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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Tian As Cosmos In Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism, Stephen C. Angle Dec 2017

Tian As Cosmos In Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism, Stephen C. Angle

Stephen C. Angle


Tian” is central to the metaphysics, cosmology, and ethics of the eight-hundred-year-long Chinese philosophical tradition we call “Neo-Confucianism,” but there is considerable confusion over what tian means—confusion which is exacerbated by its standard translation into English as “Heaven.” This essay analyzes the meaning of tian in the works of the most influential Neo-Confucian, Zhu Xi (1130-1200), presents a coherent interpretation that unifies the disparate aspects of the term’s meaning, and argues that “cosmos” does an excellent job of capturing this meaning, and therefore should be adopted as our translation of tian.


Lessons From Brave New World, Rachel Moore Oct 2017

Lessons From Brave New World, Rachel Moore

Agora

No abstract provided.


Are Second Person Needs ‘Burdened Virtues’?: Exploring The Risks And Rewards Of Caring, Katharine L. Wolfe Oct 2017

Are Second Person Needs ‘Burdened Virtues’?: Exploring The Risks And Rewards Of Caring, Katharine L. Wolfe

Feminist Philosophy Quarterly

This essay contributes to the ethics of vulnerability and to the tradition of feminist care ethics by introducing the notion of second-person needs. Employing the work of Annette Baier, who argues that we are all ‘second persons’ insofar as personhood arises through a childhood in the care of others, it draws attention to the needs that are illuminated when we approach ourselves and others as second persons, and makes a case for the moral import of second-person needs. In drawing from and critically responding to Lisa Tessman’s concept of ‘burdened virtues,’ it also adds to a growing field of ...


Leadership In Information Technology: Leadership Theories, Perspectives And Ethical Dilemmas, Douglas B. Malcolm Jul 2017

Leadership In Information Technology: Leadership Theories, Perspectives And Ethical Dilemmas, Douglas B. Malcolm

The Siegel Institute Journal of Applied Ethics

This paper will describe various leadership theories and how they were formed, current leadership perspectives for information technology (IT) and the impact they can have on an IT workforce due to negative impressions and conditions. It will then relate current ethical issues faced by Information Technology to the key driving forces behind IT today along with detailing the current ethical issues faced by IT Leadership. Finally it will recommend some future research to help IT Leadership navigate the ethical and leadership issues faced today and to prepare for the future issues that will appear as technology advances.


Science, Sentience, And Animal Welfare, Robert C. Jones Jul 2017

Science, Sentience, And Animal Welfare, Robert C. Jones

Robert C. Jones, Ph.D.

I sketch briefly some of the more influential theories concerned with the moral status of nonhuman animals, highlighting their biological/physiological aspects. I then survey the most prominent empirical research on the physiological and cognitive capacities of nonhuman animals, focusing primarily on sentience, but looking also at a few other morally relevant capacities such as self-awareness, memory, and mindreading. Lastly, I discuss two examples of current animal welfare policy, namely, animals used in industrialized food production and in scientific research. I argue that even the most progressive current welfare policies lag behind, are ignorant of, or arbitrarily disregard the science ...


Critical Ethics: Witnessing Otherness In La Última Niebla, Christine Garst-Santos Jul 2017

Critical Ethics: Witnessing Otherness In La Última Niebla, Christine Garst-Santos

Christine Garst-Santos

La última niebla [The Final Mist] (1935) by María Luisa Bombal presents a female protagonist traumatized by the restrictive gender norms of 1930s Argentina. One would expect that the protagonist’s increasing alienation throughout the novel and her ultimate surrender to an identity that she loathes would generate a compassionate response from readers. However, the text has generated a significant body of notably unsympathetic—and even censorious—criticism from scholars. In an effort to analyze why Bombal’s novel and the protagonist’s performance have been problematic for critics, I turn from literary theory to philosophy. By combining Richard Rorty ...


