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Full-Text Articles in Arts and Humanities

Soft Power Of Deference: An Analysis Of A Key Pillar Of Moral Authority, Luke Kendall Jan 2018

Soft Power Of Deference: An Analysis Of A Key Pillar Of Moral Authority, Luke Kendall

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

When faced with the issue of leadership, we are tasked with finding when it is appropriate to follow. In following, we are deferring our own authority in favor of another’s. The sliding scale of authority teeters between complacency and anarchy, providing a challenge as to where we can find the effective middle ground for a functioning society. This paper breaks down the parts of authority and discusses the necessity of community deference, namely with respect to the rise of a counter-cultural moral authority that seeks to better humanity. Moral authorities rely on a loyal following, from Nelson Mandela’s ...


Gadflies Nibbling, Branan Mull Jan 2018

Gadflies Nibbling, Branan Mull

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

In this paper I examine issues related to public and private “moral authority”, and how this public moral authority interferes with the exercise of private moral authority. This paper explores what public authority is, and why that while in other field it can properly exist, in terms of morality it by its very existence is problematic because 1) it interferes with the exercise of reason in determining ethical action and 2) because it treats the public moral authority as something other than a human being. I then look to several ethical dilemmas as presented by several philosophers and show how ...


Moral Judgment: Why Should We Judge And Who Has The Right To?, Megan Moulton Jan 2018

Moral Judgment: Why Should We Judge And Who Has The Right To?, Megan Moulton

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

In this paper, I explore the origin of the moral authority to judge another person’s wrong actions through the relationships to those involved in the situation. I also argue that moral authority has an aspect grounded in past experience with similar situations and the ability to understand what it means to be held and to hold another morally responsible. The purpose of defining moral authority and its application is determined to be for the moral growth of the perpetrator, until further development is denied, in which case the possible occurrence of manipulation to stay in relation with the unchanging ...


Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers Jan 2018

Moral Authority In Scientific Research, Evelyn Sowers

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

This paper addresses the issue of applying moral limitations to modern scientific research and who or what has the authority to do so. It examines two opposing positions on the issue: (1) that moral authority over scientific research should be held by society and (2) that moral authority over scientific research should be held by the scientific community. This argument centers around the nature of societal and scientific morality, and how allowing either to hold authority would affect the progression of research. Overall, it concludes that moral authority over scientific research must come from within the scientific community.


Go Your Own Way: The Producer As Moral Author In Entertainment, Taryn Stewart Jan 2018

Go Your Own Way: The Producer As Moral Author In Entertainment, Taryn Stewart

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

Moral authority is a moral derivative of authority, which in turn is connected to religion and tradition. In today’s Western society, both religion and tradition are fragmented in our increasingly diverse society. This is nowhere more apparent than it is in entertainment. So where does moral authority lie in entertainment? Producers in entertainment hold moral authority. Authority is the ability to create action, versus power, which is the ability to force action. Because producers create content, which in turn has the potential to enact change, they possess moral authority. Different producers have differing amounts of moral authority. Disney has ...


Correctional Officers, Step Off The Treadmill Of Power: The Lack Of Moral Authority In U.S. Correctional Officers, Kavida Naidu Jan 2018

Correctional Officers, Step Off The Treadmill Of Power: The Lack Of Moral Authority In U.S. Correctional Officers, Kavida Naidu

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

The abuse of authority and power is commonly encountered in different institutions. Similarly, prisons are not immune to the overuse of authority and power. Correctional officers exercise their authority on inmates in ways that result in a prison culture, which is filled with violence and dehumanization. Correctional officers often consider inmates as morally inferior beings, who deserve to be punished beyond sentence, for the crimes that they have committed are inexcusable. However, the abrasive environment of prisons places correctional officers in a situation where they eventually adopt the prison identity and find themselves trapped in this brutish incarcerated culture. This ...


