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Philosophy

1999

Research Subjects

Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

What's The Price Of A Research Subject?, Charles Weijer Nov 1999

What's The Price Of A Research Subject?, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Protecting Communities In Research: Current Guidelines And Limits Of Extrapolation, Charles Weijer, Gary Goldsand, Ezekiel Emanuel Oct 1999

Protecting Communities In Research: Current Guidelines And Limits Of Extrapolation, Charles Weijer, Gary Goldsand, Ezekiel Emanuel

Charles Weijer

As genetic research increasingly focuses on communities, there have been calls for extending research protections to them. We critically examine guidelines developed to protect aboriginal communities and consider their applicability to other communities. These guidelines are based on a model of researcher-community partnership and span the phases of a research project, from protocol development to publication. The complete list of 23 protections may apply to those few non-aboriginal communities, such as the Amish, that are highly cohesive. Although some protections may be applicable to less-cohesive communities, such as Ashkenazi Jews, analysis suggests substantial problems in extending these guidelines in toto ...


Research Involving The Vulnerable Sick, Charles Weijer Sep 1999

Research Involving The Vulnerable Sick, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

Research involving the vulnerable sick raises difficult challenges for investigators and Institutional Review Boards. Exactly who among the ill counts as vulnerable is a matter of judgement, and involves consideration of susceptibility to harm and capacity to provide free and informed consent. A balanced approach is required when protections are considered, and the benefits as well as the risks of research participation must be carefully weighed. A variety of protections for the vulnerable sick in research are available, including enrolling subjects in a study only with a strong justification, ensuring that consent is free and comprehending, and setting limits on ...


Protecting Communities In Research: Philosophical And Pragmatic Challenges, Charles Weijer Sep 1999

Protecting Communities In Research: Philosophical And Pragmatic Challenges, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

The issue of the protection of communities in clinical research first arose 10 years ago in studies conducted in technologically developing countries by scientists from technologically developed nations. The question was, which ethical standards ought to apply, those of the Western investigators or local standards?


Another Tuskegee?, Charles Weijer Jun 1999

Another Tuskegee?, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Placebo-Controlled Studies In Schizophrenia: Ethical And Scientific Perspectives. Panel Discussion, T. Lemmens, P. Appelbaum, W. Carpenter, C. Mccarthy, C. Peterson, D. Streiner, Charles Weijer Feb 1999

Placebo-Controlled Studies In Schizophrenia: Ethical And Scientific Perspectives. Panel Discussion, T. Lemmens, P. Appelbaum, W. Carpenter, C. Mccarthy, C. Peterson, D. Streiner, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Placebo-Controlled Trials In Schizophrenia: Are They Ethical? Are They Necessary?, Charles Weijer Feb 1999

Placebo-Controlled Trials In Schizophrenia: Are They Ethical? Are They Necessary?, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

The current controversy as to the proper role of the placebo control in the evaluation of new treatments for schizophrenia requires an analysis that is sensitive to both ethical and scientific issues. Clinical equipoise, widely regarded as the moral foundation of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), requires the use of best available treatment as the control in RCT. Scientific criticisms of the use of an active control are examined and none present an insuperable barrier to the use of an active control. Indeed, scrutiny of the most recent argument for the use of placebo controls, 'assay sensitivity', suggests that the ...


Selecting Subjects For Participation In Clinical Research: One Sphere Of Justice, Charles Weijer Jan 1999

Selecting Subjects For Participation In Clinical Research: One Sphere Of Justice, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

Recent guidelines from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate the inclusion of adequate numbers of women in clinical trials. Ought such standards to apply internationally? Walzer's theory of justice is brought to bear on the problem, the first use of the theory in research ethics, and it argues for broad application of the principle of adequate representation. A number of practical conclusions for research ethics committees (RECs) are outlined. Eligibility criteria in clinical trials ought to be justified by trial designers. Research ethics committees ought to question criteria that seem to exclude unnecessarily women from research participation ...


Why Should We Include Women And Minorities In Randomized Controlled Trials?, Charles Weijer, R. Crouch Dec 1998

Why Should We Include Women And Minorities In Randomized Controlled Trials?, Charles Weijer, R. Crouch

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.


Protecting Human Research Subjects: Case-Based Learning For Canadian Research Ethics Boards And Researchers, Françoise Baylis, A. Ireland, David Kaufman, Charles Weijer Dec 1998

Protecting Human Research Subjects: Case-Based Learning For Canadian Research Ethics Boards And Researchers, Françoise Baylis, A. Ireland, David Kaufman, Charles Weijer

Charles Weijer

No abstract provided.