic Progress, Carter A. Hanson

Student Publications

This article examines Václav Havel’s The Power of the Powerless in the context of a broader ideation of dissent, primarily using Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism and William Connolly’s The Fragility of Things as supplements. Havel’s argument remains relevant over thirty years after its initial publication, and his ideas regarding dissent as a fundamental challenge to authoritarian untruth are valuable and deserve further exploration. From this conceptualization, a “politics of dissent” is proposed as a means to express dissatisfaction with authoritarian government and to reevaluate democratic social and political discourse.


The Role And Impact Of The Environment In Saving Private Ryan, Bailey M. Ytterdahl, Paul C. Krakoviak Oct 2020

The Role And Impact Of The Environment In Saving Private Ryan, Bailey M. Ytterdahl, Paul C. Krakoviak

Student Publications

Although certain films may not be explicitly labeled as environmental film, we approach Saving Private Ryan through an ecocritical analysis. We evaluate how the film not only displays the physical and mental tolls of war in several bloody battles, but we also explore the environmental costs. By examining the genre of historical realism, we demonstrate how the film outlines the unique role of the environment in war but also enables the viewers to consider the impacts of war on the surrounding environment. To understand the environmental message in Saving Private Ryan, we used a concept called the “Three Ecologies” by ...


Mexico And The People: Revolutionary Printmaking And The Taller De Gráfica Popular, Carolyn Hauk, Joy Zanghi Oct 2020

Mexico And The People: Revolutionary Printmaking And The Taller De Gráfica Popular, Carolyn Hauk, Joy Zanghi

Schmucker Art Catalogs

During its most turbulent and formative years of the twentieth century, Mexico witnessed decades of political frustration, a major revolution, and two World Wars. By the late 1900s, it emerged as a modernized nation, thrust into an ever-growing global sphere. The revolutionary voices of Mexico’s people that echoed through time took root in the arts and emerged as a collective force to bring about a new self-awareness and change for their nation. Mexico’s most distinguished artists set out to challenge an overpowered government, propagate social-political advancement, and reimagine a stronger, unified national identity. Following in the footsteps of ...


Along Ideological Lines: Examining Support For Black Lives Matter, Caden E. Giordano Oct 2020

Along Ideological Lines: Examining Support For Black Lives Matter, Caden E. Giordano

Student Publications

In this paper, support for the Black Lives Matter is examined through different identity frames: feminism, support for the LGBTQ+ community, and who the respondent voted for in 2016. An interaction variable was created to see how race influenced these categories. For example, whether a white feminist might support Black Lives Matter more or less than a Black feminist or a white non-feminist. Race is the main determinant of support for Black Lives Matter.


Our Monuments, Our History, Temma F. Berg Oct 2020

Our Monuments, Our History, Temma F. Berg

English Faculty Publications

Beginning with Toni Morrison's concept of "rememory" and the recent completion of the Memorial to Enslaved Laborers on the University of Virginia campus, this essay explores the current monuments controversy by focusing on four Viennese monuments which have much to tell us about how new memorials might contextualize and reframe history. The first Viennese monument, a celebration of a series of fifteenth-century pogroms, was built into the wall of a house opposite the Judenplatz, a square in the center of what was once a thriving Jewish community. Four hundred years later, from 1998 to 2008, three additional memorials were ...


Primary Prevention And The Socioecological Model: An Integrated, Preventative Approach To Combat Sexual Violence, Emma G. Padrick Oct 2020

Primary Prevention And The Socioecological Model: An Integrated, Preventative Approach To Combat Sexual Violence, Emma G. Padrick

Student Publications

A growing body of research suggests that sex offense registries, though popular with politicians and the public, are ineffective at reducing victimization. Registries only address the individual who perpetrates after victimization occurs in an effort to prevent recidivism. They do not address the other, broader reasons that victimization transpires; they do not prevent sexual violence, and they do not improve communities’ safety. Using the socioecological framework to design primary prevention practices accounts for the interplay between the individual, relationship, community, and societal factors that lead to perpetration and should be used in place of reactive measures that fail to effectively ...