Moral Authority And Artificial Intelligence, Jacob Souza Jan 2018

Moral Authority And Artificial Intelligence, Jacob Souza

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

This paper looks at the relationship between Artificial intelligence and moral authority. It explores the important concepts related to moral authority, such as power, authority, responsibility, and morality, but also defines what a thinking machine will look like in human society. What the paper determines is that it is difficult to trust machines that do not show emotion, but thinking machines without emotion will still have an important role in society and that when emotional AIs are achievable, they will be able to achieve moral authority.


Being A Part Of Something Bigger: How Leaders Affect Morality, Abra Casey Jan 2018

Being A Part Of Something Bigger: How Leaders Affect Morality, Abra Casey

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

If a person is in a position of leadership then is he or she also responsible to uphold the moral values of the group? This paper argues that people, they are not responsible for morality, rather they become the voice of morality. This is to say that leaders should not develop a new morality on behalf of their group. When leaders do create their own version of morality instead of adhering to an inherent and objective truth such as the golden rule, then their actions ultimately become immoral. Not all leaders actually have this responsibility however. For example, there are ...


The Nature Of Authority In Nature, Sean Cleary Jan 2018

The Nature Of Authority In Nature, Sean Cleary

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

Everything from the clothes we wear to the food we eat is related to the natural world around us. Why do we Montana residents where a fluffy jacket while walking to class in the middle of December? What makes us decide on athletic shorts in July? Although these questions offer a simple response: Montana winters are colder than a Tibetan tin toilet top and Montana summers are hotter than hells pepper patch, they indicate that the natural world influences the way we act on a daily basis. We certainly have the freedom to rock a bikini in the freezing cold ...


Sources Of Moral Authority: Thinking Beyond Religion And Politics, Rhiannon B. Sturgess Jan 2018

Sources Of Moral Authority: Thinking Beyond Religion And Politics, Rhiannon B. Sturgess

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

Religion and politics served as sources of moral authority for centuries, but are limited as such, especially in modern, diverse societies like the United States. Many people feel as though they are not understood, and that their traditional beliefs are not considered when moral decisions are made. Such feelings can incite contempt between people who would otherwise be friends. This lack of harmony can lead to civil unrest and an unhappy society. Therefore, it is important that we strive for a source of moral authority that treats all people as equals. Because not all people can be assumed to operate ...


Power Versus Authority: Sacrifice Lied Or Applied?, Conor Coutts Jan 2018

Power Versus Authority: Sacrifice Lied Or Applied?, Conor Coutts

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

We live in an age that is both desperate for moral authority while simultaneously not knowing what genuine moral authority is. Authority from merely a standard of wealth and political office is not morally legitimate but instead merely powerful. I seek to differentiate between power and authority, asserting that it is through a sense of sacrifice and a disregard for popularity that moral authority is attained. Looking to the Abrahamic faiths that assert such a sacrifice and humility, the life of Christ and subsequent Christian tradition serve as an ideal practice of this. Such a practice of authority and how ...


Human Development, Human Rights, And The 50th Anniversary Of Populorum Progressio, Ellen Maccarone Nov 2017

Human Development, Human Rights, And The 50th Anniversary Of Populorum Progressio, Ellen Maccarone

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

At the 50th anniversary of the encyclical Populorum Progressio, we have a critical opportunity to bring Paul VI’s insights to the social practice of human rights. The development of peoples discussed by the encyclical isolates areas of significant concern to the Church and humanity more broadly. This, however, is not to say that there are not other issues overlooked in Populorum Progressio that also need to be addressed.

In this paper I argue that the understanding of human development found in Populorum Progressio serves as an important yet sometimes overlooked foundation in Catholic social teaching for the advancement ...


Culturally Competent Communication, Tara Thomas, Stephanie Mohorne Sep 2017

Culturally Competent Communication, Tara Thomas, Stephanie Mohorne

Ethics Conference

Culturally-competent communication is necessary to engage all community stakeholders. Tara Thomas and Stephanie Mohorne will explain in a one-hour, interactive session how Waterloo Schools applies this strategy to effectively reach its audience—students, staff, families and the community in the 7th largest, and one of the most diverse, school districts in Iowa. Thomas, a former television news anchor and reporter, will give specific examples of how sharing messages with the media and, in turn, the public needs to be a carefully-guided process based on factors like race and socio-economic status. Mohorne, a longtime educational leader and bi-racial daughter of a ...