At What Cost? The Ethics Of Student Debt, Kevin D. Gecowets Jun 2017

At What Cost? The Ethics Of Student Debt, Kevin D. Gecowets

The Siegel Institute Journal of Applied Ethics

This paper summarizes recent research into the cost of higher education, and specifically the effects of growing student debt loads. It explores the utility of debt related to access to degree programs, entry into the job market, and economic impact in later life. It is not an economic analysis of higher education financing, but a consideration of the costs and benefits of education financing today. The central ethical consideration of “who benefits” applied to the current state of play in higher education financing leads to the questions: With constantly rising debt loads for individual students and the general population, is ...


Introduction To The Ethics Of Clothing And Clothing Production, Linda M. Johnston Jun 2017

Introduction To The Ethics Of Clothing And Clothing Production, Linda M. Johnston

Siegel Institute Ethics Research Scholars

Introduction to the Ethics of Clothing and Clothing Production


Critical Ethics: Witnessing Otherness In La Última Niebla, Christine Garst-Santos Jun 2017

Critical Ethics: Witnessing Otherness In La Última Niebla, Christine Garst-Santos

Dissidences

La última niebla [The Final Mist] (1935) by María Luisa Bombal presents a female protagonist traumatized by the restrictive gender norms of 1930s Argentina. One would expect that the protagonist’s increasing alienation throughout the novel and her ultimate surrender to an identity that she loathes would generate a compassionate response from readers. However, the text has generated a significant body of notably unsympathetic—and even censorious—criticism from scholars. In an effort to analyze why Bombal’s novel and the protagonist’s performance have been problematic for critics, I turn from literary theory to philosophy. By combining Richard Rorty ...


Initiating Research On Igniting Fires In The Blue Ridge Mountains During The Autumn 2016 Conflagration, Cynthia Twyford Fowler, Cynthia Fowler May 2017

Initiating Research On Igniting Fires In The Blue Ridge Mountains During The Autumn 2016 Conflagration, Cynthia Twyford Fowler, Cynthia Fowler

Faculty Scholarship

An unprecedented moment in the fire ecology of the Blue Ridge Mountains occurred in Autumn 2016 when severe drought, frequent anthropogenic ignitions, and seasonality in disturbed deciduous forests fueled widespread burning. As the wildfires burned, wildland firefighters from around the U.S. temporarily moved into the region to assist local land managers. As wildfire risks increased and air quality decreased, local residents became increasingly interested in fire ecology. The community shifted continuously as wildfires were extinguished, wildland firefighters returned home, and local residents disengaged. In conducting research during the conflagration, obtaining consent from community members varied depending on whether or ...


Freedom And Bondage In Spinoza's Ethics, Alexander M. Pitts May 2017

Freedom And Bondage In Spinoza's Ethics, Alexander M. Pitts

Honors Theses

“Freedom and Bondage in Spinoza’s Ethics” concerns the availability of a ‘freedom worth wanting’ in Baruch Spinoza’s opus that is unthreatened by his metaphysics of determinism and substance monism. These metaphysical commitments seem to threaten a freedom that allows for phenomenology of choice and ethical responsibility, but, through a rigorous reading of the text, these are of no concern; Spinoza makes available a worthy theory of freedom. However, this reading argues that since freedom necessitates perfect adequate knowledge of the affects, only infinite modes can be free. Contrary to other scholarship on the matter, this reading further argues ...


Nietzsche's Genealogy: An Historical Investigation Of The Contingency Of Moral Values, John A. Greene May 2017

Nietzsche's Genealogy: An Historical Investigation Of The Contingency Of Moral Values, John A. Greene

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This work examines how values seem to be contingent on various factors which affect their growth and development. This study is based around the ethical writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. Specifically, On the Genealogy of Morals serves as the foundation for my thesis. This book contains three essays which purport to show how moral values originated as a result of certain human phenomena rather than, as many people take for granted, from moral “truths.” This contribution to ethics is important because it leaves many questions regarding the value of morality untouched. In the Genealogy, there are numerous themes of Nietzsche’s ...