Close, But No Cigar: Tobacco Usage During The Civil War Era, Benjamin M. Roy Oct 2020

Close, But No Cigar: Tobacco Usage During The Civil War Era, Benjamin M. Roy

Student Publications

Tobacco carried a range of gendered, social, regional, and racial meanings in America during the nineteenth century, and these disparate meanings were symbolized through different forms of consumption. The cultural meaning inherent within chewing tobacco, cigars, pipes, and cigarettes, are the object of this research. I will examine the class associations linked to chewing tobacco, the manly identities symbolized through cigars and pipes, and explore cultural movement and racial meaning through the cigarette. Through tobacco, I will explain how nineteenth century Americans comprehended addiction, and establish the organic agency of consumable commodities to influence the consciousness of their users.


Synthesizing The Sublime And Beautiful: Aesthetics In Shelley's "Hymn To Intellectual Beauty", Christopher T. Lough Oct 2020

Synthesizing The Sublime And Beautiful: Aesthetics In Shelley's "Hymn To Intellectual Beauty", Christopher T. Lough

Student Publications

As a Romantic poet, Percy Bysshe Shelley bristled at rationalistic attempts to definitively categorize the human condition. Taking Edmund Burke’s treatise “On the Sublime and Beautiful” as his chief foil, Shelley explored aesthetic categories that certain strains of Enlightenment thought had held apart from one another. In my brief exegesis of his “Hymn to Intellectual Beauty” from 1816, I build on Rudolf Otto’s concept of the numinous and the work of intellectual historian Frank Ankersmit to argue that Shelley presents a holistic account of experience with the ineffable.


Before Barbarossa: The Nazi Occupation Of Western Poland, September 1,1939-June 22, 1941, Lauren R. Letizia Oct 2020

Before Barbarossa: The Nazi Occupation Of Western Poland, September 1,1939-June 22, 1941, Lauren R. Letizia

Student Publications

The Nazi invasion and occupation of Western Poland was a vital first step to the development and fulfillment of the genocidal processes of the Holocaust. The utilization of mass arrests, executions, and shootings led to the persecution and death of hundreds of thousands of Poles and Polish Jews prior to the invasion of the Soviet Union and inception of the Final Solution in the summer of 1941.


Music Terminology And Context In Robert Browning’S “A Toccata Of Galuppi’S”, Natalie M. Dolan Oct 2020

Music Terminology And Context In Robert Browning’S “A Toccata Of Galuppi’S”, Natalie M. Dolan

Student Publications

In his poem describing a performance of a Baldassare Galuppi toccata, Robert Browning uses music theory terminology and historical context to explain the emotions inspired by the piece. Browning’s 19th-century narrator reflects on the lives of past audiences and on his own mortality as he addresses the deceased composer. This paper analyzes the use of musical references in explaining the narrator’s response to the performance. The analysis includes an examination of Galuppi’s compositional period and a discussion of the specific terminology that Browning uses to convey his narrator’s wariness of death.


Understanding Women’S Political Empowerment In A Globalized World, Jenna M. Thoretz Oct 2020

Understanding Women’S Political Empowerment In A Globalized World, Jenna M. Thoretz

Student Publications

Although women comprise over half of the world’s population, there is still a considerable gap in the scholarly literature, as well as in policymaking communities, regarding the impact globalization has had on women. While scholars have attempted to examine the relationship between globalization and women’s rights and empowerment, there is little consensus on whether globalization harms or benefits women. Through my research, I seek to clarify the relationship between globalization and women’s empowerment, specifically women’s political empowerment. I divide this paper into six sections. I first evaluate the existing literature on the relationship between globalization and ...


John B. Bachelder’S Artistic Vision For The Gettysburg Battlefield, Shannon R. Zeltmann Oct 2020

John B. Bachelder’S Artistic Vision For The Gettysburg Battlefield, Shannon R. Zeltmann

Student Publications

John Bachelder was an important artist and historian to Gettysburg, shaping the early interpretation of the battle during the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association period (1863-1895). While he is mainly discussed as the first park historian, it is important to look at his career as an artist and how it influenced his career at Gettysburg. Looking at Bachelder’s entire career, one can see how Bachelder’s vision for the battlefield changed over time. Bachelder wanted to create a grand history painting of the battle, which ultimately became his Isometric Map of Gettysburg. He corresponded with veterans to get their accounts ...