Addressing Wicked Problems In Practical Ways: Empowering Ethical Action In Higher Ed And Beyond, Cara B. Stone, Anne Marie Gruber Sep 2017

Addressing Wicked Problems In Practical Ways: Empowering Ethical Action In Higher Ed And Beyond, Cara B. Stone, Anne Marie Gruber

Ethics Conference

This discussion-based workshop will engage faculty and students alike in identifying problem areas related to social responsibility and action. Using a “Wicked Problems” framework, the presenters will provide examples of and opportunities for participants to reflect on challenges they observe in their disciplines/professional lives and on their campuses. Wicked Problems are complex and multifaceted, do not have a simple description or solution, and “are different because traditional processes can’t resolve them” (Camillus, 2008). In a higher education context, faculty and students can address these problems but this will require “new ways of learning, new ways of working together ...


Perception Of 3d Symmetrical And Near-Symmetrical Shapes, Vijai Jayadevan, Aaron Michaux, Edward Delp, Zygmunt Pizlo May 2017

Perception Of 3d Symmetrical And Near-Symmetrical Shapes, Vijai Jayadevan, Aaron Michaux, Edward Delp, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Is Security A Conversation-Stopper?, Jonathan C. Herington Apr 2017

Is Security A Conversation-Stopper?, Jonathan C. Herington

Center for Engagement and Community Development

Security is a politically powerful concept. When someone claims that their security is threatened, it often feels as if we should stop talking and start acting. This is a mistake. The ambiguity of "security" requires us to ask: What goods do we want to secure? How much insecurity are we willing to tolerate? What other values are we willing to sacrifice in order to secure those goods? The invocation of security is just the beginning of the conversation.


"Touchy Topics" In The Classroom, Amelia J. Hicks Apr 2017

"Touchy Topics" In The Classroom, Amelia J. Hicks

Center for Engagement and Community Development

We, as educators, want to give students the opportunity to think through the questions that matter most to them. But many of us also avoid those discussions, fearing that those questions are "too touchy" for the classroom. How can we facilitate productive discussions of those questions without inviting chaos in the classroom?


Missing The Mark: Exploring The Forgetting Of Disability In Media, Emily Dobson Apr 2017

Missing The Mark: Exploring The Forgetting Of Disability In Media, Emily Dobson

Critical Reflections

A common concern within the disability community are the ways in which negative or misguided representations in media produce stigma. Stigma can be broadly defined to include “problems of knowledge (ignorance), problems of attitudes (prejudice), and problems of behaviour (discrimination),” which means that inadequate or unrealistic representations can cause a variety of damaging effects1. In Narrative Prosthesis, David T. Mitchell and Sharon L. Snyder explore the ways in which a broad selection of literature has represented disability as a literary device. Despite an ever growing number of examples of disability in media, the public, and especially many scholars, have forgotten ...


Scientific Revolutions As Events: A Kuhnian Critique Of Badiou, Jacob Smith Apr 2017

Scientific Revolutions As Events: A Kuhnian Critique Of Badiou, Jacob Smith

Critical Reflections

In this essay, I will attempt a critique of the Badiouan formulation of the event by asking if Badiou’s theory, as formulated in Being and Event, explains the phenomenon of the scientific revolution. While Badiou remains relatively cryptic about the status of science in Being and Event and does not refer to any scientific revolutions explicitly, there are several reasons why it might seem problematic if they are not to be included within his theory of the event. After all, they are called revolutions and the historical narrative surrounding them typically develops, much like the Badiouan event, with the ...