Institutionalizing An “Ethic Of Care” Into The Teaching Of Ethics For Pre-Service Teachers, Michelle Hawks, Thashika Pillay Apr 2017

Institutionalizing An “Ethic Of Care” Into The Teaching Of Ethics For Pre-Service Teachers, Michelle Hawks, Thashika Pillay

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

This paper calls for the acknowledgement and institutionalization of an ethic of care into the education of decision-making processes for pre-service teachers. The impetus for this paper came from the author's experiences with teaching a mandatory ethics and law course for pre-service teachers. Over the course of their teaching and as expounded upon in this paper, the authors illustrate how the course goals, aims, objectives and readings ignore discussions on gender in the teaching profession. Using a critical feminist policy analysis, the authors analyse the ethical perspectives taught in the required textbooks. Findings suggest that the absence of the ...


Specters Of Meaning: Deconstructing Wittgenstein And Reconstructing Ethics, Ami H. Naff Apr 2017

Specters Of Meaning: Deconstructing Wittgenstein And Reconstructing Ethics, Ami H. Naff

Philosophy Honors Projects

Crucial to the debate over the censorship of hate speech is a question of how meaning operates in language, and the political consequences thereof. I respond through an analysis of Ludwig Wittgenstein’s “meaning-as-use,” which situates language as an activity, a form of life. I argue Wittgenstein’s philosophy is a deconstruction of meaning, anticipating that of Jacques Derrida, which implies an ethical openness to the ambivalence of language. This is ostensibly contrary to the efforts of conscientious censorship. However, it is only by being open to the ambivalence of the word that we can work past hate speech and ...


Defining Biometrics: Toward A Transnational Ethic Of Personal Information, Nicola Morrow Apr 2017

Defining Biometrics: Toward A Transnational Ethic Of Personal Information, Nicola Morrow

International Studies Honors Projects

Innovations in biotechnology, computer science, and engineering throughout the late 20th and early 21st centuries dramatically expanded possible modes of data-based surveillance and personal identification. More specifically, new technologies facilitated enormous growth in the biometrics sector. The response to the explosion of biometric technologies was two-fold. While intelligence agencies, militaries, and multinational corporations embraced new opportunities to fortify and expand security measures, many individuals objected to what they perceived as serious threats to privacy and bodily autonomy. These reactions spurred both further technological innovation, and a simultaneous proliferation of hastily drafted policies, laws, and regulations governing the collection ...


Speaking Of The Self: Theorizing The Dialogical Dimensions Of Ethical Agency, Bradley S. Warfield Apr 2017

Speaking Of The Self: Theorizing The Dialogical Dimensions Of Ethical Agency, Bradley S. Warfield

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation attempts to fill, in part, three lacunae in contemporary philosophical scholarship: first, the failure to identify the two distinct types of dialogism—psychological and interpersonal—that have been operative in discussions of the dialogical self; second, the lack of acknowledgement of the six most prominent features of interpersonal dialogism; and third, the unwillingness to recognize that interpersonal dialogism is a crucial feature of human ethical agency and identity.

In Chapter One, I explain why dialogism has been relatively neglected—and certainly underappreciated—in contemporary Western philosophy. In Chapter Two, I offer a picture of Mikhail Bakhtin’s conception ...


Decidedly Uncertain, Sophia I. Varosy Feb 2017

Decidedly Uncertain, Sophia I. Varosy

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

My capstone project is meant to reflect the ideas I’ve been exposed to and the ways in which they have, as a consequence, influenced my life; the ways, I suppose, I can apply them. Over the course, or courses (literally), of my time spent at The CUNY Graduate Center, I felt (mostly) enthusiastic about the ideas and philosophies I was growing to at-least-marginally understand. However, as time passed I became increasingly more unsettled about my position as an “academic.” In other words, I found that I was moved and motivated to increase my understanding of things, but never did ...


Problem-Based Learning In Engineering Ethics Courses, Robert Kirkman Jan 2017

Problem-Based Learning In Engineering Ethics Courses, Robert Kirkman

Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning

I describe the first stages of a process of design research in which I employ problem-based learning in a course in engineering ethics, which fulfills a requirement for students in engineering degree programs. The aim of the course is to foster development of particular cognitive skills contributing to moral imagination, a capacity to notice, respond to, and think about basic values in open-ended problem situations. In the course, groups of students develop their own problem situations based on their experience and expertise in engineering practice, then respond to those situations through a guided process of inquiry and problem solving designed ...


Human-Nonhuman Chimeras, Ontology, And Dignity: A Constructivist Approach To The Ethics Of Conducting Research On Cross-Species Hybrids, Jonathan M. Vajda Jan 2017

Human-Nonhuman Chimeras, Ontology, And Dignity: A Constructivist Approach To The Ethics Of Conducting Research On Cross-Species Hybrids, Jonathan M. Vajda

The Hilltop Review

Developments in biological technology in the last few decades highlight the surprising and ever-expanding practical benefits of stem cells. With this progress, the possibility of combining human and nonhuman organisms is a reality, with ethical boundaries that are not readily obvious. These inter-species hybrids are of a larger class of biological entities called “chimeras.” As the concept of a human-nonhuman creature is conjured in our minds, either incredulous wonder or grotesque horror is likely to follow. This paper seeks to mitigate those worries and demotivate reasonable concerns raised against chimera research, all the while pressing current ethical positions toward their ...


Ethics And Economics: An Internal Relation, Bruce Morito Jan 2017

Ethics And Economics: An Internal Relation, Bruce Morito

The Canadian Society for Study of Practical Ethics / Société Canadienne Pour L'étude De L'éthique Appliquée — SCEEA

The relationship between ethics and economics in the modern age is typically viewed as external. This view is usually articulated in the notion that for economic relations to be ethical, an ethic must be imposed. Otherwise, economic relations are amoral. I try to show how the relationship is actually best explained by adopting an explanatory framework of inter-dependent arising, according to which the emergence and development of both ethical and economic relations is a matter of mutual determination. Ethical values emerge in the course of developing economic relations and, in turn, direct or at least implicate economic relations. The consequences ...


The Unnaturalness Objection To De-Extinction: A Critical Evaluation, Carolyn Mason Jan 2017

The Unnaturalness Objection To De-Extinction: A Critical Evaluation, Carolyn Mason

Animal Studies Journal

De-extinction of species has been criticised for being unnatural, as have the techniques that might be used to accomplish de-extinction. This objection of unnaturalness will be dismissed by those who claim that everything that humans do is natural, by those who claim that naturalness is a social construct, and by those who argue that ethical concerns arising from considerations of unnaturalness rest on a failure properly to distinguish facts from values. However, none of these criticisms of the objection of unnaturalness is convincing, for reasons I will explain in this paper. The objection of unnaturalness might be motivated by concerns ...


Allowing Animal Rights: Contra Natural Law Arguments, Rachel Tobias Jan 2017

Allowing Animal Rights: Contra Natural Law Arguments, Rachel Tobias

Honors Research Projects

Natural Law theories dominate the way in which humans view their relationships with other animals. Natural Law theories, commenced by Aristotle, claim that rationality is the morally relevant feature that differentiates humans from other animals. As a result, human beings often use non-human animals at their disposal, which has propelled factory farming and the mistreatment of animals. The term, "Speciesism" describes unjustified mistreatment of a species based on species membership. This essay examines the origin of Speciesism, as it relates to Natural Law theories. Additionally, the text discusses the negative consequences of Speciesism and the arbitrariness of omitting non-human animals ...


Real Intentions And Virtual Wrongs, Elaine Sohng Jan 2017

Real Intentions And Virtual Wrongs, Elaine Sohng

CMC Senior Theses

In this thesis, I answer the gamer's dilemma or the inability to find a moral distinction between virtual pedophilia and virtual murder. I expand virtual pedophilia to virtual rape to address increasing rates of sexual harassment and assault in virtual reality. In this thesis, I 1) explain what occurs when one engages in virtual rape; 2) identify relevant moral differences between physical rape and virtual rape; 3) challenge the existing relationship between committing harm and wrong in the case of rape; and 4) argue that virtual rape is morally reprehensible due to the agent’s intention to utilize a ...