How To Interpret Spinoza’S Theory Of Attribute: The Subjective And Objective Interpretations Revisited, Xiangnong (Herbert) Hu Apr 2017

How To Interpret Spinoza’S Theory Of Attribute: The Subjective And Objective Interpretations Revisited, Xiangnong (Herbert) Hu

Critical Reflections

Scholars disagree on how to interpret two terms, ‘intellect’ and ‘as’, in the definition of attribute given by Spinoza in his Ethics and thus divide themselves into two rival camps: one is known as the subjective interpretation, and the other, objective interpretation. In this essay, I argue that both interpretations are problematic in one way or another, and a better interpretation should take a middle path between the subjective and objective. By this new interpretation, ‘intellect’ should be understood as infinite and finite intellects, and ‘as’ to be ‘as in fact’. Therefore, what the definition of attribute really means is ...


A-Theory Or B-Theory Of Time? An Aristotelian Answer, Luca Banfi Apr 2017

A-Theory Or B-Theory Of Time? An Aristotelian Answer, Luca Banfi

Critical Reflections

A-Theory or B-Theory of Time? An Aristotelian Answer

The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of Aristotle’s theory of time, in order to understand if it could introduce a stimulus into the contemporary debate on the nature of time between A-theorists and B-theorists. The first section (§1) of the paper is devoted to a conceptual explanation of these two main positions about the nature of time and their intimate link with eternalism and presentism. The second section (§2) presents the Aristotelian view on the nature of time (Strobach: 1998), considering his analysis on the notion of ...


On Realism And The Pessimistic Meta-Induction, Stanford Howdyshell Apr 2017

On Realism And The Pessimistic Meta-Induction, Stanford Howdyshell

Critical Reflections

In this paper I will discuss the Pessimistic Meta-Induction put forth by Larry Laudan in his paper A Confutation of Convergent Realism and discuss how it overcomes the No Miracles argument for scientific realism. I will then reconcile these two positions through the theory that scientific terms posit and refer to models of reality that are relevantly similar to how the world is.

This paper will begin with a discussion of the No Miracles argument and Pessimistic Meta-Induction, resulting in doubt that scientific terms genuinely refer to objects in the world. In order to overcome the anti-realist position that the ...


Accusatory Based Discourse Strategies: Apologia, Kategoria And Strategic Image Repair Discourse, Josie E. Richards Apr 2017

Accusatory Based Discourse Strategies: Apologia, Kategoria And Strategic Image Repair Discourse, Josie E. Richards

Critical Reflections

The purpose of this paper is to suggest that an orator can strategically pick discourse strategies when issuing their apologia if they understand the attitudes they are combatting in the subsequent kategoria. This paper draws heavily on works by William Benoit and Halford Ryan. Using a general understanding of apologia, and the concept of kategoria as conceptualized by Ryan, I suggest that once an orator understands apologia and kategoria as a speech set, they can use Benoit’s image repair tactics as an effective way to repair their image to their respective audience. The combination of an orators understanding of ...


Plato’S Charioteer: On Mythos And Logos In The Dialogues, Tyler Palombo, Augustus Morrissey Snyder Apr 2017

Plato’S Charioteer: On Mythos And Logos In The Dialogues, Tyler Palombo, Augustus Morrissey Snyder

MAD-RUSH Undergraduate Research Conference

Plato [ca. 427-347 BC], a citizen of ancient Athens wrote dialogues not only for philosophically trained readers of the Academy, a center of learning established by Plato around 387 BC, but also to interest, instruct and persuade those outside of the Academy of the value of choosing and living a morally good life. The dialogues contain both marvelous stories [mythoi] and extended arguments [logoi].

The first section of the paper considers the nature and purpose of myth and its effects on the hearer or reader. The second section describes the various argumentative techniques used in the dialogues, their purpose and ...


The Paradox Of Imprecision In Language, Henry R. Bauer Mar 2017

The Paradox Of Imprecision In Language, Henry R. Bauer

Critical Reflections

The Paradox of Imprecision in Language

Abstract

This paper investigates philosophical questions bearing on the relationship between language and mind, through an analysis of the phenomenon of “efficient imprecision” in language. It is argued that language users’ ability to intuitively connect allegedly imprecise linguistic expressions with definite conceptual information presents a paradox that might lead philosophers, linguists and cognitive scientists alike to reconsider the relationship between the computational machinery of human language and its function as the vehicle of conscious thought.