How Should We Conceptualize Moral Disagreements About Animals?, Kristian Cantens Jan 2017

How Should We Conceptualize Moral Disagreements About Animals?, Kristian Cantens

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

I intend this paper as a sort of philosophical reflection on my experiences as an animal activist. In my three years of doing outreach on college campuses, I came to an increasing appreciation for what Murdoch referred to as “the difficulty and complexity of the moral life and the opacity of persons” (Murdoch 1998d, 293). This appreciation came in turn at the cost of an increasing disappointment with many of the philosophers I admired at the time – namely, Peter Singer and Tom Regan. What I came to understand is that many of these contemporary moral theories were in fact inadequate ...


The Practical Potential Of Living Authentically, Aaron Minnick Jan 2017

The Practical Potential Of Living Authentically, Aaron Minnick

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

To paraphrase George Orwell, the best books are those that tell us what we already know. Perhaps, then, this thesis will ring most strikingly in the minds of those who have realized a deep dissatisfaction with the universal ethics of the day. Consequently, it is not the final word on the matter, but an exploration of a more practical ethic of living authentically. The paper deals with what I take to be the central question of philosophy: How should I live? It shows, I believe, that the proper vantage point to begin that inquiry can be at all times none ...


Transcendental Idealism’S Theory Of Selfhood: Fichte On The Relationship Between Knowing Oneself And Moral Deliberation, Caroline Ann Buchanan Jan 2017

Transcendental Idealism’S Theory Of Selfhood: Fichte On The Relationship Between Knowing Oneself And Moral Deliberation, Caroline Ann Buchanan

Theses and Dissertations--Philosophy

In this dissertation, I take on an exegetical project of understanding how Fichte’s theory of the self influences his account of moral deliberation, and specifically, his account of conscience. I argue that moral action can only be understood within Fichte’s system as possible on the basis of the individual’s own cognitive awareness that they are not only bound by the moral law, but that they are so in virtue of their essential nature as selves. In other words, the feeling of conscience in Fichte’s work, and the decision to abide it, requires that the acting individual ...


Successful Ethical Decision-Making Practices From The Professional Accountants' Perspective, Tammy Tanner Webster Jan 2017

Successful Ethical Decision-Making Practices From The Professional Accountants' Perspective, Tammy Tanner Webster

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Unethical behavior includes all decisions and actions counterproductive to an organization's mission and can cause irrevocable damage to the organization's professional reputation. The Securities and Exchange Commission reported 807 ethical violations in 2015. This study was underpinned by the ethical leadership theory, which emphasizes leadership decision making based on fair and just practices, for all involved parties. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the ethical decision-making best practices that not-for-profit accounting managers in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area needed to strengthen the ethical decision-making process in their organizations. Data were collected through semistructured interviews ...


Servant Leadership: What Makes It An Effective Leadership Model., Janice Poland Tanno Jan 2017

Servant Leadership: What Makes It An Effective Leadership Model., Janice Poland Tanno

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Servant leadership (SL), a universal, ethical leadership style, consistently produces high performance and employee engagement. For the last two decades, lack of business ethics in decision making by senior leaders has resulted in many negative outcomes, such as the WorldCom scandal. The purpose of this descriptive phenomenological study was to identify and report the lived experiences of senior leaders in relation to decision making in SL organizations in the southwestern United States. The study's theoretical/conceptual foundations encompassed Maslow's motivation theories, decision theory, spirituality, spiritual intelligence, Cicero's virtue theory of ethics, and Greenleaf's SL. Data collection ...


The Relationship Between Ethical Leadership And Sustainability In Small Businesses, David Amisano Jan 2017

The Relationship Between Ethical Leadership And Sustainability In Small Businesses, David Amisano

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Since the 2008 financial crisis, business leaders' ethical behaviors have been under scrutiny. These leaders face uncertainty regarding ethical leadership behaviors and their impact. Because small business leadership involves multiple facets of behavior and decision-making, small business leaders may have an insufficient understanding of the impact of ethical leadership behaviors on the sustainability of their businesses. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between ethical leadership and financial, social, and environmental sustainability in small businesses. Integrated social contracts theory was the theoretical framework. The participants consisted of 80 members of a chamber of commerce located in ...


The Four Dimensions Of An Intellectual Virtue, Jason Baehr Nov 2016

The Four Dimensions Of An Intellectual Virtue, Jason Baehr

Jason Baehr

No abstract provided.