Like the puzzle about the identity relation which Gottlob Frege presents in the seminal Sense and Reference (1892), which ...


Law And Oppression: A Moral Call To Abstain From The Use Of Moral Language, Benjamin L. Stalnaker Mar 2017

Law And Oppression: A Moral Call To Abstain From The Use Of Moral Language, Benjamin L. Stalnaker

Critical Reflections

Abstract: In this presentation, I first establish that morality is invoked to justify the existence of discriminatory or otherwise oppressive laws that harm marginalized groups. Examples that demonstrate this point will be pulled from past and present laws that target homosexual and transgender populations, ranging from anti-sodomy laws to trans bathroom bills. Next, I argue that moral language is imbued with normative and motivational force because of its association with legitimate moral judgments. Since normative judgments provide reason to act, the invocation of such judgments is seen to carry that same reason and motivational force. In the absence of legitimate ...


Virtue Theory As A Feminist Ethical Framework, Alejandro Navas Mar 2017

Virtue Theory As A Feminist Ethical Framework, Alejandro Navas

Critical Reflections

In recent decades, feminists have pointed out how prominent ethical theories are primarily concerned with establishing rules of conduct between strangers who share (or are theorized as if they share) the same social status. As Claudia Card points out, such theories outline explicit expectations and rewards of formal relationships; these relationships characterize formal institutions, such as law and business, and the considerations of upper-class men who predominate in such institutions. An ethics which focuses on the impersonal application of rules risks overlooking attentiveness to personal needs, a crucial quality in caring relationships which women and poorer classes have had primary ...


Understanding Pain In Non-Human Animals: A Critical Exploration Of Arguements, Jessica L. Sitko Mar 2017

Understanding Pain In Non-Human Animals: A Critical Exploration Of Arguements, Jessica L. Sitko

Critical Reflections

Abstract

This essay contains a critical analysis of common understandings of pain in animals and challenges common arguments for the presence of phenomenological pain sensations in non-human animals. I will argue that (i) pain behaviors are neither necessary nor sufficient for pain sensations, (ii) the presence of nerve structures in non-human animals which are similar to that of humans are not sufficient for pain sensations, (iii) we cannot rely on similarities between human and non-human experiences of pain to argue for the presence of pain sensations in animals, unless we think that animals are self-conscious in the same way that ...


The Truth Of Carousing Peasants Becomes Disclosed, Sebastian Kanally Mar 2017

The Truth Of Carousing Peasants Becomes Disclosed, Sebastian Kanally

Critical Reflections

The Truth Of Carousing Peasants Becomes Disclosed

In this paper, I attempt to reconstruct the central points of Martin Heidegger’s theory of the work of art, and argue that Adriaen van Ostade's 1634 painting, "Carousing Peasants In a Rustic Interior," is a perfect lens to see the strength and validity of Heidegger's understanding of art. Heidegger's philosophy of art contains three major components, each of which I examine and argue is manifest in Ostade's painting. The three components the work of art reveals are the following: firstly, a tension is created between "earth" and "world ...


On The Rawlsian Anthropology And The "Autonomous" Account, Jared Mayer Mar 2017

On The Rawlsian Anthropology And The "Autonomous" Account, Jared Mayer

Critical Reflections

In his later major work, Political Liberalism, John Rawls argues for a “political conception of justice,” one that is intended to operate in a diverse and morally pluralistic polity. A crucial feature of this political conception of justice is its ability to supersede (nearly) all other morals claims. This is because the political conception of justice is intended to be “a freestanding view;” that is, it is intended to ground its own normative force without needing to appeal to any particular comprehensive doctrine or set of doctrines. Joseph Raz, in critiquing Rawls, claims that any given justification of political and ...